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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 752984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671629

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The aim of study is to assess the efficacy of each ventilator weaning method for ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify randomized control studies on ventilated patients regarding extubation associated outcomes (weaning success or failure, proportion requiring re-intubation, or mortality) from inception until April 01, 2020. Commonly used ventilation modes involved pressure support ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, automatic tube compensation, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive support ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, proportional assisted ventilation, and SmartCare. Pooled estimates regarding extubation associated outcomes were calculated using network meta-analysis. Results: Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials including 5,953 patients met inclusion criteria. SmartCare and proportional assist ventilation were found to be effective methods in increasing weaning success (odds ratio, 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-5.58, P-score: 0.84; odds ratio, 2.56, 95% CI, 1.60-4.11, P-score: 0.83; respectively). Besides, proportional assist ventilation had superior in reducing proportion requiring re-intubation rate (odds ratio, 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25-0.92, P-score: 0.89) and mortality (odds ratio, 0.48, 95% CI, 0.26-0.92, P-score: 0.91) than others. Conclusion: In general consideration, our study provided evidence that weaning with proportional assist ventilation has a high probability of being the most effective ventilation mode for patients with mechanical ventilation regarding a higher rate of weaning success, a lower proportion requiring reintubation, and a lower mortality rate than other ventilation modes.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683145

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association between the plasma anion gap (AG) and in-hospital mortality among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In total, 1236 AIS patients were enrolled using the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care Database IV. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The patients were divided into four groups according to AG category. The mean age and Charlson comorbidity index increased as the AG category increased. The fourth AG category was most related to the in-hospital mortality (hazards ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.77, 1.60-4.71), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables (Model 1: HR, 95% CI: 3.37, 1.81-6.09; Model 2: HR, 95% CI: 3.57, 1.91-6.69). Moreover, intensive care unit mortality (p = 0.008) was higher in the highest AG category, but the intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.071) did not associate with the plasma AG. The plasma AG had a satisfactory predictive ability for in-hospital mortality among AIS patients (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.631). The plasma AG is an independent risk factor that can satisfactorily predict the in-hospital mortality among AIS patients.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been an established treatment in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. However, the postoperative antiplatelet regimen after transcatheter aortic valve implantation was not established certainly. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the safety and efficacy of single- (SAPT) and dual-antiplatelet therapies (DAPT) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS: Eligible randomized controlled trials and cohort studies published before February 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Nine articles, involving 19,277 patients, met the selection criteria. In the short-term outcome, compared with SAPT, DAPT was associated with a significantly higher rate of bleeding (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 3.00, 1.67-5.38) and showed no significant differences in thrombotic events (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 1.25, 0.74-2.11) and all-cause mortality (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 0.84; 0.42-1.69). In the long-term outcome, DAPT was associated with a significantly higher bleeding rate (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 1.85, 1.24-2.78) and showed no differences in thrombotic events (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 1.13, 0.86-1.48) and all-cause mortality (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 1.12, 0.95-1.32). Our trial sequential analysis confirmed DAPT didn't confer any benefit for reducing all-cause mortality and thrombotic events, and carried a higher risk of bleeding than SAPT. CONCLUSIONS: SAPT should be a sufficient antiplatelet strategy in post- transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients without indications for oral anticoagulation medication, especially in the long-term follow-up period.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(10): 908, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611140

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder associated with the Philadelphia chromosome, and the current standard of care is the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, some patients will not achieve a molecular response and may progress to blast crisis, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, next-generation sequencing was used to explore endogenous miRNAs in CML patients versus healthy volunteers, and miR-342-5p was identified as the primary target. We found that miR-342-5p was downregulated in CML patients and had a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in CML. Through a luciferase reporter system, miR-342-5p was reported to target the 3'-UTR domain of CCND1 and downregulated its expression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-342-5p enhanced imatinib-induced DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis. Finally, by analyzing clinical databases, we further confirmed that miR-342-5p was associated with predicted molecular responses in CML patients. In conclusion, we found that both in vivo and in vitro experiments and database cohorts showed that miR-342-5p plays a key role in CML patients, indicating that miR-342-5p may be a potential target for future CML treatment or prognostic evaluation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15217, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312476

RESUMO

The standard size of bougie for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is not yet established. Therefore, a systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted to assess the weight loss effects and associated complications of LSG for patients with morbid obesity, based on different bougie sizes. A total of 15 studies were reviewed in this systemic review and network meta-analysis (2,848 participants), including RCTs and retrospective studies in PubMed, and Embase until September 1, 2020. The effectiveness of different bougie calibration sizes was assessed based on excess weight loss (EWL), total complications, and staple line leak. Within this network meta-analysis, S-sized (≤ 32 Fr.) and M-sized (33-36 Fr.) bougies had similar effects and were associated with the highest EWL improvement among all different bougie sizes (S-sized: standardized mean difference [SMD], 10.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] - 5.59 to - 26.63, surface under the cumulative ranking curve [SUCRA], 0.78; and M-sized: SMD, 10.16; 95% CI - 3.04-23.37; SUCRA, 0.75). M-sized bougie was associated with the lowest incidence of total complications (M-sized: odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.16-1.11; SUCRA, 0.92). Based on our network meta-analysis, using M-sized bougie (33-36 Fr.) is an optimal choice to balance the effectiveness and perioperative safety of LSG in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/instrumentação , Gastrectomia/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Calibragem , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos
7.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This network meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of different educational methods for healthcare professionals. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant randomised controlled trials. The standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI was estimated using network meta-analysis for knowledge acquisition and skill performance, and ranked the effects of different educational methods using the surface under the cumulative ranking area (SCURA) technique. RESULTS: Fifty-five randomised controlled trials including of 4292 participants were identified. Compared with no intervention, the results demonstrated all education methods achieved significant improvements in knowledge acquisition (SMD 1.73-2.66). Only education methods involving high fidelity virtual patient simulation reported significantly better skill performance (SMD 1.25-1.81). High fidelity virtual patient simulation plus self-directed learning was the most effective educational method both in terms of knowledge acquisition (SMD 2.66, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.12, SCURA 0.78) and skill performance (SMD 1.81, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.2, SCURA 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates all educational methods have positive effects on knowledge acquisition, but education methods involving high fidelity virtual patient simulation are better at improving skill performance than other methods.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25756, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950962

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We conducted a population-based cohort study enrolling patients with Stage II and III colon cancer receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil and tegafur (UFT) or fluorouracil (5-FU) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2015. The outcomes of the current study were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. We compared our effectiveness results from the literature by meta-analysis, which provided the best evidence. Severe adverse events were compared in meta-analysis of reported clinical trials. In the nationwide cohort study, UFT (14,486 patients) showed DFS similar to postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (adjusted HR 1.037; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.954-1.126; P = .397) and OS (adjusted HR 0.964; 95% CI 0.891-1.041; P = .349) compared with the 5-FU (866 patients). Our meta-analysis confirmed the similarity of effectiveness and found the incidence of leucopaenia was statistically significantly reduced in UFT (risk ratio 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.67; I2 = 0%). Through our analysis, we have confirmed that UFT is a well-tolerated adjuvant therapy choice, and has similar treatment efficacy as 5-FU in terms of DFS and OS in patients with Stage II and III colon cancer.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Colectomia , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tegafur/efeitos adversos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maxillary protraction with or without expansion is a widely known orthopedic treatment modality in growing skeletal Class III patients. However, limited data are available regarding the outcomes of long-term changes in the maxilla. Aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of the long-term maxillary anteroposterior changes following a facemask therapy with or without rapid maxillary expansion in growing skeletal Class III patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases of PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Embase. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, published up to Sep. 2020, with maxillary protraction and/or expansion as keywords were included in this meta-analysis. Risk of bias within and across studies were assessed using the Cochrane tools (RoB2.0 and ROBINS-I) and GRADE approach. Overall and subgroup comparisons with the random-effect model were performed in this meta-analysis. Meta-regression models were designed to determine potential heterogeneity. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase (Mean difference, 2.29°; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-2.73; and p < 0.001 after facemask (FM) protraction. Mean difference, 1.73°; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-2.11; and p < 0.001 after rapid maxillary expansion(RME) and facemask protraction) in the Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) angle in the treatment groups as compared with the control groups, when measured during the less than 3-year follow-up period. However, no statistically significant changes (Mean difference, 0.28°; 95% confidence interval, -0.57-1.13; and p = 0.52 after facemask protraction. Mean difference, 0.34°; 95% confidence interval, -0.64-1.33; and p = 0.50 after rapid maxillary expansion and facemask protraction) were observed in the SNA angle in the groups, when measured after 3 years of follow-up. Meta-regression analysis also showed that with increased follow-up duration, the effectiveness of maxillary protraction decreased. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that maxillary protraction therapy could be effective for a short-term in correcting maxillary hypoplasia and the treatment result was not affected by mean age and sex. However, with increased follow-up duration, the sagittal maxillary changes gradually decreased. Limitations on this review were only the SNA angle was used and clinical heterogeneity was not discussed. The quality of evidence was moderate. Further long-term observational studies are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects on maxillary skeletal changes.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/terapia , Anormalidades Maxilofaciais/terapia , Ortodontia Corretiva , Humanos , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Retrognatismo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Dent Sci ; 16(1): 168-177, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384794

RESUMO

Background/purpose: Maxillary protraction with or without expansion appears to be an effective orthopedic treatment in skeletal class III growing patients, but the long-term effect on maxilla changes is less clear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate long-term three dimensional skeletal effects on maxilla through face mask (FM) with or without rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in skeletal CIII growing patients. Materials and methods: We searched database including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and Web of Science through Feb 2020. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials or cohort studies recruiting growing patients who received maxillary protraction and/or expansion and comparing the treatment groups with untreated controls. The follow-up periods were more than 3 years. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tools (RoB2.0 and ROBINS-I). GRADE was used to qualify the evidence. Results: This meta-analysis included 6 studies comprising 327 participants in total. No statistically significant changes were observed on the degree of Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) in the treated groups when compared with the untreated controls. However, significant increase on maxillary rotation degree (mean difference: 8.20, 95% CI = 6.87-9.53, p < 0.001) and maxillary base width (mean difference: 2.27, 95% CI = 1.39-3.15, p < 0.001) in the treated groups, if compared with untreated controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that FM and FM/RME treatments might not be long-term effective on correcting maxillary anteroposterior hypoplasia in growing patients. Additionally, more long-term studies are still necessary to further assess its skeletal benefits on maxilla in vertical and transverse dimension.

11.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(6): 652-662, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-haze effect and visual outcome after intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) use during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in myopia or myopic astigmatism patients. METHODS: We searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar comprehensively to obtain studies comparing the clinical effects after PRK with and without MMC published until February 2020. Meta-analysis of primary outcome (corneal haze rate) and secondary outcomes [predictability, efficacy, safety and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD)] were conducted. We used trial sequential analysis (TSA) in an effort to collect firm evidence supporting our conclusion. RESULTS: Of the included 11 randomized controlled trials, five cohort and one case-control studies, 3536 eyes (2232 and 1304 in the MMC and control groups, respectively) were enrolled for meta-analysis. The TSA disclosed strong evidence of decline in corneal haze rate in the MMC group compared with that of the control group. In the subgroup analysis of duration, MMC seemed to reduce corneal haze rate in early-onset and late-onset haze. Predictability of refraction and visual acuity were greater in the MMC groups, not significantly though. The proportion of patients losing at least two lines of best corrected visual acuity postoperatively in the MMC groups was lower than that in the control groups. The corneal postoperative ECD showed no significant difference between the MMC and control groups. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed that MMC is an important anti-haze agent in PRK for reducing both early- and late-onset haze and can also help improving predictability of refraction and subjective postoperative visual acuity.

12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 556, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is the prevalent weaning method. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) is an assisted ventilation mode, which is recently being applied to wean the patients from mechanical ventilation. Whether PAV or PSV is superior for weaning remains unclear. METHODS: Eligible randomized controlled trials published before April 2020 were retrieved from databases. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Seven articles, involving 634 patients, met the selection criteria. Compared to PSV, PAV was associated with a significantly higher rate of weaning success (fixed-effect RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.26; I2 = 0.0%; trial sequential analysis-adjusted CI 1.03-1.30), and the trial sequential monitoring boundary for benefit was crossed. Compared to PSV, PAV was associated with a lower proportion of patients requiring reintubation (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; I2 = 0%), a shorter ICU length of stay (MD - 1.58 (days), 95% CI - 2.68 to - 0.47; I2 = 0%), and a shorter mechanical ventilation duration (MD - 40.26 (hours); 95% CI - 66.67 to - 13.84; I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between PAV and PSV with regard to mortality (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.42-1.06; I2 = 0%) or weaning duration (MD - 0.01 (hours); 95% CI - 1.30-1.28; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: The results of the meta-analysis suggest that PAV is superior to PSV in terms of weaning success, and the statistical power is confirmed using trial sequential analysis.


Assuntos
Suporte Ventilatório Interativo/normas , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/normas , Desmame , Humanos , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo/métodos , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(4): e15963, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of hematological diseases despite the development of flow cytometry (FCM) and molecular and gene analyses. However, the interpretation of the results is laborious and operator dependent. Furthermore, the obtained results exhibit inter- and intravariations among specialists. Therefore, it is important to develop a more objective and automated analysis system. Several deep learning models have been developed and applied in medical image analysis but not in the field of hematological histology, especially for bone marrow smear applications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning model (BMSNet) for assisting hematologists in the interpretation of bone marrow smears for faster diagnosis and disease monitoring. METHODS: From January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, 122 bone marrow smears were photographed and divided into a development cohort (N=42), a validation cohort (N=70), and a competition cohort (N=10). The development cohort included 17,319 annotated cells from 291 high-resolution photos. In total, 20 photos were taken for each patient in the validation cohort and the competition cohort. This study included eight annotation categories: erythroid, blasts, myeloid, lymphoid, plasma cells, monocyte, megakaryocyte, and unable to identify. BMSNet is a convolutional neural network with the YOLO v3 architecture, which detects and classifies single cells in a single model. Six visiting staff members participated in a human-machine competition, and the results from the FCM were regarded as the ground truth. RESULTS: In the development cohort, according to 6-fold cross-validation, the average precision of the bounding box prediction without consideration of the classification is 67.4%. After removing the bounding box prediction error, the precision and recall of BMSNet were similar to those of the hematologists in most categories. In detecting more than 5% of blasts in the validation cohort, the area under the curve (AUC) of BMSNet (0.948) was higher than the AUC of the hematologists (0.929) but lower than the AUC of the pathologists (0.985). In detecting more than 20% of blasts, the AUCs of the hematologists (0.981) and pathologists (0.980) were similar and were higher than the AUC of BMSNet (0.942). Further analysis showed that the performance difference could be attributed to the myelodysplastic syndrome cases. In the competition cohort, the mean value of the correlations between BMSNet and FCM was 0.960, and the mean values of the correlations between the visiting staff and FCM ranged between 0.952 and 0.990. CONCLUSIONS: Our deep learning model can assist hematologists in interpreting bone marrow smears by facilitating and accelerating the detection of hematopoietic cells. However, a detailed morphological interpretation still requires trained hematologists.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(13): e19618, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, many endocrine therapies have become available for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, pretreated, advanced breast cancer. Direct comparisons of these novel treatments to assess their added value, however, are lacking METHODS:: Our aim was to synthesize available evidence to compare all current endocrine treatments for hormone receptor-positive / human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We performed a systematic review to identify available randomized controlled trial evidence. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials. Two trials presented at international oncology congresses (American Society of Clinical Oncology [ASCO]) were added to include the most recent evidence. A frequent network meta-analysis was used, and the surface under cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) was calculated to determine the best treatment RESULTS:: In total, 32 trials and 12,726 patients were identified, including 27 arms. Compared with fulvestrant 500 mg alone, novel target inhibitors combined with fulvestrant or exemestane had significantly prolonged progression-free survival with hazard ratios ranging from 0.62 to 0.82. Fulvestrant 500 mg plus palbociclib 125 mg and exemestane 25 mg plus entinostat 5 mg similarly extended progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.64 and 0.62 with SUCRA values of 91% and 92%, respectively). The exemestane 25 mg plus everolimus 10 mg combination had the best clinical benefit rate (risk ratio: 1.84, SUCRA: 91%) and overall response rate (risk ratio: 6.05, SUCRA: 97%) CONCLUSIONS:: On the basis of this analysis, the 2 combinations of exemestane plus everolimus and fulvestrant plus palbociclib were the best treatment options.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pós-Menopausa , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Metanálise em Rede , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3541, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103138

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy as apneic oxygenation in critically ill patients who require endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review and meta-analysis included six randomized controlled trials and a prospective study identified in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science until August 18, 2019. In this meta-analysis including 956 participants, HFNC was noninferior to standard of care during endotracheal intubation regarding incidence of severe hypoxemia, mean lowest oxygen saturation, and in-hospital mortality. HFNC significantly shortened the ICU stay by a mean of 1.8 days. In linear meta-regression interaction analysis, the risk ratio of severe hypoxemia decreased with increasing baseline partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio. In subgroup analysis, HFNC significantly reduced the incidence of severe hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation in patients with mild hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2> 200 mmHg; risk difference, -0.06; 95% confidence interval, -0.12 to -0.01; number needed to treat = 16.7). In conclusion, HFNC was noninferior to standard of care for oxygen delivery during endotracheal intubation and was associated with a significantly shorter ICU stay. The beneficial effect of HFNC in reducing the incidence of severe hypoxemia was observed in patients with mild hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Cânula , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Oxigenoterapia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is incurable through conventional chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Despite durable responses to front-line therapy and sustained remission rates in patients with CLL, a majority of patients eventually relapse in 5 years of initial treatment. The depth of the response may affect the length of response. Maintenance therapies were aimed to deep remissions and extend the period of disease quiescence. Lenalidomide, rituximab and ofatumumab had demonstrated some efficacy as a maintenance therapy compared to no intervention for CLL patients. The relative effect on disease control and safety between different maintenance therapies were unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis to evaluate relative effect on disease control and safety of current available maintenance therapies. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database up to March 6, 2019. Relevant reference of review article and conference abstract including European Hematology Association Annual Meeting (EHA 2018), American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting (ASH 2018) and American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting (ASCO 2018) were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving current available maintenance therapy including "Lenalidomide", "Rituximab", "Ofatumumab", "Ibrutinib", "Idelalisib", "Venetoclax"and "Obinutuzumab"were eligible. Outcomes of interest included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and serious adverse events (SAE) in CLL patients received subsequent maintenance therapy. Two authors CHL and CL) independently assessed eligibility for all identified citations and extracted data from the original trial reports. The selected studies' risk of bias was assessed following the guidelines of Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. RESULTS: In total, six phase III RCTs with total 1,615 CLL patients were identified. Maintenance therapy using lenalidomide, rituximab, and ofatumumab demonstrated a statistically significant effect in prolongation of progression-free survival (HR:0.37, 95% CI: 0.27-0.50 of lenalidomide; HR:0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66 of rituximab; HR:0.52, 95% CI:0.41-0.66 of ofatumumab, separately) compared with no intervention; however, for overall survival, the effect of maintenance therapy showed no significant difference versus no intervention (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.70-1.14). Lenalidomide showed the best efficacy for PFS (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.27-0.50, Probability of being best treatment: 96%). CONCLUSIONS: Our network meta-analysis provided an integrated overview of relative efficacy and safety of different maintenance therapies in CLL. All maintenance therapies were effective in reducing the risk of disease progression versus no intervention. Based on current best evidence, maintenance therapy with lenalidomide is the most efficacious option.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of low-dose aspirin as the primary prevention strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes are unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in diabetes. METHODS: We collected randomized controlled trials of low-dose aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD in adults with diabetes lasting at least 12 months from Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 10 November 2018. Two reviewers extracted data and appraised the reporting quality according to a predetermined protocol (CRD4201811830). This review was conducted using Cochrane standards, trial sequential analysis, and the Grading of Recommendation. The primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemia stroke, and cardiovascular death) and an incidence of major hemorrhage (major intracranial hemorrhage and major gastrointestinal bleeding). RESULTS: In this primary prevention (number = 29,814 participants) meta-analysis, low-dose aspirin use reduced the risk of MACE by 9% and increased the risk of major hemorrhage by 24%. The benefits were only observed in subjects of age ≥ 60 years while reducing the same risk of MACE. In efficacy, it reduced the risk of stroke but not myocardial infarction. No increase in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We suggested the use of low-dose aspirin as the primary prevention strategy for CVD in diabetes, particularly in an older population. The absolute benefits were largely counterbalanced by the bleeding hazard.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035712

RESUMO

The study compared immunogenicity and safety between alternative higher-dose and standard-dose trivalent vaccines in immunocompromised individuals. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases from inception until March 2019 to identify studies comparing the immunogenicity of alternative higher-dose (including high-dose, double-dose, and booster-dose vaccines) and standard-dose trivalent influenza vaccines in patients who underwent transplantation or chemotherapy. Effect estimates from the individual studies were derived and calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effect model. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42019129220). Eight relevant studies involving 1020 patients were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the higher-dose strategy provided had significantly superior seroconversion and seroprotection for A/H1N1 strains than the standard dose. Regarding H3N2 and B strains, no differences in immunogenicity responses were noted. No differences in safety were observed between the vaccination strategies. Alternative higher-dose vaccination strategies appear to associate with superior immunogenicity responses for A/H1N1 strains, and the strategies were generally well tolerated in immunocompromised populations. Future studies should clarify the optimal timing, frequency and dose of vaccination and assess whether these strategies improve vaccine immunogenicity and clinical outcomes.

19.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126075

RESUMO

Most chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients experience a relapse or become refractory to treatment with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The network meta-analysis assesses the relative efficacy of novel targeted agents for the treatment of a relapse or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A systematic literature search included seven phase III randomized controlled trials, including a total of 2512 patients treated with nine regimens. Data were extracted and evidence synthesized using network meta-analysis. All novel targeted therapies were significantly more effective than ofatumumab and demonstrated promising prolongation of progression free survival (PFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) ranging from 0.10 to 0.52. Two novel targeted agent regimens, venetoclax plus rituximab and ibrutinib monotherapy, resulted in greater overall survival (HR, 0.335 and 0.361, respectively). Venetoclax plus rituximab and ibrutinib monotherapy were most favorable based on (1) HR for PFS compared with ofatumumab (Ibrutinib: HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.07-0.14; Venetoclax plus rituximab: HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05-0.21) and SUCRA value (probability of being best) (Ibrutinib SUCRA, 0.92; Venetoclax rituximab SUCRA, 0.90) (2) HR for overall survival compared with ofatumumab (Ibrutinib: HR, 0.361; 95% CI, 0.208-0.627; Venetoclax rituximab: HR, 0.335; 95% CI, 0.112-0.997) and SUCRA value (Ibrutinib SUCRA, 0.84; Venetoclax rituximab SUCRA, 0.85) Both treatments reduced the risk of progression or death by 90% versus conventional ofatumumab. Both ibrutinib monotherapy and venetoclax rituximab have a high probability of being the most effective treatments for a relapse or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with respect to long-term progression-free survival and overall survival.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204526, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has a pretty high incidence in dialysis patients and may be associated with their prognosis. AAC can be assessed by abdominal CT or X-ray. We determined to investigate whether the occurrence of AAC is associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in dialysis patients through this meta-analysis and systematic review. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Medline databases to collect cohort studies investigating whether AAC is associated with all-cause mortality and CV events of patients, and we also searched gray articles and conferences abstracts. Meta-analysis was performed by STATA software. Pooled results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fixed-effect models were used to pool the HR of each trial. RESULTS: 10 studies (2,724 dialysis patients) were identified. The presence of AAC was associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality among dialysis patients (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.03-3.98; I2 = 9.8%; P = 0.354). Meanwhile, there was an association between AAC and increased risk for all CV events (fatal and non-fatal) in patients (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.51-2.76, I2 = 44.6%; P = 0.125). 3 studies presented their endpoint as CV mortality, and the pooled HR was 2.46 (95%CI 1.38-4.40; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.952). There were also 2 studies that reported their primary endpoint as all-cause mortality and CV events, and the pooled HR was 5.72 (95% CI 3.24-10.10; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.453). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated with dialysis, AAC is associated with adverse outcomes, including all-cause mortality and CV events (fatal and non-fatal). The abdominal X-ray or CT scan can be used as a useful added method to evaluate the patient's calcification. This may provide reasonable data for estimating the risk of adverse events in dialysis patients, which is helpful in guiding clinical treatment and improving the prognosis of dialysis patients.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diálise Renal , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico
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