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1.
Brain Tumor Res Treat ; 9(2): 58-62, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy is characterized by simplicity and wide exposure. The purpose of the present study was to describe a modified orbitozygomatic approach without resecting the zygomatic arch for large parasellar tumor surgeries. METHODS: Between April 2016 and December 2019, seven patients with parasellar tumor underwent surgiest with a modified orbitozygomatic approach. Surgical procedures, clinical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: This study included 3 meningiomas, 2 pituitary adenomas, 1 chondrosarcoma, and 1 schwannoma. Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy provides a wider surgical freedom in the opticocarotid and prechiasmatic cistern than frontotemporal craniotomy without orbitotomy, Total, subtotal, and partial resections were achieved for 3, 2, and 2 patients, respectively. Reasons for partial resections were tight adhesion to the carotid artery and encasing of the carotid artery. Permanent morbidities developed in one patient with 3rd nerve palsy and one patient with hemiparesis. CONCLUSION: Modified orbitozygomatic approach can provide the shortest access to the interpeduncular cistern with a minimum brain retraction. Surgeons who experience surgical challenge during the conventional approach for parasellar tumor resection are recommended to learn the modified orbitozygomatic approach.

2.
Water Res ; 207: 117821, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781184

RESUMO

Many countries have attempted to monitor and predict harmful algal blooms to mitigate related problems and establish management practices. The current alert system-based sampling of cell density is used to intimate the bloom status and to inform rapid and adequate response from water-associated organizations. The objective of this study was to develop an early warning system for cyanobacterial blooms to allow for efficient decision making prior to the occurrence of algal blooms and to guide preemptive actions regarding management practices. In this study, two machine learning models: artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), were constructed for the timely prediction of alert levels of algal bloom using eight years' worth of meteorological, hydrodynamic, and water quality data in a reservoir where harmful cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur during summer. However, the proportion imbalance on all alert level data as the output variable leads to biased training of the data-driven model and degradation of model prediction performance. Therefore, the synthetic data generated by an adaptive synthetic (ADASYN) sampling method were used to resolve the imbalance of minority class data in the original data and to improve the prediction performance of the models. The results showed that the overall prediction performance yielded by the caution level (L1) and warning level (L2) in the models constructed using a combination of original and synthetic data was higher than the models constructed using original data only. In particular, the optimal ANN and SVM constructed using a combination of original and synthetic data during both training (including validation) and test generated distinctively improved recall and precision values of L1, which is a very critical alert level as it indicates a transition status from normalcy to bloom formation. In addition, both optimal models constructed using synthetic-added data exhibited improvement in recall and precision by more than 33.7% while predicting L-1 and L-2 during the test. Therefore, the application of synthetic data can improve detection performance of machine learning models by solving the imbalance of observed data. Reliable prediction by the improved models can be used to aid the design of management practices to mitigate algal blooms within a reservoir.

3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 398, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the prognostic accuracy of the standardized electroencephalography (EEG) patterns ("highly malignant," "malignant," and "benign") according to the EEG timing (early vs. late) and investigated the EEG features to enhance the predictive power for poor neurologic outcome at 1 month after cardiac arrest. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, observational, cohort study using data from Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry included adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) and underwent standard EEG within 7 days after cardiac arrest from 14 university-affiliated teaching hospitals in South Korea between October 2015 and December 2018. Early EEG was defined as EEG performed within 72 h after cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was poor neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category score 3-5) at 1 month. RESULTS: Among 489 comatose OHCA survivors with a median EEG time of 46.6 h, the "highly malignant" pattern (40.7%) was most prevalent, followed by the "benign" (33.9%) and "malignant" (25.4%) patterns. All patients with the highly malignant EEG pattern had poor neurologic outcomes, with 100% specificity in both groups but 59.3% and 56.1% sensitivity in the early and late EEG groups, respectively. However, for patients with "malignant" patterns, 84.8% sensitivity, 77.0% specificity, and 89.5% positive predictive value for poor neurologic outcome were observed. Only 3.5% (9/256) of patients with background EEG frequency of predominant delta waves or undetermined had good neurologic survival. The combination of "highly malignant" or "malignant" EEG pattern with background frequency of delta waves or undetermined increased specificity and positive predictive value, respectively, to up to 98.0% and 98.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The "highly malignant" patterns predicted poor neurologic outcome with a high specificity regardless of EEG measurement time. The assessment of predominant background frequency in addition to EEG patterns can increase the prognostic value of OHCA survivors. Trial registration KORHN-PRO, NCT02827422 . Registered 11 September 2016-Retrospectively registered.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insulin response is related to overall health. Diet modulates insulin response. We investigated whether insulinemic potential of diet is associated with risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 63,464 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2016) and 42,880 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016). Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. The insulinemic potential of diet was evaluated using a food-based empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), which was predefined based on predicting circulating C-peptide concentrations. RESULTS: During 2,792,550 person-years of follow-up, 38,329 deaths occurred. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analyses, a higher dietary insulinemic potential was associated with an increased risk of mortality from all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme quintiles: 1.33; 95% CI 1.29, 1.38; P-trend <0.001), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.27, 1.46; P-trend <0.001), and cancers (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13, 1.28; P-trend<0.001). These associations were independent of BMI and remained significant after further adjustment for other well-known dietary indices. Furthermore, compared with participants whose EDIH scores were stable over an 8-year period, those with the greatest increases had a higher subsequent risk of all-cause (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.09, 1.18; P-trend<0.001) and CVD (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01, 1.21; P-trend = 0.006) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher insulinemic potential of diet was associated with increased risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Adopting a diet with low insulinemic potential might be an effective approach to improve overall health and prevent premature death.

5.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13634, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605115

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary exogenous glucose oxidase (GOD) and/or catalase (CAT) on the intestinal antioxidant capacity and barrier function in piglets under oxidative stress. Sixty pigs assigned randomly to five treatment groups-CON: basal diet; DIQ: basal diet; GOD: basal diet + 40-U GOD/kg diet; CAT: basal diet + 50-U CAT/kg diet; and GC: basal diet + 40-U GOD/kg diet + 50-U CAT/kg diet-were analyzed. On Day 14, the CON group was injected with saline, and the others were treated with diquat. The results showed that in diquat-treated piglets, supplementation of dietary GOD and CAT elevated the superoxide dismutase and CAT activities and attenuated the malondialdehyde level in plasma and intestinal mucosa, enhanced the duodenal villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio, upregulated ZO-1 mRNA level, and attenuated the apoptosis of the epithelial cells and caspase-3 mRNA level in the intestine. Additionally, the supplementation upregulated mRNA expression of the intestinal NF-E2-related factor 2-regulated genes in diquat-treated piglets. However, GOD combined with CAT could not alleviate oxidative damage better than supplementation of CAT or GOD alone under oxidative stress. Overall, the study provides a potential alternative that could relieve the weaning stress in piglets and help formulate antibiotic-free diets.

6.
Front Nutr ; 8: 690428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616762

RESUMO

Background: Dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, including the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), have been shown to strongly influence risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. EDIH was developed using plasma C-peptide, whereas EDIP was based on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNF-αR2). We investigated whether these dietary patterns were associated with a broader range of relevant biomarkers not previously tested. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 35,360 women aged 50-79 years from the Women's Health Initiative with baseline (1993-1998) fasting blood samples. We calculated EDIH and EDIP scores from baseline food frequency questionnaire data and tested their associations with 40 circulating biomarkers of insulin response/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipids, and lipid particle size. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate the percent difference in biomarker concentrations per 1 standard deviation increment in dietary index. FDR-adjusted p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) were significantly associated with altered concentrations of 25 of the 40 biomarkers examined. For EDIH, the percent change in biomarker concentration in the insulin-related biomarkers ranged from +1.3% (glucose) to +8% (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance) and -9.7% for IGF-binding protein-1. EDIH impacted inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers from +1.1% (TNF-αR2) to +7.8% (CRP) and reduced adiponectin by 2.4%; and for lipid biomarkers: +0.3% (total cholesterol) to +3% (triglycerides/total cholesterol ratio) while reducing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 2.4%. EDIP showed a similar trend of associations with most biomarkers, although the magnitude of association was slightly weaker for the insulin-related biomarkers and stronger for lipids and lipid particle size. Conclusions: Dietary patterns with high potential to contribute to insulin hypersecretion and to chronic systemic inflammation, based on higher EDIH and EDIP scores, were associated with an unfavorable profile of circulating biomarkers of glucose-insulin dysregulation, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia. The broad range of biomarkers further validates EDIH and EDIP as mechanisms-based dietary patterns for use in clinical and population-based studies of metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684122

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected emergency department (ED) management. Its viral transmission necessitates the use of isolation rooms and personal protective equipment for treating suspected patients, such as those with fever. This delays the time until the first encounter with the patients, thereby increasing the length of stay (LOS) in the ED. We aimed to compare delays in the ED LOS and clinical processes between the COVID-19 period and pre-COVID-19 period. Moreover, we intended to evaluate if the aforementioned delay affected patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study in Korea. Patients with fever were compared between the "COVID-19 period" from March 2020 to August 2020 and the "pre-COVID-19 period" from March 2019 to September 2019. We compared the overall ED LOS and individual time variable, including initial diagnostic tests (laboratory tests, radiography), specific diagnostic test (computed tomography), and treatment processes (antibiotics). A logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between hospital admission and patient data. Results: We enrolled 931 and 749 patients during pre- and COVID-19 periods, respectively. Patients with fever remained in the ED for a longer duration during the COVID-19 period (pre-COVID-19:207.7 ± 102.7 min vs. during COVID-19: 223.5 ± 119.4 min, p = 0.004). The total time for performing laboratory tests and radiography displayed significant differences between the two periods, particularly from the time of patient arrival in the ED to the time of issuing the order. The time until antibiotic administration was delayed in the COVID-19 period (pre-COVID-19:195.8 ± 103.3 min vs. during COVID-19: 216.9 ± 108.4 min, p = 0.003). The logistic regression analysis for hospital admission identified ED LOS as an independent factor in both periods. Conclusions: The delay until encountering patients with fever resulted in longer ED LOS during the COVID-19 period; however, it possibly did not increase the hospital admission rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schwannoma is a slowly growing benign neurogenic tumor that develops from the cells of the nerve sheath. The occurrence of schwannoma in the submandibular space is very rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to March 2021, we reviewed all patients who had been operated on in the otolaryngology department over 11 years and found 61 patients diagnosed with schwannomas at the final biopsy after surgery. In these patients, only 3 submandibular schwannomas were identified, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: Three schwannomas (4.9%) developed in the submandibular space. The main symptoms were neck swelling followed by neck discomfort. All submandibular schwannomas were removed surgically with a transcervical approach under general anesthesia. Two patients, who were diagnosed preoperative submandibular tumors, were considered to have developed schwannomas from the lingual nerve, and 1 patient was considered to have developed a schwannoma from the hypoglossal nerve. There were no major surgical complications, including postoperative nerve damage. CONCLUSIONS: Submandibular schwannomas are extremely rare, but they should be included in the differential diagnosis of submandibular tumors.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502615

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to develop a simple submaximal walk test protocol and equation using heart rate (HR) response variables to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). A total of 60 healthy adults were recruited to test the validity of 3 min walk tests (3MWT). VO2max and HR responses during the 3MWTs were measured. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop prediction equations. As a result, HR response variables including resting HR and HR during walking and recovery at two different cadences were significantly correlated with VO2max. The equations developed using multiple regression analyses were able to predict VO2max values (r = 0.75-0.84; r2 = 0.57-0.70; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 4.80-5.25 mL/kg/min). The equation that predicted VO2max the best was at the cadence of 120 steps per minute, which included sex; age; height; weight; body mass index; resting HR; HR at 1 min, 2 min and 3 min; HR recovery at 1 min and 2 min; and other HR variables calculated based on these measured HR variables (r = 0.84; r2 = 0.70; SEE = 4.80 mL/kg/min). In conclusion, the 3MWT developed in this study is a safe and practical submaximal exercise protocol for healthy adults to predict VO2max accurately, even compared to the well-established submaximal exercise protocols, and merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Teste de Caminhada , Caminhada
10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 380, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there are over 200 million cases of malaria annually and over 400,000 deaths. Early and accurate detection of low-density parasitaemia and asymptomatic individuals is key to achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) 2030 sustainable development goals of reducing malaria-related deaths by 90% and eradication in 35 countries. Current rapid diagnostic tests are neither sensitive nor specific enough to detect the low parasite concentrations in the blood of asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: Here, an imaging-based sensing technique, particle diffusometry (PD), is combined with loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) on a smartphone-enabled device to detect low levels of parasitaemia often associated with asymptomatic malaria. After amplification, PD quantifies the Brownian motion of fluorescent nanoparticles in the solution during a 30 s video taken on the phone. The resulting diffusion coefficient is used to detect the presence of Plasmodium DNA amplicons. The coefficients of known negative samples are compared to positive samples using a one-way ANOVA post-hoc Dunnett's test for confirmation of amplification. RESULTS: As few as 3 parasite/µL of blood was detectable in 45 min without DNA extraction. Plasmodium falciparum parasites were detected from asymptomatic individuals' whole blood samples with 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity when compared to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CONCLUSIONS: PD-LAMP is of value for the detection of low density parasitaemia especially in areas where trained personnel may be scarce. The demonstration of this smartphone biosensor paired with the sensitivity of LAMP provides a proof of concept to achieve widespread asymptomatic malaria testing at the point of care.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Uganda
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436054

RESUMO

Amino acid arrays comprising bioluminescent amino acid auxotrophic Escherichia coli are effective systems to quantitatively determine multiple amino acids. However, there is a need to develop a method for convenient long-term preservation of the array to enable its practical applications. Here, we reported a potential strategy to efficiently maintain cell viability within the portable array. The method involves immobilization of cells within agarose gel supplemented with an appropriate cryoprotectant in individual wells of a 96-well plate, followed by storage under freezing conditions. Six cryoprotectants, namely dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, and trehalose, were tested in the methionine (Met) auxotroph-based array. Carbohydrate-type cryoprotectants (glycerol, sucrose, and trehalose) efficiently preserved the linearity of determination of Met concentration. In particular, the array with 5% trehalose exhibited the best performance. The Met array with 5% trehalose could determine Met concentration with high linearity (R2 value = approximately 0.99) even after storage at -20 °C for up to 3 months. The clinical utilities of the Met and Leu array, preserved at -20 °C for 3 months, were also verified by successfully quantifying Met and Leu in spiked blood serum samples for the diagnosis of the corresponding metabolic diseases. This long-term preservation protocol enables the development of a ready-to-use bioluminescent E. coli-based amino acid array to quantify multiple amino acids and can replace the currently used laborious analytical methods.

12.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(6): 23259671211010409, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368374

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of concomitant injuries, including meniscal and cartilage injuries, has not been adequately reported in previous studies on multiligament knee injury (MLKI) because their primary focal points have been the degree of ligament injury, treatment strategy, involvement of other soft tissues, and neurovascular injury. Purpose: To analyze the incidence of associated lesions in MLKIs, including medial and lateral meniscal injuries, cartilage lesions, and complications. Study Design: Systemic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases were searched between inception and April 30, 2020. Studies were included if they reported the incidence rates of medial and/or lateral meniscal tears and cartilage injuries in cases of MLKIs. For the meta-analysis, data were extracted on clinical outcomes measured according to the number of medial and/or lateral meniscal tears, cartilage injuries, and complications. Results: A total of 45 studies were included in the MLKI analysis (3391 patients). The pooled rate of medial meniscal tears was 30.4% (95% CI, 24.1%-37.1%; P < .0001; I 2 = 85.8%). The pooled rate of lateral meniscal tears was 27.5% (95% CI, 20.3%-35.3%; P < .0001; I 2 = 89.6%). The pooled rate of cartilage injuries was 27.5% (95% CI, 22.1%-33.3%; P < .0001; I 2 = 86.8%). The pooled rates of peroneal nerve injuries, vascular injuries, and arthrofibrosis were 19.2% (95% CI, 14.2%-24.7%; P < .001; I 2 = 81.3%), 18.4% (95% CI, 13.2%-24.3%; P < .0001; I 2 = 81.0%), and 11.2% (95% CI, 8.1%-14.7%; P = .0018; I 2 = 54.0%), respectively. Conclusion: The pooled rates of meniscal tears and cartilage injuries concomitant with MLKIs were high, ranging from 27% to 30%, and the pooled rates of peroneal nerve injury, vascular injury, and arthrofibrosis were considerable, ranging from 11% to 19%. The influence of these associated lesions on clinical results should be evaluated in future clinical studies.

13.
Ann Dermatol ; 33(4): 351-360, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341637

RESUMO

Background: Hand eczema refers to eczema located on the hands, regardless of its etiology or morphology. Despite its high prevalence and significant impact on patients' quality of life, treatment is frequently challenging because of its heterogeneity, chronic and recurrent course, and lack of well-organized randomized controlled trials of the various treatment options. Objective: These consensus guidelines aim to provide evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and management of hand eczema to improve patient care by helping physicians make more efficient and transparent decisions. Methods: A modified Delphi method, comprising two rounds of email questionnaires with face-to-face meetings in between, was adopted for the consensus process that took place between February and September 2020. Forty experts in the field of skin allergy and contact dermatitis were invited to participate in the expert panel. Results: Consensus was reached for the domains of classification, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment; and a therapeutic ladder to manage chronic hand eczema was developed. Conclusion: These are the first consensus guidelines for chronic hand eczema in the Asian population, which will help standardize care and assist clinical decision-making in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hand eczema.

14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 283-288, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate decision of emergency department (ED) disposition is essential for improving the outcome of elderly urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. However, studies on early return visit (ERV) to the ED in elderly UTI patients are limited. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors for ERV and hospitalization after return visit (HRV) in this population. METHODS: Elderly patients discharged from the ED with International Classification of diseases 10th Revision codes of UTI were selected from the registry for evaluation of ED revisit in 6 urban teaching hospitals. Retrospective data were extracted from the electronic medical records and ERV and hospitalization to scheduled revisit (SRV) were compared. RESULT: Among a total of 419 patients found in the study period, 45 were ERV patients and 24 were HRV patients. Absence of UTI-specific symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.789; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.368-5.687; P = 0.005), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels >30 mg/L (OR 2.436; 95% CI 1.017-3.9; P = 0.024), and body temperature ≥ 38 °C (OR 1.992; 95% CI 1.017-3.9; P = 0.044) were independent risk factors for ERV, and absence of UTI-specific symptoms (OR 3.832; 95% CI 1.455-10.088; P = 0.007), CRP levels >30 mg/L (OR 3.224; 95% CI 1.235-8.419; P = 0.017), and systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg (OR 3.795;95% CI 1.156-12.462; P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for HRV. However, there was no significant difference in empirical antibiotic resistance in ERV and HRV patients, compared to SRV patients. CONCLUSION: The independent risk factors of ERV and HRV should be considered for ED disposition in elderly UTI patients; the resistance to empirical antibiotics was not found to affect ERV or HRV within 3 days.

15.
Development ; 148(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427305

RESUMO

Stromal androgen-receptor (AR) action is essential for prostate development, morphogenesis and regeneration. However, mechanisms underlying how stromal AR maintains the cell niche in support of pubertal prostatic epithelial growth are unknown. Here, using advanced mouse genetic tools, we demonstrate that selective deletion of stromal AR expression in prepubescent Shh-responsive Gli1-expressing cells significantly impedes pubertal prostate epithelial growth and development. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses showed that AR loss in these prepubescent Gli1-expressing cells dysregulates androgen signaling-initiated stromal-epithelial paracrine interactions, leading to growth retardation of pubertal prostate epithelia and significant development defects. Specifically, AR loss elevates Shh-signaling activation in both prostatic stromal and adjacent epithelial cells, directly inhibiting prostatic epithelial growth. Single-cell trajectory analyses further identified aberrant differentiation fates of prostatic epithelial cells directly altered by stromal AR deletion. In vivo recombination of AR-deficient stromal Gli1-lineage cells with wild-type prostatic epithelial cells failed to develop normal prostatic epithelia. These data demonstrate previously unidentified mechanisms underlying how stromal AR-signaling facilitates Shh-mediated cell niches in pubertal prostatic epithelial growth and development.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Próstata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

17.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 15(3): 180, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276999

RESUMO

Infrastructure maxillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the lower part of the maxilla and hard palate. The objective of the present study was to analyze clinical data and treatment outcome of patients who underwent infrastructure maxillectomy between 2011 and 2019. A total of 13 patients who underwent infrastructure maxillectomy for maxillary sinus and hard palate neoplasms between 2011 and 2019 were analyzed. These patients were subdivided into maxillary sinus neoplasm (n=5) and hard palate neoplasm (n=8) groups. All patients except one underwent infrastructure maxillectomy using the sublabial approach. One patient underwent an external approach through lateral rhinotomy. Postoperative reconstruction was performed for 11 patients using obturator, 6 patients using skin grafts and 3 patients using free flaps. A total of 6 patients had radiotherapy (RT), 3 had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 2 had chemotherapy after surgery. The survival rate and recurrence rate were 61.5% (8/13) and 46.2% (6/13), respectively. The current results suggested that infrastructure maxillectomy may be an effective treatment for maxillary sinus neoplasms in the lower part of the maxillary sinus and hard palate neoplasms without causing marked functional or cosmetic morbidity. Postoperative RT or CCRT may be recommended to decrease the recurrence after infrastructure maxillectomy.

18.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237918

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary glucose oxidase (GOD), catalase (CAT), or both supplementation on reproductive performance, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in sows. Methods: A total of 104 multiparous sows were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 26) with each group given with basal diet, basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg, basal diet plus CAT at 75 U/kg, and basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg and CAT at 75 U/kg. Sows were fed the experimental diets throughout gestation and lactation. Results: Dietary GOD supplementation increased average daily feed intake of sows and litter weight at weaning (p<0.05). Dietary CAT supplementation reduced the duration of parturition, stillbirth, and piglet mortality and increased growth performance of weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and lessened oxidative stress product levels in plasma of sows and elevated antioxidant capacity of 14-day milk and plasma in weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD supplementation increased fecal Lactobacillus counts and reduced Escherichia coli counts of sows (p<0.05). Compared with the basal diet, the GOD diet reduced fecal Escherichia coli counts of sows, but the addition of CAT did not reduce Escherichia coli counts in the GOD diet. Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation reduced the apoptosis rate of the liver, endometrium, and ovarian granulosa cells in sows (p<0.05). In the liver, uterus, and ovary of sows, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was downregulated by dietary GOD and CAT supplementation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation could improve the antioxidant capacity of sows and weaned piglets, and alleviate hepatic, ovarian and uterine apoptosis by weakening apoptosis-related gene expression. Glucose oxidase regulated fecal microflora of sows, but supplementation of CAT to GOD could weaken the inhibitory effect of GOD on fecal Escherichia coli.

19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201373

RESUMO

The hip joint involvement in multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) occurs in 30-90%, causing pain and limitation of motion by femoroacetabular impingement, coxa valga, acetabular dysplasia, hip joint subluxation, and osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of ten hips in seven patients treated by surgical dislocation and corrective osteotomies between 2004 and 2009. Surgical dislocation and excision of the osteochondromas and varus intertrochanteric osteotomies were performed in all cases when the neck-shaft angle was > 150°. Common sites of osteochondromas were medial, posterior, and anterior neck of the femur. Neck-shaft angle of the femur was improved from a mean of 157° to 139°, postoperatively. On an average, the center-edge angle improved from 20° to 30° postoperatively. We believe that Ganz's safe surgical dislocation technique is the preferred treatment of MHE. This safeguards the circulation of the femoral head and the osteochondromas can be resected under direct vision. It can be combined with additional corrective osteotomies because the hip affected by MHE is frequently associated with dysplastic changes which can result in premature osteoarthritis.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1816-1825, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are recommended to follow cancer prevention guidelines due to inadequate evidence for specific recommendations for cancer survivors. METHODS: We examined whether diet and lifestyle scores measuring adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention guidelines were associated with colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality among 1,491 patients with colorectal cancer in two prospective cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.92 years, there were 641 deaths (179 colorectal cancer-specific deaths). Patients in the highest quartile of the post-diagnostic WCRF/AICR lifestyle score including diet, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity had a 24% lower risk (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49-1.18) of colorectal cancer-specific mortality and a 37% lower risk (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50-0.78) of overall mortality compared with the lowest quartile. When BMI was not included in the lifestyle score due to potential disease-related weight loss, stronger inverse associations were observed for both colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality for the same comparison (colorectal cancer-specific: HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.79; overall: HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.75). The post-diagnostic WCRF/AICR diet score was not statistically significantly associated with either colorectal cancer-specific or overall mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. IMPACT: This study provides support for patients with colorectal cancer to follow cancer prevention recommendations after diagnosis. Future studies on cancer survivors will continue to contribute to evidence-based diet and lifestyle recommendations for patients with cancer.

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