Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 304
Filtrar
1.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538794

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The hybrid technique after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy is an internal fixation method using monocortical miniplates and additional bicortical positional screws. In this study, we analyzed the postoperative stability of 23 patients with mandibular asymmetry who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and hybrid fixation with or without LeFort I osteotomy. Anatomical landmarks of the deviated and non-deviated sides of the jaw were established to measure the angle and distance to the reference plane in three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography images. We analyzed the positional changes and correlations of the reference points at preoperative (T1), postoperative 2 weeks (T2), and postoperative 1 year (T3). There were significant differences in preoperative position of the upper and lower molar cervix alveolar crest to the reference plane (U6-X and L6-X) and the condylion angles between deviated and non-deviated sides. Postoperatively (T2-T3), each reference point had no statistically significant positional change. Pearson correlation coefficient between the amount of menton deviation (ME-X at T1) and positional change of menton after surgery (T2-T3) was 0.30, and P value was 0.168. The hybrid fixation technique is an effective fixation method for achieving postoperative stability for mandibular asymmetry.

2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361564

RESUMO

Unintended pesticide pollution in soil, crops, and adjacent environments has caused several issues for both pesticide users and consumers. For users, pesticides utilized should provide higher yield and lower persistence while considering both the environment and agricultural products. Most people are concerned that agricultural products expose humans to pesticides accumulating in vegetation. Thus, many countries have guidelines for assessing and managing pesticide pollution, for farming in diverse environments, as all life forms in soil are untargeted to these pesticides. The stable isotope approach has been a useful technique to find the source of organic matter in studies relating to aquatic ecology and environmental sciences since the 1980s. In this study, we discuss commonly used analytical methods using liquid and gas chromatography coupled with isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, as well as the advanced compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). CSIA applications are discussed for tracing organic pollutants and understanding chemical reactions (mechanisms) in natural environments. It shows great applicability for the issues on unintended pesticide pollution in several environments with the progress history of isotope application in agricultural and environmental studies. We also suggest future study directions based on the forensic applications of stable isotope analysis to trace pesticides in the environment and crops.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Toxicologia Forense , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Isótopos/análise
3.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 59-62, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339123

RESUMO

Here, we report three detections of H7N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from poultry in Missouri (n = 2) and Texas (n = 1) during February and March 2018. Complete genome sequencing and comparative phylogenetic analysis suggest that the H7 LPAIV precursor viruses were circulating in wild birds in North America during the fall and winter of 2017 and spilled over into domestic poultry in Texas and Missouri independently during the spring of 2018.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Perus , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/patogenicidade , Missouri , Texas , Virulência
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347386

RESUMO

The first human case of zoonotic A(H7N4) avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in early 2018 in China. Two months after this case, novel A(H7N4) viruses phylogenetically related to the Jiangsu isolate emerged in ducks from live bird markets in Cambodia. During active surveillance in Cambodia, a novel A(H7N6) reassortant of the zoonotic low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) A(H7N4) was detected in domestic ducks at a slaughterhouse. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel A(H7N6) AIV is a reassortant, in which four gene segments originated from Cambodia A(H7N4) viruses and four gene segments originated from LPAIVs in Eurasia. Animal infection experiments revealed that chickens transmitted the A(H7N6) virus via low-level direct contacts, but ducks did not. Although avian-origin A(H7Nx) LPAIVs do not contain the critical mammalian-adaptive substitution (E627K) in PB2, the lethality and morbidity of the A(H7N6) virus in BALB/c mice were similar to those of A(H7N9) viruses, suggesting potential for interspecies transmission. Our study reports the emergence of a new reassortant of zoonotic A(H7N4) AIVs with novel viral characteristics and emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance of avian-origin A(H7Nx) viruses.

5.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 883-893, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406877

RESUMO

During constipation, indigestible foods, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fiber, may improve the bowel environment and activity. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, the effects of ID-HWS1000, composed of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, xylooligosaccharide, and dietary fiber, were evaluated to determine whether it improves the perception of bowel activity or cause changes in the gut microbiome. Thirty Korean adults with "functional constipation" according to the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to the following groups: 20 in the ID-HWS1000 group and 10 in the placebo group. ID-HWS1000 or the placebo was consumed by the participants for 4 weeks. To assess the changes in the perception of bowel activity, clinical data and gut microbiome analyses were conducted before and after the experiment. There were significant differences between the groups in the response to 9 of the 12 survey questions (the number and duration of bowel movements, amount of feces, number of irritant bowel movements, number of times bowel movements felt incomplete, shape of the feces, amount of gas in the gut, discomfort after defecation, and discomfort owing to constipation) (P < .05). There was a decrease in the proportion of Firmicutes (Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae) and an increase in Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidaceae) (P < .05). Moreover, ID-HWS1000 directly improved the discomfort associated with bowel movements, decreased the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, and increased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. These results confirmed that ID-HWS1000 improves the perception of bowel activity and exerts positive changes in individuals with functional constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 260: 109180, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271303

RESUMO

H2N2 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have persisted in live bird markets (LBMs) in the Northeastern United States since 2014. Although unrelated to the 1957 pandemic H2N2 lineage, there is concern that the virus could have animal and public health consequences because of high contact with humans and numerous species in the LBM system. The pathogenicity, infectivity, and transmissibility of six LBM H2N2 viruses isolated from three avian species in LBMs were examined in chickens. Two of these isolates were also tested in Pekin ducks and guinea fowl. Full genome sequence was obtained from all 6 isolates and evaluated for genetic markers for host adaptation and pathogenicity in poultry. Clinical signs were not observed in any host with any of the isolates, however one recent isolate was shed at higher titers than the other isolates and had the lowest bird infectious dose of all the isolates tested in all three species. This isolate, A/chicken/NY/19-012787-1/2019, was also the only isolate with a deletion in the stalk region of the neuraminidase protein (NA). This supports the theory that the NA stalk deletion is evidence of adaptation to gallinaceous poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Virulência
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331828

RESUMO

Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major infectious pathogen causing significant respiratory signs in equids worldwide. Voluntary surveillances in the United States recently reported EIV detection in horses with respiratory signs even with adequate vaccine protocols and biosecurity programs and posed a concern about suboptimal effectiveness of EIV vaccine in the United States. This study aims to determine the genetic characteristics of 58 field EIV H3N8 strains in the United States from 2012 to 2017 using the phylogenetic analysis based on the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. Amino acid substitution and acquisition of N-glycosylation of the HA gene were also evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis identified that almost all US field strains belonged to the Florida clade 1 (FC1) except one Florida clade 2 strain from a horse imported in 2014. US EIV strains in 2017 shared 11 fixed amino acid substitutions in the HA gene, compared to the vaccine strain (A/equine/Ohio/2003), and two additional amino acid substitutions were detected in 2019. The introduction of foreign EIV strains into the United States was not detected, but antigenic drift without acquisition of N-glycosylation in the HA gene was observed in US field strains until 2017. Considering the global dominance of FC1 strains, subsequent antigenic drift of US EIV strains should be monitored for better effectiveness of the EIV vaccine in the United States and global equine industries.

8.
Sci Adv ; 7(29)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261654

RESUMO

During base excision repair, a transient single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gap is produced at the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. Exonuclease III, capable of performing both AP endonuclease and exonuclease activity, are responsible for gap creation in bacteria. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to examine the mechanism of gap creation. We found an AP site anchor-based mechanism by which the intrinsically distributive enzyme binds strongly to the AP site and becomes a processive enzyme, rapidly creating a gap and an associated transient ssDNA loop. The gap size is determined by the rigidity of the ssDNA loop and the duplex stability of the DNA and is limited to a few nucleotides to maintain genomic stability. When the 3' end is released from the AP endonuclease, polymerase I quickly initiates DNA synthesis and fills the gap. Our work provides previously unidentified insights into how a signal of DNA damage changes the enzymatic functions.

9.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199847

RESUMO

Since 2014, H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry in multiple continents, including Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. Wild birds were suspected to be the sources of the local and global spreads of HPAIV. This study evaluated the infectivity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 HPAIV in mandarin ducks (Aixgalericulata) and domestic pigeons (Columbia livia domestica). None of the birds used in this study, 20 mandarin ducks or 8 pigeons, showed clinical signs or mortality due to H5N6 HPAI infection. Two genotypes of H5N6 HPAIV showed replication and transmission by direct and indirect contact between mandarin ducks. H5N6 HPAIV replicated and transmitted by direct contact between pigeons, although the viral shedding titer and duration were relatively lower and shorter than those in mandarin ducks. Influenza virus antigen was detected in various internal organs of infected mandarin ducks and pigeons, indicating systemic infection. Therefore, our results indicate mandarin ducks and pigeons can be subclinically infected with clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 HPAIV and transfer the virus to adjacent birds. The role of mandarin ducks and pigeons in the spread and prevalence of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses should be carefully monitored.

10.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 125-136, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139624

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:(k):1, 5, (7) (sheep associated S. diarizonae, SASd) is the most common Salmonella serotype identified in sheep flocks. Despite the involvement with animal and human infections, there is limited information regarding virulence profiles of SASds and their antibiotic resistance gene complement, particularly for those circulating in the U.S. In this study, we genetically characterized three SASds, 20-265, 20-269, and 20-312, isolated from sheep placental tissues during an abortion storm affecting a flock in Connecticut during 2020. SASds were the only bacteria isolated from analyzed sheep tissues. The isolates were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested, but all these SASd isolates carry the aminoglycoside resistance gene, aac(6')-Iaa, and a chromosomal substitution in the parC gene. The proportion of pseudogenes (5.3-5.5%) was similar among the isolates, and these SASds carry IncX1 type plasmids. Comparing with the SASds isolates from Enterobase, the three isolates showed an identical genomic virulence profile carrying virulence genes in the conserved set of other SASd isolates except for steC, iagB, iacP, sseI, and slrP genes. In the SNP-based phylogenetic analysis, SASd sequences were grouped into group A-C, and the group C was further subdivided into subgroup C1-C6. The three isolates clustered with other SASd isolates from the U.S. and Canada in subgroup C6. SASd isolates in the identical phylogenetic groups tended to have similar geographical origin. The results of our study did not provide conclusive evidence about which are the genetic traits that trigger SASds to become virulent in sheep, but our data will provide a point for comparative studies of this Salmonella serovar.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Filogenia , Placenta/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104885, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932612

RESUMO

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 H5N1 (Gs/GD) lineage has been transmitted globally and has caused deaths in wild birds, poultry, and humans. Clade 2.3.4.4c, one of the subclades of the Gs/GD lineage, spread through Taiwan in late 2014 and become an endemic virus. We analyzed 239 newly sequenced HPAI clade H5Nx isolates to explore the phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and evolutionary history of Taiwan HPAI H5Nx viruses from 2015 to 2018. Overall, 15 reassortant genotypes were identified among H5N2, H5N3, and H5N8 viruses. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies based on homologous hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix protein (MP) genes suggest that Taiwan HPAI H5Nx viruses share a most recent common ancestor that has diversified since October 2014 and is closely related to two HPAI H5N8 viruses identified from wild birds in Japan. Two waves of HPAI caused by multiple reassortants were identified, the first occurring in late 2014 and the second beginning in late 2016. The first wave consisted of seven H5Nx reassortants that spread through Taiwan. In the second wave, eight novel reassortants were detected which had newly introduced internal genes, mostly derived from the avian influenza virus gene pool maintained in wild birds in Asia. Phylodynamic reconstruction using the Bayesian Skygrid model revealed varied fluctuating patterns of relative genetic diversity among reassortants. The mean evolutionary rate also varied among reassortants and subtypes. The neuraminidase (NA) gene evolved faster than the HA gene in H5N2 viruses, while HA evolved faster than NA in H5N8 viruses. The HA mean evolutionary rate ranged from 6.10 × 10-3 to 7.73 × 10-3 and from 5.81 × 10-3 to 9.45 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year for H5N2 and H5N8 viruses, respectively. The continuous circulation of HPAI H5Nx variants and the emergence of novel reassortants in Taiwan highlight that the surveillance, biosecurity, and management systems of poultry farms need to be improved and carefully executed.

12.
Water Res ; 199: 117194, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984589

RESUMO

Despite receiving a considerable amount of attention in the past, quantitative and systematic estimation of the source contributions for different organic carbons (OCs) in complex river systems is still challenging. In this study, we tested an integrated framework using field data of bulk elements and lipid biomarkers and hydrological modeling (hydrological simulation program FORTRAN, HSPF) for the quantitative estimation of OC loads along different land-use types of a watershed (Geumho River watershed in South Korea). Based on the specific source assignments identified from the lipid biomarker patterns in particulate organic carbon (POC) such as short/long chains of alkanes, fatty acids and alcohols, and coprostanol/cholesterol, spatial variations of the diagnostic lipids could be used as an indicator to discriminate between the contributions of natural (algae, bacteria, and terrestrial plants) and anthropogenic sources (fecal). Based on the integration of HSPF modeling, it was also found that various POC loads might be partially controlled by different water discharges within watersheds. With the increase in POC fluxes, the increase in fecal loads was also noticed, as reflected by the predominant lipid (especially coprostanol normalized by water discharges). As a straightforward approach, we developed a set of indices including fecal index-1, ratios of coprostanol, fatty acids, and alkanes, which strengthened the sensitivity for fecal contamination. Compared with the conventional HSPF results, the variations of these proposed indices were more influenced by the broadened watershed extents with increasing downstream distance, which provided a more accurate estimation of the quantitative contributions of POC loadings in the complex river system.


Assuntos
Carbono , Rios , Carbono/análise , Ciclo do Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , República da Coreia
13.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809549

RESUMO

During October 2020-January 2021, we isolated a total of 67 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses from wild birds and outbreaks in poultry in South Korea. We sequenced the isolates and performed phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences to determine the origin, evolution, and spread patterns of these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed that all the isolates belong to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 subgroup B (2.3.4.4b) and form two distinct genetic clusters, G1 and G2. The cluster G1 was closely related to the 2.3.4.4b H5N8 HPAI viruses detected in Europe in early 2020, while the cluster G2 had a close genetic relationship with the 2.3.4.4b H5N8 viruses that circulated in Europe in late 2020. A total of seven distinct genotypes were identified, including five novel reassortants carrying internal genes of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Our Bayesian discrete trait phylodynamic analysis between host types suggests that the viruses initially disseminated from migratory waterfowl to domestic duck farms in South Korea. Subsequently, domestic duck farms most likely contributed to the transmission of HPAI viruses to chicken and minor poultry farms, highlighting the need for enhanced, high levels of biosecurity measures at domestic duck farms to effectively prevent the introduction and spread of HPAI.


Assuntos
Aves/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Vírus Reordenados , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2824-2832, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910774

RESUMO

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have caused outbreaks in poultry in Bangladesh since 2007. While clade 2.2.2 and 2.3.4.2 HPAIVs have not been detected since 2012, clade 2.3.2.1a viruses have caused continuous outbreaks since 2012 despite the use of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two H5 vaccines licensed in Bangladesh, RE-6 inactivated vaccine, and a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys vaccine with an H5 insert (rHVT-H5), for protection against recent field viruses in chickens. We selected three viruses for efficacy tests (A/chicken/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-3237/2017, A/crow/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8471/2017 and A/chicken/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8323/2017) from 36 H5 viruses isolated from Bangladesh between 2016 and 2018 by comparing the amino acid sequences at five antigenic sites (A-E) and analyzing hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers with reference antisera. The RE-6 and rHVT-H5 vaccines both conferred 80-100% clinical protection (i.e. reduced morbidity and mortality) against the three challenge viruses with no significant differences in protection. In addition, both vaccines significantly decreased viral shedding from infected chickens as compared to challenge control chickens. Based on these metrics, the current licensed H5 vaccines protected chickens against the recent field viruses. However, the A/crow/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8471/2017 virus exhibited antigenic divergence including: several unique amino acid changes in antigenic epitope sites A and B and was a serological outlier in cross HI tests as visualized on the antigenic map. The continuing emergence of such antigenic variants which could alter the dominant antigenicity of field viruses should be continuously monitored and vaccines should be updated if field efficacy declines.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16084-16096, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793211

RESUMO

As COVID-19 exemplifies, respiratory diseases transmitted through aerosols or droplets are global threats to public health, and respiratory protection measures are essential first lines of infection prevention and control. However, common face masks are single use and can cause cross-infection due to the accumulated infectious pathogens. We developed salt-based formulations to coat membrane fibers to fabricate antimicrobial filters. Here, we report a mechanistic study on salt-induced pathogen inactivation. The salt recrystallization following aerosol exposure was characterized over time on sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium chloride (KCl) powders and coatings, which revealed that NaCl and KCl start to recrystallize within 5 min and K2SO4 within 15 min. The inactivation kinetics observed for the H1N1 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae matched the salt recrystallization well, which was identified as the main destabilizing mechanism. Additionally, the salt-coated filters were prepared with different methods (with and without a vacuum process), which led to salt coatings with different morphologies for diverse applications. Finally, the salt-coated filters caused a loss of pathogen viability independent of transmission mode (aerosols or droplets), against both DI water and artificial saliva suspensions. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of the salt-recrystallization-based technology to develop highly versatile antimicrobial filters.


Assuntos
Filtração/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Máscaras , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Sulfatos/química , Aerossóis , Filtros de Ar , Cristalização , Cinética , Membranas Artificiais , Polipropilenos , Pós , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
16.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101378, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse events of endocrine therapy reduce the breast cancer patient's quality of life and adversely affect treatment compliance. METHOD: A 50-year-old breast cancer patient complained of several symptoms such as hot flush, hyperhidrosis, urinary frequency, and depression. These symptoms occurred after taking tamoxifen. The adverse events induced by tamoxifen were assessed using both World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) causality categories and the Naranjo probability scale. Traditional Korean herbal medicine was used to treat vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal symptoms. And acupuncture was used to manage musculoskeletal symptoms. RESULTS: As a result of traditional Korean medicine treatment for 25 days, symptoms and quality of life improved significantly, and improvement was estimated in the Menopause Rating Scale and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that traditional Korean medicine interventions might have improved the adverse events of tamoxifen in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Tamoxifeno , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fogachos/induzido quimicamente , Fogachos/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 777: 146100, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684745

RESUMO

Arctic subsea permafrost contains more organic carbon than the terrestrial counterpart (~1400 Pg C vs. ~1000 Pg C) and is undergoing fast degradation (at rates of ~10 to 30 cm yr-1 over the past 3 decades) in response to climate warming. Yet the flux of organic carbon sequestered in the sediments of subsea permafrost to overlying water column, which can trigger enormous positive carbon-climate feedbacks, remain unclear. In this study, we examined the dissolved organic matter (DOM) diffusion to bottom seawaters from East Siberian Sea (ESS) sediments, which was estimated at about 943-2240 g C m-2 yr-1 and 10-55 g C m-2 yr-1 at the continuous-discontinuous transition zone of subsea permafrost and the remainder shelf and slope sites, respectively. The released DOM is characterized by prevailing dominance (≥ 98%) of low molecular weight (Mn < 350 Da) fractions. A red-shifted (emission wavelength >500 nm) fluorescence fingerprint, a typical feature of sediment/soil DOM, accounts for 4-6% and 7-8% in the fluorescence distributions of seawaters and pore waters, respectively, on ESS shelf. Statistical analysis revealed that seawaters and pore waters possessed similar DOM composition. The estimated total benthic efflux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was ~0.7-1.0 Pg C yr-1 when the estimate was scaled up to the entire Arctic shelf underlain with subsea permafrost assuming the width of continuous-discontinuous transition zone is 1 to 10 m. This estimation is consistent with the established ~10-30 cm yr-1 degradation rates of subsea permafrost by estimating its thaw-out time. Compiled observation data suggested that subsea permafrost might be a major DOM source to the Arctic Ocean, which could release tremendous carbon upon remineralization via its degradation to CO2 and CH4 in the water column.

18.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1933-1942, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715903

RESUMO

The genetic and antigenic drift associated with the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage and the emergence of vaccine-resistant field viruses underscores the need for a broadly protective H5 influenza A vaccine. Here, we tested experimental vector herpesvirus of turkey (vHVT)-H5 vaccines containing either wild-type clade 2.3.4.4A-derived H5 inserts or computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA) inserts with challenge by homologous and genetically divergent H5 HPAI Gs/GD lineage viruses in chickens. Direct assessment of protection was confirmed for all the tested constructs, which provided clinical protection against the homologous and heterologous H5 HPAI Gs/GD challenge viruses and significantly decreased oropharyngeal shedding titers compared to the sham vaccine. The cross reactivity was assessed by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and focus reduction assay against a panel of phylogenetically and antigenically diverse H5 strains. The COBRA-derived H5 inserts elicited antibody responses against antigenically diverse strains, while the wild-type-derived H5 vaccines elicited protection mostly against close antigenically related clades 2.3.4.4A and 2.3.4.4D viruses. In conclusion, the HVT vector, a widely used replicating vaccine platform in poultry, with H5 insert provides clinical protection and significant reduction of viral shedding against homologous and heterologous challenge. In addition, the COBRA-derived inserts have the potential to be used against antigenically distinct co-circulating viruses and future drift variants.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Doença de Marek , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Galinhas , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Hemaglutininas , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doença de Marek/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Virulência
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1181-1183, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754986

RESUMO

We identified clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses from whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) found dead in Mongolia. The identification of these infections in wild birds in this area is of concern because of the potential for virus dissemination during fall migration.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Patos , Mongólia , Filogenia
20.
Sci Adv ; 7(13)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771864

RESUMO

Quantum wells (QWs), enabling effective exciton confinement and strong light-matter interaction, form an essential building block for quantum optoelectronics. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, however, constructing the QWs is still challenging because suitable materials and fabrication techniques are lacking for bandgap engineering and indirect bandgap transitions occur at the multilayer. Here, we demonstrate an unexplored approach to fabricate atomic-layer-confined multiple QWs (MQWs) via monolithic bandgap engineering of transition metal dichalcogenides and van der Waals stacking. The WOX/WSe2 hetero-bilayer formed by monolithic oxidation of the WSe2 bilayer exhibited the type I band alignment, facilitating as a building block for MQWs. A superlinear enhancement of photoluminescence with increasing the number of QWs was achieved. Furthermore, quantum-confined radiative recombination in MQWs was verified by a large exciton binding energy of 193 meV and a short exciton lifetime of 170 ps. This work paves the way toward monolithic integration of band-engineered heterostructures for 2D quantum optoelectronics.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...