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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 747734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659365

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are hazardous to genome integrity and can promote mutations and disease if not handled correctly. Cells respond to these dangers by engaging DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that are able to identify DNA breaks within chromatin leading ultimately to their repair. The recognition and repair of DSBs by the DDR is largely dependent on the ability of DNA damage sensing factors to bind to and interact with nucleic acids, nucleosomes and their modified forms to target these activities to the break site. These contacts orientate and localize factors to lesions within chromatin, allowing signaling and faithful repair of the break to occur. Coordinating these events requires the integration of several signaling and binding events. Studies are revealing an enormously complex array of interactions that contribute to DNA lesion recognition and repair including binding events on DNA, as well as RNA, RNA:DNA hybrids, nucleosomes, histone and non-histone protein post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. Here we examine several DDR pathways that highlight and provide prime examples of these emerging concepts. A combination of approaches including genetic, cellular, and structural biology have begun to reveal new insights into the molecular interactions that govern the DDR within chromatin. While many questions remain, a clearer picture has started to emerge for how DNA-templated processes including transcription, replication and DSB repair are coordinated. Multivalent interactions with several biomolecules serve as key signals to recruit and orientate proteins at DNA lesions, which is essential to integrate signaling events and coordinate the DDR within the milieu of the nucleus where competing genome functions take place. Genome architecture, chromatin structure and phase separation have emerged as additional vital regulatory mechanisms that also influence genome integrity pathways including DSB repair. Collectively, recent advancements in the field have not only provided a deeper understanding of these fundamental processes that maintain genome integrity and cellular homeostasis but have also started to identify new strategies to target deficiencies in these pathways that are prevalent in human diseases including cancer.

2.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8092-8111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335982

RESUMO

Active c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase localizes to the plasma membrane via N-terminal lipid modification. Membranous c-Src causes cancer initiation and progression. Even though transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5), a tetraspan(in), can be involved in this mechanism, the molecular and structural influence of TM4SF5 on c-Src remains unknown. Methods: Here, we investigated molecular and structural details by which TM4SF5 regulated c-Src devoid of its N-terminus and how cell-penetrating peptides were able to interrupt c-Src activation via interference of c-Src-TM4SF5 interaction in hepatocellular carcinoma models. Results: The TM4SF5 C-terminus efficiently bound the c-Src SH1 kinase domain, efficiently to the inactively-closed form. The complex involved protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B able to dephosphorylate Tyr530. The c-Src SH1 domain alone, even in a closed form, bound TM4SF5 to cause c-Src Tyr419 and FAK Y861 phosphorylation. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies predicted the directly interfacing residues, which were further validated by mutational studies. Cell penetration of TM4SF5 C-terminal peptides blocked the interaction of TM4SF5 with c-Src and prevented c-Src-dependent tumor initiation and progression in vivo. Conclusions: Collectively, these data demonstrate that binding of the TM4SF5 C-terminus to the kinase domain of inactive c-Src leads to its activation. Because this binding can be abolished by cell-penetrating peptides containing the TM4SF5 C-terminus, targeting this direct interaction may be an effective strategy for developing therapeutics that block the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Genes src/genética , Genes src/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
3.
Front Physiol ; 12: 643389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093222

RESUMO

The longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae), is a hard tick and a vector for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus. The number of patients infected with SFTS is rapidly increasing. Recently, the invertebrate pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae JEF-290 was reported to be useful to control the tick as an alternative to chemical acaricides, which are not easily applicable in human living areas where the tick is widely spread. In this study, we analyzed how the tick and the fungal pathogen interact at the transcriptional level. Field-collected tick nymphs were treated with JEF-290 conidia at 1 × 108 conidia/ml. In the early stage of infection with 2.5% mortality, the infected ticks were subjected to RNA sequencing, and non-infected ticks and fungal masses served as controls. Fungus and tick genes were mostly up-regulated at the early stage of infection. In the gene set enrichment analysis of the infecting fungus, catabolic processes that included lipids, phospholipids, and detoxification processes, the response to oxidative stress, and toxic substances were significantly up-regulated. In this fungal up-regulation, various lipase, antioxidant enzyme, and hydrolase genes were highly transcribed. The gene set enrichment analysis of the infected tick showed that many peptide synthesis processes including translation, peptide metabolism, ribonucleotide metabolism, and energy production processes that included ATP generation and ADP metabolism were significantly up-regulated. Structurally, mitochondria and ribosome subunit genes in ticks were highly transcribed to upregulate these processes. Together these results indicate that JEF-290 initiates process that infects the tick while the tick actively defends against the fungal attack. This work provides background to improve our understanding of the early stage of fungal infection in longhorned tick.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10940, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035418

RESUMO

Adaptive radiation is a phenomenon in which various organs are diversified morphologically or functionally as animals adapt to environmental inputs. Leeches exhibit a variety of ingestion behaviors and morphologically diverse ingestion organs. In this study, we investigated the correlation between behavioral pattern and feeding organ structure of leech species. Among them, we found that Alboglossiphonia sp. swallows prey whole using its proboscis, whereas other leeches exhibit typical fluid-sucking behavior. To address whether the different feeding behaviors are intrinsic, we investigated the behavioral patterns and muscle arrangements in the earlier developmental stage of glossiphoniid leeches. Juvenile Glossiphoniidae including the Alboglossiphonia sp. exhibit the fluid ingestion behavior and have the proboscis with the compartmentalized muscle layers. This study provides the characteristics of leeches with specific ingestion behaviors, and a comparison of structural differences that serves as the first evidence of the proboscis diversification.

5.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(11): 2533-2542, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters of patients after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) between the Grammont prosthesis and lateralized humeral design prosthesis. METHODS: A total of 114 patients who underwent RSA with a lateralized humeral design (group L; 71 shoulders) and medialized humeral design (group M; 43 shoulders) prosthesis for cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable rotator cuff tear were enrolled. Clinical outcomes including visual analog scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), and Constant scores and range of motion (ROM) were serially followed up at postoperative 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Radiographic parameters were measured to evaluate preoperative and postoperative status. RESULTS: Both prostheses demonstrated similar clinical outcomes and shoulder function preoperatively and at postoperative 2 years (P >.05). However, patients in group M had significantly better postoperative active forward flexion (postoperative 3 months, 115° ± 12° vs. 101° ± 14°; P <.001; 6 months, 125° ± 13° vs. 118° ± 13°; P <.013) and abduction (3 months, 105° ± 12° vs. 98° ± 12°; P = .002); VAS (3 months, 3.1 ± 1.2 vs. 3.7 ± 1.4; P = .031; 6 months, 2.3 ± 1.1 vs. 2.8 ± 1.3; P = .038); ASES (3 months, 64.2 ± 7.0 vs. 60.4 ± 9.2; P = .022; 6 months, 70.6 ± 6.0 vs. 66.6 ± 8.1; P = .007); and Constant scores (6 months, 59.6 ± 6.9 vs. 55.7 ± 9.3; P = .020). Group L showed a significantly lower rate of scapular notching than group M (15.5% vs. 41.8%; P < .001). The position of the proximal humerus in group L was more lateralized and less distalized than in group M after RSA. CONCLUSIONS: RSA with both the Grammont and lateralized humeral design prostheses provided similar shoulder ROM restoration and functional improvements at a minimum of 2 years. However, patients with a humeral lateralized prosthesis showed slower recovery of shoulder function and ROM up to postoperative 6 months despite a lower incidence of scapular notching.

6.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 13(1): 88-96, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747384

RESUMO

Background: Rotator cuff tears can be asymptomatic in some cases; however, even when the tear size is small, clinical symptoms can be very severe. This suggests that symptoms of rotator cuff tears are related to factors other than the size. Although synovitis has been cited as one of the factors, there is no grading system for synovitis in rotator cuff tears. Moreover, there are few studies that evaluated the relationship between synovitis and clinical features in patients with rotator cuff tears. Methods: Patients with medium-sized rotator cuff tears, who were scheduled for arthroscopic repair, were recruited for this study. The glenohumeral joint was divided into 4 quarters. Then, vascularity and hypertrophy of the joint were graded in each quarter using a modified scoring system. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively and at 3 months and 6 months after surgery. Finally, correlation between the severity of synovitis and clinical features was analyzed. Results: The intraobserver correlation coefficient was 0.815 to 0.918 and the interobserver correlation coefficient was 0.779 to 0.992 for the single measurement. Vascularity was significantly correlated with the range of motion, strength, and constant score within 6 months after surgery. Hypertrophy was correlated with the range of motion within 6 months after surgery. Conclusions: Synovitis in the shoulder with rotator cuff tears can be graded by using our modified scoring system. The severity of synovitis was closely related to the clinical features after surgery. Therefore, when treating patients with rotator cuff tears, treatment of synovitis should also be considered.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/classificação , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Sinovite/classificação , Sinovite/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Medição da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
7.
JSES Int ; 4(3): 694-700, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939508

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiologic outcomes between patients with irreparable cuff tears (ICTs) and those with cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) with a humeral-lateralization prosthesis. Methods: A total of 127 patients with ICTs and CTA who underwent RTSA were enrolled and matched at a 1:2 ratio by propensity score. Preoperative shoulder function was assessed for all patients. Radiologic parameters including the acromion-deltoid tuberosity (ADT) distance, lateral humeral offset, and scapular notching were evaluated. Results: Thirty-four patients in the ICT group and 68 patients in the CTA group were matched for comparison. Preoperatively, mean active forward flexion in the ICT group (89.7° ± 29.4°) was significantly better than that in the CTA group (65.5° ± 24.0°, P < .001). In the CTA group, fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus was worse (3.7 ± 0.5) and the ADT distance was shorter (134.0 ± 12.0 mm) compared with the ICT group preoperatively (3.3 ± 0.8 [P = .008] and 140.7 ± 12.5 mm [P = .001], respectively). There was no significant difference in postoperative functional or radiologic outcomes between the 2 groups. However, gains in active forward flexion (37.9° in ICT group vs. 61.5° in CTA group, P < .01) and abduction (42.1° in ICT group vs. 60.6° in CTA group, P < .01) were significantly greater in the CTA group than in the ICT group. Conclusions: Shoulder function was significantly improved after RTSA regardless of the preoperative diagnosis. Postoperatively, radiologic findings were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Due to the fact that preoperative range of motion and rotator cuff status were better in patients with ICTs, improvements in active forward flexion and abduction were significantly greater in patients with CTA.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21391, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756131

RESUMO

Either pain or contracture may limit shoulder passive range of motion (PROM) in patients with rotator cuff disease, and an appropriate treatment may be determined according to its cause. If there is no change in PROM under general anesthesia, contracture, rather than pain, may be the underlying condition. Our goal was to devise a physical examination that would help discriminate between pain and contracture in limited PROM patients with rotator cuff tear.This is a STROBE-compliant cross-sectional study. Patients with rotator cuff tears (N = 28) were scheduled for arthroscopic repair. The main outcome measure was PROM, including flexion, external rotation (ER), and abduction obtained by a blinded examiner before and after the induction of general anesthesia, and the abduction/ER ratio was calculated. In order to perform a subgroup analysis, patients were divided into 2 groups, one where abduction difference after the general anesthesia was 8°≤ (n = 22) and the other 8°> (n = 6).Patients' average age (62.6 ±â€Š7.2 years), symptom duration (13.0 ±â€Š10.0 months), intensity of shoulder pain on a visual analog scale (4.8 ±â€Š2.1), and Constant-Murley functional score (63.4 ±â€Š8.9); the ratio of gender (male: female = 12:16); and the arthroscopic findings were recorded. According to the correlation analysis, the abduction/ER ratio before general anesthesia was correlated best with the change in PROM after general anesthesia (correlation coefficient -0.74, P < .001); the correlations for abduction and flexion were -0.69 and -0.57, respectively (P < .001 and .002, respectively). The age, gender, height, weight, duration of symptoms, trauma history, visual analog score for shoulder pain, Constant-Murley functional score, size of rotator cuff tear, and biceps pathology did not differ significantly between the 2 groups in the subgroup analysis (P > .05). The only significant difference between the 2 groups was in the synovitis status (P = .04).Patients with greater abduction/ER ratio before anesthesia exhibited fewer PROM changes after anesthesia. The abduction/ER ratio was strongly and inversely correlated with PROM changes, allowing physicians to choose an appropriate treatment for limited PROM in patients with rotator cuff tears.


Assuntos
Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/reabilitação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Artroscopia , Contratura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória , Dor de Ombro
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(5): 101490, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723628

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important vector of pathogens causing tick-borne diseases such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in eastern Asia. Although an understanding of the overwintering ecology of ticks is fundamental to management of this vector, its winter biology remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a field survey from eight provinces in South Korea to characterize overwintering sites of H. longicornis and investigate their SFTS virus infection rates. First, we conducted flagging which consists of horizontal sweeping of a 1 m2 cloth back-and-forth to collect ticks that may exhibit questing behaviors in four different landscapes: grassland, shrub, coniferous forest, and deciduous forest. From 640 sweeps of flagging (where each sweep covered 3.8 m2), we collected five unfed ixodid ticks. However, H. longicornis was not found. After the flagging, to locate overwintering ticks, we inspected a total of 679 samples consisting of three different structures: ground (leaf litter, soil surface, and topsoil layer), rocks, and dead trees. From the samples inspected, 85 unfed overwintering ixodid ticks were found. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the dominant species (88 %), and mostly nymphs were collected (94 %). This species was collected from ground samples, especially from the topsoil layer. Most H. longicornis were found in herbaceous landscapes such as grassland (46 %) and shrub (52 %). SFTS virus was found in 3 out of 38 pools of unfed nymphs (minimal infection rate: 4 %). Our results can serve as baseline information for the development of vector management programs.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/virologia , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Ninfa/virologia , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
10.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): 195-201, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If patients susceptible to poor clinical outcomes could be predicted before reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), it would help to set reasonable postsurgical patient expectations in the preoperative setting. Our hypothesis was that the preoperative electromyographic (EMG) activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles would be correlated with clinical outcomes of patients undergoing RSA. METHODS: EMG activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles was measured in 25 patients scheduled to undergo RSA during 3 motions: shrugging, forward flexion, and abduction. Their postoperative clinical results were assessed prospectively during regular outpatient visits, including strength, active range of motion (ROM), pain, and functional scores. The correlations between the preoperative EMG activities and clinical results were analyzed. RESULTS: Postoperative shoulder strength after RSA was increased in patients with greater preoperative EMG activity of the middle deltoid and upper trapezius. Preoperative EMG activity of the anterior or middle deltoid muscle was associated with active ROM in flexion or abduction, whereas EMG activity of the posterior deltoid was associated with active ROM in external rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Shoulder strength after RSA was positively correlated with preoperative EMG activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius. Active ROM after RSA was positively correlated with preoperative EMG activity of the deltoid. Therefore, preoperative EMG measurements of the deltoid and upper trapezius may predict clinical outcomes after RSA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Músculo Deltoide/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Ombro/métodos , Músculo Deltoide/cirurgia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Força Muscular , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 166: 107230, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419401

RESUMO

The longhorned tick (bush tick),Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is a serious pest; it transmits the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus to humans and has a wide distribution. The use of chemical control is not favored for environmental and health reasons, so more environmentally sound management methods need to be developed. Herein, we describe the use of an entomopathogenic fungal library to develop a fungus-mediated tick management system. Field-collected nymphs were assayed for their susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi belonging to genera Beauveria, Metarhizium, Cordyceps, and Akanthomyces. Three M. anisopliae s.l. isolates, JEF-214, -279, and -290 showed high virulence in a dose-dependent manner. One Cordyceps isolate was pathogenic but virulence was much lower than the M. anisopliae isolates. Beauveria isolates were not pathogenic to the tick. Because the longhorned tick dwells on the soil surface except for blood-feeding periods, the soil surface was sprayed with conidial suspensions of the isolates after the release of longhorned ticks. The treatments resulted in 60-90% mortality after 30 days. M. anisopliae s.l. isolates were highly virulent against longhorned tick, and the application of fungus-based biopesticides on the soil surface could be an effective control strategy to reduce the tick population for long-term tick management.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Animais , Virulência
12.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194818

RESUMO

Riptortus pedestris is a major agricultural pest on leguminous plants in South Korea and Japan. Recent studies have revealed that R. pedestris can form beneficial symbiosis with bacteria belonging to genus Burkholderia acquired from soil newly for every generation. Although their physiological interactions are relatively well-understood, infection rate and abundance of the Burkholderia in overwintering natural populations of R. pedestris remain unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize Burkholderia infection ratio and clade composition of overwintering R. pedestris populations as well as prevalence and diversity of the genus Burkholderia in soil by conducting a two-year field survey. From the field survey, we found 29 overwintering R. pedestris adults in forested areas nearby soybean fields. Diagnostic PCR analysis revealed that overall infection rate of the symbiotic Burkholderia was 93.1% from overwintering adults. Among the Burkholderia-infected R. pedestris, 70.4% of individuals harbored unclassified Burkholderia clades whereas 22.2% and 7.4% of R. pedestris harbor stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE) group and Burkholderia cepacia and complex (BCC), respectively. All R. pedestris were infected with a single clade of Burkholderia. In soil, 56.2% of soil samples were Burkholderia positive, and unlike R. pedestris, multiple Burkholderia clades were detected from 62.2% of those samples. Clade composition of the genus Burkholderia in the samples with the bacteria was 91.1%, 60.0%, 31.1% and 8.8% for plant-associated beneficial and environment (PBE), BCC, SBE and unclassified clade, respectively.


Assuntos
Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/isolamento & purificação , Heterópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Fabaceae , Hemípteros/microbiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose/fisiologia
13.
J Med Entomol ; 56(4): 1139-1144, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927544

RESUMO

The seasonal abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann and H. flava Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) was monitored from 2015 through 2017 in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. The hard ticks were surveyed monthly using CO2 bait traps from April to November and flagging from July to September in a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, shrubs, and a grassland vegetation types. Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. flava were most abundant in the grassland and shrubs, which yielded over 50% of the total number of ticks in all 3 yr. Furthermore, H. longicornis comprised up to 90% of the ticks collected. Generally, peaks of nymph, adult, and larva numbers were observed from April to June, from June to July, and from August to September, respectively. Half of the ticks were pooled and tested for the presence of the SFTS virus with negative results.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos , Ixodidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Phlebovirus , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2735-2743, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important disease vector, its small size restricts the tracking methods applicable. Recently, fluorescent marking as a conventional detection method for small arthropods has been improved by combining it with an ultraviolet laser. We examined the application potential of this new fluorescent marking system (FMS) for tracking H. longicornis by evaluating the effect of fluorescent marking on the ticks and detection efficacy. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, fluorescent marking did not significantly affect the survivorship, movement patterns, and CO2 response of H. longicornis at all three developmental stages. Fluorescent-marked individuals could be detected at distances ranging from 12 to 29 m under dark, increasing with the body size. Finally, in grassland, >90% of fluorescent-marked individuals were retrieved at night regardless of developmental stage. However, the overall detection rate (<42%) was substantially reduced during the day. CONCLUSIOIN: Our results show that FMS can reliably detect H. longicornis at night. Nevertheless, fluorescent-marked individuals are not as conspicuous under sunlight when they are illuminated with ultraviolet lasers, limiting the use of FMS during the day. Therefore, the development of an alternative tracking method is warranted for an effective detection of ticks during the day. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Ixodidae , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Animais , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(1): 224-233, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although portable harmonic radar system and fluorescent marking system are two widely used detection methods, their comparative effectiveness has not been studied. Therefore, we first tested the applicability of fluorescent marking system on Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae). Then, we evaluated the efficacy of the two methods used either alone or combined in a grass field and bean field, varying with complexity, during day and night. RESULTS: Fluorescent marking did not affect the behavior or fitness of Riptortus pedestris except for vertical walking, while allowing the detection from >25 m when paired with a handheld laser. Generally, the portable harmonic radar system and both methods combined were more successful in sample detection, although the fluorescent marking system in the bean field at night was as competitive as the two. Combining both methods made sample retrieval easier at night than the portable harmonic radar system. Nevertheless, the total detection time showed a large variance across the methods. CONCLUSION: The portable harmonic radar system can be an effective detection method in either landscape during both day and night. Furthermore, the fluorescent marking system can be a reliable tool at night as well. Lastly, combining both methods can improve the night detection. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Fluorescência , Radar
16.
J Clin Invest ; 128(11): 5034-5055, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188867

RESUMO

Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) functions canonically in cytosolic translational processes. However, KRS is highly expressed in colon cancer, and localizes to distinct cellular compartments upon phosphorylations (i.e., the plasma membranes after T52 phosphorylation and the nucleus after S207 phosphorylation), leading to probably alternative noncanonical functions. It is unknown how other subcellular KRSs crosstalk with environmental cues during cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that the KRS-dependent metastatic behavior of colon cancer spheroids within 3D gels requires communication between cellular molecules and extracellular soluble factors and neighboring cells. Membranous KRS and nuclear KRS were found to participate in invasive cell dissemination of colon cancer spheroids in 3D gels. Cancer spheroids secreted GAS6 via a KRS-dependent mechanism and caused the M2 polarization of macrophages, which activated the neighboring cells via secretion of FGF2/GROα/M-CSF to promote cancer dissemination under environmental remodeling via fibroblast-mediated laminin production. Analyses of tissues from clinical colon cancer patients and Krs-/+ animal models for cancer metastasis supported the roles of KRS, GAS6, and M2 macrophages in KRS-dependent positive feedback between tumors and environmental factors. Altogether, KRS in colon cancer cells remodels the microenvironment to promote metastasis, which can thus be therapeutically targeted at these bidirectional KRS-dependent communications of cancer spheroids with environmental cues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Lisina-tRNA Ligase/biossíntese , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Esferoides Celulares/enzimologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lisina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
17.
Cancer Lett ; 438: 219-231, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217560

RESUMO

CD133 is a surface marker of liver cancer stem cells. Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) promotes sphere growth and circulation. However, it is unknown how CD133 and TM4SF5 cross-talk with each other for cancer stem cell properties. Here, we investigated the significance of inter-relationships between CD133, TM4SF5, CD44, and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F (PTPRF) in a three-dimensional (3D) sphere growth system. We found that CD133 upregulated TM4SF5 and CD44, whereas TM4SF5 and CD44 did not affect CD133 expression. Signaling activity following CD133 phosphorylation caused TM4SF5 expression and sphere growth. TM4SF5 bound to CD133 and promoted c-Src activity for CD133 phosphorylation as a positive feedback loop, leading to CD133-mediated sphere growth that was inhibited by TM4SF5 inhibition or suppression. TM4SF5 also bound PTPRF and promoted paxillin phosphorylation. Decreased sphere growth upon CD133 suppression was recovered by TM4SF5 expression and partially by PTPRF suppression. TM4SF5 inhibition enhanced PTPRF levels and abolished PTPRF suppression-mediated sphere growth. Altogether, CD133-induced TM4SF5 expression and function were important for liver cancer sphere growth and may be a promising target to block metastasis.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosforilação , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Environ Entomol ; 47(5): 1280-1286, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137287

RESUMO

Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a major agricultural pest on leguminous plants and tree fruit in South Korea and Japan. Only anecdotal information is currently available about its overwintering behavior and ecology. Therefore, we conducted laboratory experiments and field sampling to characterize overwintering structures and landscapes that R. pedestris use and prefer in South Korea. Under laboratory conditions, we identified the overwintering structure preference of R. pedestris adults and analyzed their spatial distributions. Among tested structures including pile of rocks, rotten wood, and leaf litter, R. pedestris was almost exclusively found in leaf litter. Spatial analysis using Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated that most overwintering R. pedestris showed no spatial-aggregation behavior in the test arena. Field surveys were also conducted to characterize overwintering landscapes during the two winter seasons between 2014 and 2016. We selected two distinct landscapes: mountain areas and agricultural areas. Mountain areas were high-elevation mountains remote from agricultural practice, whereas agricultural areas were low-elevation forested landscapes adjacent to agricultural fields, including soybeans. From the 2-yr field survey, 92% (11 out of 12 individuals) of overwintering R. pedestris were found in the agricultural area without a significant aggregation pattern.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Hemípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 142: 335-344, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902542

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel spray-applied growth factor therapy containing recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). METHODS: This study was a phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. 167 adult patients at six medical centers were randomized to receive routine wound care plus either topical spray treatment with 0.005% rhEGF (n = 82) or an equivalent volume of saline spray (n = 85) twice a day until ulcer healing or for up to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Demographics, medical status, and wound characteristics were comparable between rhEGF and placebo groups. More patients in the rhEGF group significantly had complete wound healing compared to placebo (73.2% versus 50.6%, respectively; P = .001). Wound healing velocity was faster in the rhEGF group (P = .029) regardless of HbA1c levels. The rhEGF group had a shorter median time to 50% ulcer size reduction (21 versus 35 days; hazard ratio = 3.13, P < .001) and shorter time to complete ulcer healing (56 versus 84 days; hazard ratio = 2.13, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that application of spray-applied rhEGF in DFU patients results in faster healing velocity and higher complete healing rate regardless of HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/uso terapêutico , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 27(10): 1852-1858, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiologic results between treatment with locking plate fixation and fibular allograft augmentation (FA) and treatment with locking plate fixation and additional inferomedial screws (IMSs) in 3- or 4-part proximal humeral fractures with medial comminution in geriatric patients. METHODS: We enrolled 164 patients with 3- or 4-part proximal humeral fractures with medial comminution who were treated with locking plates. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to additional augmented fixation procedures. The IMS group was composed of patients treated with additional IMSs (80 patients), whereas the FA group was treated with an additional fibular allograft (84 patients). On the basis of fracture classification, the IMS group was subdivided into those with 3-part fractures (52 patients) and those with 4-part fractures (28 patients) and the FA group was subdivided into those with 3-part fractures (55 patients) and those with 4-part fractures (29 patients). Clinical and radiographic results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: In patients with 3-part fractures, no differences in clinical outcomes were found regardless of additional procedures. However, the FA group showed superior clinical outcomes in patients with 4-part fractures (P = .038 for Constant score and P = .045 for visual analog scale score). The postoperative neck-shaft angle was maintained in the FA group compared with the IMS group with both fracture types at the last follow-up (P = .048 for IMS vs FA with 3-part fractures and P = .023 for IMS vs FA with 4-part fractures). The number of complications was significantly higher in the IMS group (5.5%) than in the FA group (1.2%) (P = .001). CONCLUSION: An FA technique is considered a primary additional procedure for medial support in patients with 4-part proximal humeral fractures involving medial metaphyseal comminution when treated with locking plate fixation.


Assuntos
Fíbula/transplante , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Cominutivas/cirurgia , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Placas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Parafusos Ósseos/efeitos adversos , Transplante Ósseo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fraturas Cominutivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ombro , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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