Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4045, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492863

RESUMO

Lysosomal enzyme deficiencies comprise a large group of genetic disorders that generally lack effective treatments. A potential treatment approach is to engineer the patient's own hematopoietic system to express high levels of the deficient enzyme, thereby correcting the biochemical defect and halting disease progression. Here, we present an efficient ex vivo genome editing approach using CRISPR-Cas9 that targets the lysosomal enzyme iduronidase to the CCR5 safe harbor locus in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The modified cells secrete supra-endogenous enzyme levels, maintain long-term repopulation and multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can improve biochemical and phenotypic abnormalities in an immunocompromised mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis type I. These studies provide support for the development of genome-edited CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as a potential treatment for Mucopolysaccharidosis type I. The safe harbor approach constitutes a flexible platform for the expression of lysosomal enzymes making it applicable to other lysosomal storage disorders.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(503)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366580

RESUMO

Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is being pursued as a treatment strategy for hemoglobinopathies. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) edited with the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease platform to recapitulate naturally occurring mutations identified in individuals who express increased amounts of HbF, a condition known as hereditary persistence of HbF. CRISPR-Cas9 treatment and transplantation of HSPCs purified on the basis of surface expression of the CD34 receptor in a nonhuman primate (NHP) autologous transplantation model resulted in up to 30% engraftment of gene-edited cells for >1 year. Edited cells effectively and stably reactivated HbF, as evidenced by up to 18% HbF-expressing erythrocytes in peripheral blood. Similar results were obtained by editing highly enriched stem cells, defined by the markers CD34+CD90+CD45RA-, allowing for a 10-fold reduction in the number of transplanted target cells, thus considerably reducing the need for editing reagents. The frequency of engrafted, gene-edited cells persisting in vivo using this approach may be sufficient to ameliorate the phenotype for a number of genetic diseases.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(15): 7955-7972, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147717

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disorder that affects millions worldwide. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available cure. Here, we demonstrate the use of CRISPR/Cas9 and a short single-stranded oligonucleotide template to correct the sickle mutation in the ß-globin gene in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from peripheral blood or bone marrow of patients with SCD, with 24.5 ± 7.6% efficiency without selection. Erythrocytes derived from gene-edited cells showed a marked reduction of sickle cells, with the level of normal hemoglobin (HbA) increased to 25.3 ± 13.9%. Gene-corrected SCD HSPCs retained the ability to engraft when transplanted into non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice with detectable levels of gene correction 16-19 weeks post-transplantation. We show that, by using a high-fidelity SpyCas9 that maintained the same level of on-target gene modification, the off-target effects including chromosomal rearrangements were significantly reduced. Taken together, our results demonstrate efficient gene correction of the sickle mutation in both peripheral blood and bone marrow-derived SCD HSPCs, a significant reduction in sickling of red blood cells, engraftment of gene-edited SCD HSPCs in vivo and the importance of reducing off-target effects; all are essential for moving genome editing based SCD treatment into clinical practice.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2131, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086186

RESUMO

Metastases account for the majority of cancer deaths. While certain steps of the metastatic cascade are well characterized, identification of targets to block this process remains a challenge. Host factors determining metastatic colonization to secondary organs are particularly important for exploration, as those might be shared among different cancer types. Here, we showed that bladder tumor cells expressing the collagen receptor, CD167a, responded to collagen I stimulation at the primary tumor to promote local invasion and utilized the same receptor to preferentially colonize at airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs)-a rich source of collagen III in lung. Morphologically, COL3-CD167a-driven metastatic foci are uniquely distinct from typical lung alveolar metastatic lesions and exhibited activation of the CD167a-HSP90-Stat3 axis. Importantly, metastatic lung colonization could be abrogated using an investigational drug that attenuates Stat3 activity, implicating this seed-and-soil interaction as a therapeutic target for eliminating lung metastasis.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(2): 126-136, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944431

RESUMO

The potential of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based therapeutic genome editing is hampered by difficulties in the control of the in vivo activity of CRISPR-Cas9. To minimize any genotoxicity, precise activation of CRISPR-Cas9 in the target tissue is desirable. Here, we show that, by complexing magnetic nanoparticles with recombinant baculoviral vectors (MNP-BVs), CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing can be activated locally in vivo via a magnetic field. The baculoviral vector was chosen for in vivo gene delivery because of its large loading capacity and ability to locally overcome systemic inactivation by the complement system. We demonstrate that a locally applied magnetic field can enhance the cellular entry of MNP-BVs, thereby avoiding baculoviral vector inactivation and causing a transient transgene expression in the target tissue. Because baculoviral vectors are inactivated elsewhere, gene delivery and in vivo genome editing via MNP-BVs are tissue specific.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1634, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967552

RESUMO

Gene correction in human long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) could be an effective therapy for monogenic diseases of the blood and immune system. Here we describe an approach for X-linked sSevere cCombined iImmunodeficiency (SCID-X1) using targeted integration of a cDNA into the endogenous start codon to functionally correct disease-causing mutations throughout the gene. Using a CRISPR-Cas9/AAV6 based strategy, we achieve up to 20% targeted integration frequencies in LT-HSCs. As measures of the lack of toxicity we observe no evidence of abnormal hematopoiesis following transplantation and no evidence of off-target mutations using a high-fidelity Cas9 as a ribonucleoprotein complex. We achieve high levels of targeting frequencies (median 45%) in CD34+ HSPCs from six SCID-X1 patients and demonstrate rescue of lymphopoietic defect in a patient derived HSPC population in vitro and in vivo. In sum, our study provides specificity, toxicity and efficacy data supportive of clinical development of genome editing to treat SCID-Xl.


Assuntos
DNA Complementar/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Códon de Iniciação/genética , Éxons/genética , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Parvovirinae/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Fatores de Tempo , Transdução Genética/métodos , Quimeras de Transplante/genética , Transplante Heterólogo/métodos , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2021, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028274

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: "G.B. acknowledges the support from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RR140081 and RR170721)."This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
Found Phys ; 48(8): 954-981, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393388

RESUMO

We investigate the connection between interference and computational power within the operationally defined framework of generalised probabilistic theories. To compare the computational abilities of different theories within this framework we show that any theory satisfying four natural physical principles possess a well-defined oracle model. Indeed, we prove a subroutine theorem for oracles in such theories which is a necessary condition for the oracle model to be well-defined. The four principles are: causality (roughly, no signalling from the future), purification (each mixed state arises as the marginal of a pure state of a larger system), strong symmetry (existence of a rich set of nontrivial reversible transformations), and informationally consistent composition (roughly: the information capacity of a composite system is the sum of the capacities of its constituent subsystems). Sorkin has defined a hierarchy of conceivable interference behaviours, where the order in the hierarchy corresponds to the number of paths that have an irreducible interaction in a multi-slit experiment. Given our oracle model, we show that if a classical computer requires at least n queries to solve a learning problem, because fewer queries provide no information about the solution, then the corresponding "no-information" lower bound in theories lying at the kth level of Sorkin's hierarchy is ⌈ n / k ⌉ . This lower bound leaves open the possibility that quantum oracles are less powerful than general probabilistic oracles, although it is not known whether the lower bound is achievable in general. Hence searches for higher-order interference are not only foundationally motivated, but constitute a search for a computational resource that might have power beyond that offered by quantum computation.

9.
Mol Ther ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424953

RESUMO

Editing the ß-globin locus in hematopoietic stem cells is an alternative therapeutic approach for gene therapy of ß-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we genetically modified human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to mimic the large rearrangements in the ß-globin locus associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), a condition that mitigates the clinical phenotype of patients with ß-hemoglobinopathies. We optimized and compared the efficiency of plasmid-, lentiviral vector (LV)-, RNA-, and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP)-based methods to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 system into HSPCs. Plasmid delivery of Cas9 and gRNA pairs targeting two HPFH-like regions led to high frequency of genomic rearrangements and HbF reactivation in erythroblasts derived from sorted, Cas9+ HSPCs but was associated with significant cell toxicity. RNA-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 was similarly toxic but much less efficient in editing the ß-globin locus. Transduction of HSPCs by LVs expressing Cas9 and gRNA pairs was robust and minimally toxic but resulted in poor genome-editing efficiency. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-based delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 exhibited a good balance between cytotoxicity and efficiency of genomic rearrangements as compared to the other delivery systems and resulted in HbF upregulation in erythroblasts derived from unselected edited HSPCs.

10.
Circ Res ; 123(8): 953-963, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355031

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Autosomal-dominant mutations in ryanodine receptor type 2 ( RYR2) are responsible for ≈60% of all catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Dysfunctional RyR2 subunits trigger inappropriate calcium leak from the tetrameric channel resulting in potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia. In vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing is a promising strategy that could be used to eliminate the disease-causing Ryr2 allele and hence rescue catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. OBJECTIVE: To determine if somatic in vivo genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system delivered by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors could correct catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia arrhythmias in mice heterozygous for RyR2 mutation R176Q (R176Q/+). METHODS AND RESULTS: Guide RNAs were designed to specifically disrupt the R176Q allele in the R176Q/+ mice using the SaCas9 ( Staphylococcus aureus Cas9) genome editing system. AAV serotype 9 was used to deliver Cas9 and guide RNA to neonatal mice by single subcutaneous injection at postnatal day 10. Strikingly, none of the R176Q/+ mice treated with AAV-CRISPR developed arrhythmias, compared with 71% of R176Q/+ mice receiving control AAV serotype 9. Total Ryr2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in R176Q/+ mice, but not in wild-type littermates. Targeted deep sequencing confirmed successful and highly specific editing of the disease-causing R176Q allele. No detectable off-target mutagenesis was observed in the wild-type Ryr2 allele or the predicted putative off-target site, confirming high specificity for SaCas9 in vivo. In addition, confocal imaging revealed that gene editing normalized the enhanced Ca2+ spark frequency observed in untreated R176Q/+ mice without affecting systolic Ca2+ transients. CONCLUSIONS: AAV serotype 9-based delivery of the SaCas9 system can efficiently disrupt a disease-causing allele in cardiomyocytes in vivo. This work highlights the potential of somatic genome editing approaches for the treatment of lethal autosomal-dominant inherited cardiac disorders, such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

11.
Nat Med ; 24(8): 1216-1224, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082871

RESUMO

Translation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to human therapeutics holds high promise. However, specificity remains a concern especially when modifying stem cell populations. We show that existing rationally engineered Cas9 high-fidelity variants have reduced on-target activity when using the therapeutically relevant ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery method. Therefore, we devised an unbiased bacterial screen to isolate variants that retain activity in the RNP format. Introduction of a single point mutation, p.R691A, in Cas9 (high-fidelity (HiFi) Cas9) retained the high on-target activity of Cas9 while reducing off-target editing. HiFi Cas9 induces robust AAV6-mediated gene targeting at five therapeutically relevant loci (HBB, IL2RG, CCR5, HEXB, and TRAC) in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) as well as primary T cells. We also show that HiFi Cas9 mediates high-level correction of the sickle cell disease (SCD)-causing p.E6V mutation in HSPCs derived from patients with SCD. We anticipate that HiFi Cas9 will have wide utility for both basic science and therapeutic genome-editing applications.

12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(9): 1997-2006, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026278

RESUMO

Objective- Atherosclerosis studies in Ldlr knockout mice require breeding to homozygosity and congenic status on C57BL6/J background, a process that is both time and resource intensive. We aimed to develop a new method for generating atherosclerosis through somatic deletion of Ldlr in livers of adult mice. Approach and Results- Overexpression of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is currently used to study atherosclerosis, which promotes degradation of LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) in the liver. We sought to determine whether CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated 9) could also be used to generate atherosclerosis through genetic disruption of Ldlr in adult mice. We engineered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 and a guide RNA targeting the Ldlr gene (AAV-CRISPR). Both male and female mice received either (1) saline, (2) AAV-CRISPR, or (3) AAV-hPCSK9 (human PCSK9)-D374Y. A fourth group of germline Ldlr-KO mice was included for comparison. Mice were placed on a Western diet and followed for 20 weeks to assess plasma lipids, PCSK9 protein levels, atherosclerosis, and editing efficiency. Disruption of Ldlr with AAV-CRISPR was robust, resulting in severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. AAV-hPCSK9 also produced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis as expected. Notable sexual dimorphism was observed, wherein AAV-CRISPR was superior for Ldlr removal in male mice, while AAV-hPCSK9 was more effective in female mice. Conclusions- This all-in-one AAV-CRISPR vector targeting Ldlr is an effective and versatile tool to model atherosclerosis with a single injection and provides a useful alternative to the use of germline Ldlr-KO mice.

13.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 474(2214): 20170732, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977126

RESUMO

To date, there has been no experimental evidence that invalidates quantum theory. Yet it may only be an effective description of the world, in the same way that classical physics is an effective description of the quantum world. We ask whether there exists an operationally defined theory superseding quantum theory, but which reduces to it via a decoherence-like mechanism. We prove that no such post-quantum theory exists if it is demanded that it satisfy two natural physical principles: causality and purification. Causality formalizes the statement that information propagates from present to future, and purification that each state of incomplete information arises in an essentially unique way due to lack of information about an environment. Hence, our result can be viewed either as evidence that the fundamental theory of Nature is quantum or as showing in a rigorous manner that any post-quantum theory must abandon causality, purification or both.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(2): 020504, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376705

RESUMO

The violation of certain Bell inequalities allows for device-independent information processing secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers. However, this only holds for the Bell network, in which two or more agents perform local measurements on a single shared source of entanglement. To overcome the practical constraints that entangled systems can only be transmitted over relatively short distances, large-scale multisource networks have been employed. Do there exist analogs of Bell inequalities for such networks, whose violation is a resource for device independence? In this Letter, the violation of recently derived polynomial Bell inequalities will be shown to allow for device independence on multisource networks, secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers.

15.
Exp Physiol ; 103(4): 456-460, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303677

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? In this review, we analyse the performance of recently described tools for CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA design, in particular, design tools that predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity. What advances does it highlight? Recently, many tools designed to predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity have been reported. However, the majority of these tools lack experimental validation. Our analyses indicate that these tools have poor predictive power. Our preliminary results suggest that target site accessibility should be considered in order to develop better guide RNA design tools with improved predictive power. The recent adaptation of the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system for targeted genome engineering has led to its widespread application in many fields worldwide. In order to gain a better understanding of the design rules of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, several groups have carried out large library-based screens leading to some insight into sequence preferences among highly active target sites. To facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design, these studies have spawned a plethora of guide RNA (gRNA) design tools with algorithms based solely on direct or indirect sequence features. Here, we demonstrate that the predictive power of these tools is poor, suggesting that sequence features alone cannot accurately inform the cutting efficiency of a particular CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA design. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DNA target site accessibility influences the activity of CRISPR/Cas9. With further optimization, we hypothesize that it will be possible to increase the predictive power of gRNA design tools by including both sequence and target site accessibility metrics.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1441, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883826

RESUMO

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied in diverse eukaryotic organisms for targeted mutagenesis. However, targeted gene editing is inefficient and requires the simultaneous delivery of a DNA template for homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate targeted double-strand breaks and to deliver an RNA repair template for HDR in rice (Oryza sativa). We used chimeric single-guide RNA (cgRNA) molecules carrying both sequences for target site specificity (to generate the double-strand breaks) and repair template sequences (to direct HDR), flanked by regions of homology to the target. Gene editing was more efficient in rice protoplasts using repair templates complementary to the non-target DNA strand, rather than the target strand. We applied this cgRNA repair method to generate herbicide resistance in rice, which showed that this cgRNA repair method can be used for targeted gene editing in plants. Our findings will facilitate applications in functional genomics and targeted improvement of crop traits.

17.
Chem Rev ; 117(15): 9874-9906, 2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640612

RESUMO

Genome editing offers promising solutions to genetic disorders by editing DNA sequences or modulating gene expression. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology can be used to edit single or multiple genes in a wide variety of cell types and organisms in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we review the rapidly developing CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for disease modeling and gene correction and recent progress toward Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) delivery based on viral and nonviral vectors. We discuss the relative merits of delivering the genome editing elements in the form of DNA, mRNA, or protein, and the opportunities of combining viral delivery of a transgene encoding Cas9 with nonviral delivery of gRNA. We highlight the lessons learned from nonviral gene delivery in the past three decades and consider their applicability for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. We also include a discussion of bioinformatics tools for gRNA design and chemical modifications of gRNA. Finally, we consider the extracellular and intracellular barriers to nonviral CRISPR/Cas9 delivery and propose strategies that may overcome these barriers to realize the clinical potential of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
18.
Blood ; 130(3): 285-296, 2017 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539325

RESUMO

Extending the success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to T-cell malignancies is problematic because most target antigens are shared between normal and malignant cells, leading to CAR T-cell fratricide. CD7 is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in acute T-cell leukemia (T-ALL) and in a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Normal expression of CD7 is largely confined to T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, reducing the risk of off-target-organ toxicity. Here, we show that the expression of a CD7-specific CAR impaired expansion of transduced T cells because of residual CD7 expression and the ensuing fratricide. We demonstrate that targeted genomic disruption of the CD7 gene prevented this fratricide and enabled expansion of CD7 CAR T cells without compromising their cytotoxic function. CD7 CAR T cells produced robust cytotoxicity against malignant T-cell lines and primary tumors and were protective in a mouse xenograft model of T-ALL. Although CD7 CAR T cells were also toxic against unedited (CD7+) T and NK lymphocytes, we show that the CD7-edited T cells themselves can respond to viral peptides and therefore could be protective against pathogens. Hence, genomic disruption of a target antigen overcomes fratricide of CAR T cells and establishes the feasibility of using CD7 CAR T cells for the targeted therapy of T-cell malignancies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD7/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Animais , Antígenos CD7/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução Genética , Transplante Heterólogo
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44624, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300165

RESUMO

Germline manipulation using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has dramatically accelerated the generation of new mouse models. Nonetheless, many metabolic disease models still depend upon laborious germline targeting, and are further complicated by the need to avoid developmental phenotypes. We sought to address these experimental limitations by generating somatic mutations in the adult liver using CRISPR/Cas9, as a new strategy to model metabolic disorders. As proof-of-principle, we targeted the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr), which when deleted, leads to severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Here we show that hepatic disruption of Ldlr with AAV-CRISPR results in severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. We further demonstrate that co-disruption of Apob, whose germline loss is embryonically lethal, completely prevented disease through compensatory inhibition of hepatic LDL production. This new concept of metabolic disease modeling by somatic genome editing could be applied to many other systemic as well as liver-restricted disorders which are difficult to study by germline manipulation.

20.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 43, 2017 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238287

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include many disorders for which current treatments aim to ameliorate disease manifestations, but are not curative. Advances in the field of genome editing have recently resulted in the in vivo correction of murine models of IEM. Site-specific endonucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in combination with delivery vectors engineered to target disease tissue, have enabled correction of mutations in disease models of hemophilia B, hereditary tyrosinemia type I, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and lysosomal storage disorders. These in vivo gene correction studies, as well as an overview of genome editing and future directions for the field, are reviewed and discussed herein.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA