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1.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-18, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521207

RESUMO

Background: Increased soft-drink consumption has contributed to poor calcium intake with 90% of adolescent girls consuming less than the RDA for calcium.Purpose/objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the independent and additive effects of two interventions (milk and resistance training) on nutrient adequacy, body composition, and bone health in adolescent girls.Methods: The experimental design consisted of four experimental groups of adolescent girls 14-17 years of age: (1) Milk + resistance training [MRT]; n = 15; (2) Resistance training only [RT]; n = 15; (3) Milk only [M] n = 20; (4) Control [C] n = 16. A few significant differences were observed at baseline between the groups for subject characteristics. Testing was performed pre and post-12 week training period for all groups. Milk was provided (3, 8 oz servings) for both the MRT and the M groups. The MRT group and the RT groups performed a supervised periodized resistance training program consisting of supervised one-hour exercise sessions 3 d/wk (M, W, F) for 12 wk. Baseline dietary data was collected utilizing the NUT-P-FFQ and/or a 120 item FFQ developed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington). Body composition was measured in the morning after an overnight fast using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a total body scanner (ProdigyTM, Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI). A whole body scan for bone density and lumbar spine scans were performed on all subjects. Maximal strength of the upper and lower body was assessed via a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat and bench press exercise protocols. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.Results: Significant differences in nutrient intakes between groups generally reflected the nutrient composition of milk with greater intakes of protein and improved nutrient adequacy for several B vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. Mean calcium intake was 758 and 1581 mg/d, in the non-milk and milk groups, respectively, with 100% of girls in the milk groups consuming > RDA of 1300 mg/d. There were no effects of milk on body composition or muscle performance, but resistance training had a main effect and significantly increased body mass, lean body mass, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. There was a main effect of milk and resistance training on several measures of bone mineral density (BMD). Changes in whole body BMD in the M, RT, MRT, and CON were 0.45, 0.52, 1.32, and -0.19%, respectively (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Over the course of 12 weeks the effects of 1300 mg/d of calcium in the form of fluid milk combined with a heavy resistance training program resulted in the additive effects of greater nutrient adequacy and BMD in adolescent girls. While further studies are needed, combining increased milk consumption with resistance training appears to optimize bone health in adolescent girls.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365848

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of nutrient intake on hydration biomarkers in cyclists before and after a 161 km ride, including one hour after a 650 mL water bolus consumed post-ride. To control for multicollinearity, we chose a clustering-based, machine learning statistical approach. Five hydration biomarkers (urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, plasma copeptin, and body mass change) were configured as raw- and percent change. Linear regressions were used to test for associations between hydration markers and eight predictor terms derived from 19 nutrients merged into a reduced-dimensionality dataset through serial k-means clustering. Most predictor groups showed significant association with at least one hydration biomarker: 1) Glycemic Load + Carbohydrates + Sodium, 2) Protein + Fat + Zinc, 3) Magnesium + Calcium, 4) Pinitol, 5) Caffeine, 6) Fiber + Betaine, and 7) Water; potassium + three polyols, and mannitol + sorbitol showed no significant associations with any hydration biomarker. All five hydration biomarkers were associated with at least one nutrient predictor in at least one configuration. We conclude that in a real-life scenario, some nutrients may serve as mediators of body water, and urine-specific hydration biomarkers may be more responsive to nutrient intake than measures derived from plasma or body mass.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092895

RESUMO

The combination of hyperthermia, dehydration, and strenuous exercise can result in severe reductions in kidney function, potentially leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). We sought to determine whether six days of heat acclimation (HA) mitigates the rise in clinical biomarkers of AKI during strenuous exercise in the heat. Twenty men completed two consecutive 2 h bouts of high-intensity exercise in either hot (n = 12, 40 °C, 40% relative humidity) or mild (n = 8, 24 °C, 21% relative humidity) environments before (PreHA) and after (PostHA) 4 days of 90-120 min of exercise per day in a hot or mild environment. Increased clinical biomarkers of AKI (CLINICAL) was defined as a serum creatinine increase ≥0.3 mg·dL-1 or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reduction >25%. Creatinine similarly increased in the hot environment PreHA (0.35 ± 0.23 mg·dL-1) and PostHA (0.39 ± 0.20 mg·dL-1), with greater increases than the mild environment at both time points (0.11 ± 0.07 mg·dL-1, 0.08 ± 0.06 mg·dL-1, p ≤ 0.001), respectively. CLINICAL occurred in the hot environment PreHA (n = 9, 75%), with fewer participants with CLINICAL PostHA (n = 7, 58%, p = 0.007), and no participants in the mild environment with CLINICAL at either time point. Percent change in plasma volume was predictive of changes in serum creatinine PostHA and percent changes in eGFR both PreHA and PostHA. HA did not mitigate reductions in eGFR nor increases in serum creatinine during high-intensity exercise in the heat, although the number of participants with CLINICAL was reduced PostHA.

4.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 44: 101677, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Behaviour change interventions are more likely to be effective if they are sensitive to contextual determinants of behaviour. Delayed presentation of women with breast symptoms is a concern for both high-income and low- and medium-income countries. Our aim was to integrate evidence on determinants of time to presentation of women with breast symptoms with complementary evidence on interventions for promoting early presentation. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Ten electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published between 1985 to May 2019. Pre-defined selection criteria were applied to retrieved records. Evidence on interventions, and on determinants were integrated through sequential explanatory synthesis design. RESULTS: Of the 4185 documents retrieved, 11 intervention studies and 10 determinants studies were included in the synthesis. Overall, evidence on interventions is of low quality, while that on determinants is of medium quality. Intervention studies were mostly individual-level with almost exclusive focus on breast cancer awareness among postmenopausal women in high-income countries. Synthesis of evidence on determinants resulted in 10 domains. Juxtaposing the evidence on determinants of time to presentation of women with breast symptoms with that of the interventions to promote early presentation shows a mismatch between them. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there is strong evidence that women with breast symptoms face multi-level influences to presentation, current interventions have focused almost exclusively on breast cancer awareness in high-income countries. High quality multi-level interventions are required to promote early presentation of symptomatic women in different socio-cultural and economic settings.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324008

RESUMO

Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete's fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity to address them; these are often specific to the environment, the event and the individual athlete. In this paper we address the major considerations for assessing hydration status in athletes and practical solutions to overcome obstacles of a given sport. Based on these solutions, practitioners can better advise athletes to develop practices that optimize hydration for their sports.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Esportes , Água , Atletas , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(8): 1901-1907, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cold-water immersion (CWI) is often used to promote recovery by reducing exercise-induced muscle damage, soreness, and inflammation. However, recent reports have cautioned that CWI may attenuate the adaptive response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of post resistance-exercise CWI on circulating free testosterone (T) and cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) response. METHODS: Using a randomized and counterbalanced repeated-measures design, 11 resistance-trained men completed two workouts (6 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 80% of maximum load) a week apart after which they took part in either 15 min of CWI (15 °C) or passive recovery. T, IL-6, and TNFα were measured in blood samples taken before (PRE) and 5 (5POST), 15 (15POST), 30 (30POST), and 60 (60POST) min post-exercise and compared between treatments and over time. RESULTS: For T, a significant interaction effect of condition over time (p = 0.030) as well as greater relative concentrations of T in CON (Δ9.2%) than CWI (Δ-0.5%, p = 0.049) at 30POST were observed. In addition, at 60POST, T dropped below PRE values in CWI (Δ-10.4%, p = 0.028) but not in CON (Δ-1.6%, p = 0.850). A suppressed cytokine response was observed after CWI in IL-6 at 30POST (CWI: Δ4.9%, CON: Δ47.5%, p = 0.041) and TNFα at 15POST (CWI: Δ5.3%, CON: Δ17.0%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: CWI blunted the T and cytokine response after a bout of resistance exercise. These results indicate that CWI results in an altered anabolic response and may help to explain the previous observation of attenuated hypertrophy when CWI is used after resistance exercise.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Mialgia/terapia , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/sangue , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Mialgia/etiologia , Água , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(10): 1084-1089, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An exercise session in a hot environment may increase thermal strain during subsequent exercise sessions on the same and consecutive days. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine lasting physiological strain from moderate-high intensity, intermittent exercise in heat on subsequent exercise. DESIGN: Repeated measures laboratory study. METHODS: Seventeen healthy, recreationally active men (age: 22±3 y, maximal oxygen consumption: 54.6±5.3mLkg-1min-1) underwent two intermittent moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise sessions separated by 2h of rest one day, followed by one session 24h later in a 40°C, 40% relative humidity environment. Heart rate, rectal temperature, heat stress perception, and environmental symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: 100%, 35%, and 71% of participants completed the full exercise protocol during the first exercise session, second exercise session, and the following day, respectively. Exercising heart rate and rectal temperature were greater during the second exercise session (189±11bpm, 38.80±0.47°C) than the first identical exercise session (180±17bpm, p=0.004; 38.41±0.52°C, p=0.001), respectively. Immediate post-exercise heart rate, rectal temperature, thirst, thermal sensation, fatigue, and perceived exertion were similar among exercise sessions despite a shorter exercise duration during the second exercise session (93±27min, p=0.001) and the following day (113±12min, p=0.032) than the first exercise session (120±0min). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-high-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat resulted in greater heat strain during a second exercise session the same day, and exercise the subsequent day.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(1): 117-122, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if intermittent exercise-heat exposures (IHE) every fifth day sustain heat acclimation (HA) adaptations 25 days after initial HA. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. METHODS: Sixteen non-heat acclimatized men heat acclimated during 10-11 days of exercise in the heat (40°C, 40% RH). A heat stress test (120min, 45% V˙O2peak) before (Pre HA) and after HA (Post HA) in similar hot conditions assessed HA status. Pair-matched participants were randomized into a control group (CON; n=7) that exercised in a temperate environment (24°C, 21%RH) or IHE group (n=9) that exercised in a hot environment (40°C, 40%RH) every fifth day for 25 days following HA (+25d) with out-of-laboratory exercise intensity and duration recorded. Both groups completed +25d in the hot condition. RESULTS: Both groups heat acclimated similarly (p>0.05) evidenced by lower heart rate (HR), thermoregulatory, physiological, and perceptual responses (perceived exertion, fatigue, thermal sensation) Pre HA vs. Post HA (p≤0.05). At +25d, post-exercise HR (p=0.01) and physiological strain index (p<0.05) but neither Tre (p=0.18) nor sweat rate (p=0.44) were lower in IHE vs. CON. In IHE only, post-exercise Tre and perceptual responses at Post HA and +25d were lower than Pre HA (p≤0.01). +25d post-exercise epinephrine was higher in CON vs. IHE (p=0.04). Exercise intensity during out-of-lab exercise and +25d post-exercise HR were correlated (r=-0.89, p=0.02) in IHE. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-heat exposures every fifth day for 25 days and regular intense physical activity after HA sustained HR and Tre adaptations and reduced perceptual and physiological strain during exercise-heat stress ∼1 month later.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Sudorese
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3065-3077, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074968

RESUMO

Huggins, RA, Fortunati, AR, Curtis, RM, Looney, DP, West, CA, Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Hall, ML, and Casa, DJ. Monitoring blood biomarkers and training load throughout a collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3065-3077, 2019-This observational study aimed to characterize the responses of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers, observed ranges, training load (TL) metrics, and performance throughout the collegiate soccer season (August-November). Biomarkers (n = 92) were collected before the start of pre-season (PS), in-season weeks (W)1, W4, W8, and W12 in NCAA Division I male soccer players (n = 20, mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, body mass = 78.19 ± 6.3 kg, body fat = 12.0 ± 2.6%, VO2max 51.5 ± 5.1 ml·kg·min). Fitness tests were measured at PS, and W12 and TL was monitored daily. Changes in biomarkers and performance were calculated via separate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Despite similar fitness (p > 0.05), endocrine, muscle, inflammatory, and immune markers changed over time (p < 0.05). Total and free testosterone was lower in W1 vs. PS, whereas free cortisol remained unchanged at PS, W1, and W4 (>0.94 mg·dL). Oxygen transport and iron metabolism markers remained unchanged except for HCT (W1 vs. PS) and total iron binding capacity (W8-W12 vs. W1). Hepatic markers albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin, and total protein levels were elevated (p < 0.05) at W12 vs. W1, whereas aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were elevated at W1-W12 and W8-W12 vs. PS, respectively. Vitamin E, zinc, selenium, and calcium levels were elevated (p < 0.05) at W12 vs. W1, whereas Vitamin D was decreased (p < 0.05). Fatty acids and cardiovascular markers (omega-3 index, cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein [HDL], docosahexenoic acid, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], direct LDL, non-HDL, ApoB) were reduced at W1 vs. PS (p ≤ 0.05). Immune, lipid, and muscle damage biomarkers were frequently outside clinical reference ranges. Routine biomarker monitoring revealed subclinical and clinical changes, suggesting soccer-specific reference ranges. Biomarker monitoring may augment positive adaptation and reduce injuries from stressors incurred during soccer.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Hematócrito , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo , Universidades , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp) ; 2018: 5724575, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850597

RESUMO

Exertional heatstroke (EHS) is a medical emergency that cannot be predicted, requires immediate whole-body cooling to reduce elevated internal body temperature, and is influenced by numerous host and environmental factors. Widely accepted predisposing factors (PDF) include prolonged or intense exercise, lack of heat acclimatization, sleep deprivation, dehydration, diet, alcohol abuse, drug use, chronic inflammation, febrile illness, older age, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. The present review links these factors to the human intestinal microbiota (IM) and diet, which previously have not been appreciated as PDF. This review also describes plausible mechanisms by which these PDF lead to EHS: endotoxemia resulting from elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (i.e., a structural component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria) and tissue injury from oxygen free radicals. We propose that recognizing the lifestyle and host factors which are influenced by intestine-microbial interactions, and modifying habitual dietary patterns to alter the IM ecosystem, will encourage efficient immune function, optimize the intestinal epithelial barrier, and reduce EHS morbidity and mortality.

11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 21(12): 1180-1184, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784554

RESUMO

Exercise, especially in the heat, can contribute to acute kidney injury, which can expedite chronic kidney disease onset. The additional stress of ibuprofen use is hypothesized to increase renal stress. OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of ibuprofen ingestion on kidney stress. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo controlled and observational methods were utilized. METHODS: Forty cyclists (52±9y, 21.7±6.5% body fat) volunteered and completed an endurance cycling event (5.7±1.2h) in the heat (33.2±5.0°C, 38.4±10.7% RH). Thirty-five participants were randomized to ingest a placebo (n=17) or 600mg ibuprofen (n=18) pre-event. A blood sample was drawn before and following the event. Serum creatinine was assessed by colorimetric assay. An ELISA was used to measure serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Fractional excretion of sodium was calculated after urinary and serum electrolyte analyses. RESULTS: Placebo versus ibuprofen groups contributed no significant difference in any variable (p>0.05). Serum creatinine significantly increased from pre- (0.52±0.14mg/dL) to post-event (0.88±0.21mg/dL; p<0.001). Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin significantly increased (pre: 68.51±17.54ng/mL; post: 139.12±36.52ng/mL; p<0.001) and fractional excretion of sodium was significantly reduced from pre- (0.52±0.24%) to post-event (0.27±0.18%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in renal biomarkers suggest mild acute kidney injury and reduced kidney function during a single bout of endurance cycling in the heat, without influence from moderate ibuprofen ingestion.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física
12.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 89(2): 99-107, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463354

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this research was to evaluate neuroendocrine and physical performance responses in sailors and Marines undergoing U.S. Navy Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) training. METHODS: Participants were 20 men (Age: 25.3 ± 3.6 yr; Height: 178.1 ± 6.1 cm; Weight: 83.7 ± 12.6 kg). Men were further split into high fit (N = 10) and low fit (N = 10) subgroups based on physical fitness test scores. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T1), stress (T2), and recovery (T3) timepoints, and were analyzed for plasma epinephrine, plasma norepinephrine, plasma dopamine, serum cortisol, serum testosterone, and plasma neuropeptide Y. Vertical jump and handgrip tests were performed at T1 and T2. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations were significantly elevated at T2, with a concomitant reduction in testosterone concentrations. NPY concentrations did not increase at T2, but decreased significantly at T3. Subjects maintained performance on vertical jump and handgrip tests from T1 to T2. Significant between group differences were observed in norepinephrine (high fit: 3530.64 ± 2146.54 pmol · L-1, low fit: 4907.16 ± 3020.85 pmol · L-1) and NPY (high fit: 169.30 ± 85.89 pg · ml-1, low fit: 123.02 ± 88.86 pg · ml-1) concentrations at T3. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that despite significant increases in stress hormone concentrations in all subjects during SERE, fitter subjects exhibited differential hormonal responses during recovery, with quicker return of norepinephrine and NPY to baseline concentrations. This suggests physical fitness level may have a protective effect in recovery from periods of high stress military training.Szivak TK, Lee EC, Saenz C, Flanagan SD, Focht BC, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ. Adrenal stress and physical performance during military survival training. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):99-107.


Assuntos
Militares , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Dopamina/sangue , Epinefrina/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Medicina Naval , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Gastroenterology ; 154(6): 1737-1750, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile induces intestinal inflammation by releasing toxins A and B. The antimicrobial compound cationic steroid antimicrobial 13 (CSA13) has been developed for treating gastrointestinal infections. The CSA13-Eudragit formulation can be given orally and releases CSA13 in the terminal ileum and colon. We investigated whether this form of CSA13 reduces C difficile infection (CDI) in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were infected with C difficile on day 0, followed by subcutaneous administration of pure CSA13 or oral administration of CSA13-Eudragit (10 mg/kg/d for 10 days). Some mice were given intraperitoneal vancomycin (50 mg/kg daily) on days 0-4 and relapse was measured after antibiotic withdrawal. The mice were monitored until day 20; colon and fecal samples were collected on day 3 for analysis. Blood samples were collected for flow cytometry analyses. Fecal pellets were collected each day from mice injected with CSA13 and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography or 16S sequencing; feces were also homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and fed to mice with CDI via gavage. RESULTS: CDI of mice caused 60% mortality, significant bodyweight loss, and colonic damage 3 days after infection; these events were prevented by subcutaneous injection of CSA13 or oral administration CSA13-Eudragit. There was reduced relapse of CDI after administration of CSA13 was stopped. Levels of CSA13 in feces from mice given CSA13-Eudragit were significantly higher than those of mice given subcutaneous CSA13. Subcutaneous and oral CSA13 each significantly increased the abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae bacteria and reduced the abundance of C difficile in fecal samples of mice. When feces from mice with CDI and given CSA13 were fed to mice with CDI that had not received CSA13, the recipient mice had significantly increased rates of survival. CSA13 reduced fecal levels of inflammatory metabolites (endocannabinoids) and increased fecal levels of 4 protective metabolites (ie, citrulline, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, retinol, and ursodeoxycholic acid) in mice with CDI. Oral administration of these CSA13-dependent protective metabolites reduced the severity of CDI. CONCLUSIONS: In studies of mice, we found the CSA13-Eudragit formulation to be effective in eradicating CDI by modulating the intestinal microbiota and metabolites.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(1): 76-82, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257793

RESUMO

Vingren, JL, Curtis, JH, Levitt, DE, Duplanty, AA, Lee, EC, McFarlin, BK, and Hill, DW. Adding resistance training to the standard of care for inpatient substance abuse treatment in men with human immunodeficiency virus improves skeletal muscle health without altering cytokine concentrations. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 76-82, 2018-Substance abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can independently lead to myopathy and related inflammatory alterations; importantly, these effects seem to be additive. Resistance training (RT) can improve muscle health in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the efficacy of this intervention has not been examined for PLWH recovering from substance abuse. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RT on muscle health markers (mass, strength, and power) and basal circulating biomarkers for men living with HIV undergoing substance abuse treatment. Men living with HIV undergoing 60-day inpatient substance abuse treatment completed either RT (3×/wk) or no exercise training (control) for 6 weeks. Muscle mass, strength, and power, and fasting circulating cytokines (interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and cortisol were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the 6-week period. Both groups received the standard of care for HIV and substance abuse treatment determined by the inpatient facility. Muscle mass, strength, and power increased (p ≤ 0.05) from PRE to POST for RT but were unchanged for control. No differences were found for circulating biomarkers. Adding RT to the standard of care for substance abuse treatment improved aspects of muscle health (mass, strength, and power) in men living with HIV. These improvements are associated with a lower risk of a number of health conditions. Therefore, practitioners should consider implementing RT interventions as part of substance abuse treatment programs in this population to help manage long-term health.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038278

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea and colitis by releasing toxin A and toxin B. In the human colon, both toxins cause intestinal inflammation and stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression via the activation of NF-κB. It is well established that the macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin is associated with reduced relapses of C. difficile infection. We showed that fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite OP-1118 significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation in mice in vivo and toxin A-induced cell rounding in vitro We aim to determine whether fidaxomicin and OP-1118 possess anti-inflammatory effects against toxin A and toxin B in the human colon and examine the mechanism of this response. We used fresh human colonic explants, NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells, and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages to study the mechanism of the activity of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 against toxin A- and B-mediated cytokine expression and apoptosis. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 dose-dependently inhibited toxin A- and B-induced TNF-α and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression and histological damage in human colonic explants. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 inhibited toxin A-mediated NF-κB phosphorylation in human and mouse intestinal mucosae. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 also inhibited toxin A-mediated NF-κB phosphorylation and TNF-α expression in macrophages, which was reversed by the NF-κB activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 prevented toxin A- and B-mediated apoptosis in NCM460 cells, which was reversed by the addition of PMA. PMA reversed the cytoprotective effect of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 in toxin-exposed human colonic explants. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 inhibit C. difficile toxin A- and B-mediated inflammatory responses, NF-κB phosphorylation, and tissue damage in the human colon.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Fidaxomicina/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16351, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180648

RESUMO

Many Crohn's disease (CD) patients develop intestinal strictures, which are difficult to prevent and treat. Cationic steroid antimicrobial 13 (CSA13) shares cationic nature and antimicrobial function with antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin. As many functions of cathelicidin are mediated through formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), we hypothesize that CSA13 mediates anti-fibrogenic effects via FPRL1. Human intestinal biopsies were used in clinical data analysis. Chronic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis-associated intestinal fibrosis mouse model with the administration of CSA13 was used. Colonic FPRL1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with the histology scores of inflammatory bowel disease patients. In CD patients, colonic FPRL1 mRNA was positively correlated with intestinal stricture. CSA13 administration ameliorated intestinal fibrosis without influencing intestinal microbiota. Inhibition of FPRL1, but not suppression of intestinal microbiota, reversed these protective effects of CSA13. Metabolomic analysis indicated increased fecal mevalonate levels in the TNBS-treated mice, which were reduced by the CSA13 administration. CSA13 inhibited colonic HMG-CoA reductase activity in an FPRL1-dependent manner. Mevalonate reversed the anti-fibrogenic effect of CSA13. The increased colonic FPRL1 expression is associated with severe mucosal disease activity and intestinal stricture. CSA13 inhibits intestinal fibrosis via FPRL1-dependent modulation of HMG-CoA reductase pathway.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colite/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/genética , Receptores de Lipoxinas/genética
17.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 28(3): 197-206, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine blood hemostatic responses to completing a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. METHODS: Thirty-seven subjects (28 men and 9 women; 51.8±9.5 [mean±SD] y) completed the ride in 6.6±1.1 hours. Anthropometrics (height, body mass [taken also during morning of the ride], percent body fat [%]) were collected the day before the ride. Blood samples were collected on the morning of the ride (PRE) and immediately after (IP) the subject completed the ride. Concentrations of platelet, platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolytic markers (platelet factor 4, ß-thromboglobulin, von Willebrand factor antigen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, thrombomodulin, and D-Dimer) were measured. Associations between changes from PRE- to IP-ride were examined as a function of event completion time and subject characteristics (demographics and anthropometrics). RESULTS: All blood hemostatic markers increased significantly (P < .001) from PRE to IP. After controlling for PRE values, finishing time was negatively correlated with platelet factor 4 (r = 0.40; P = .017), while percent body fat (%BF) was negatively correlated with thrombin-antithrombin complex (r = -0.35; P = .038) and to thrombomodulin (r = -0.36; P = .036). In addition, male subjects had greater concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex (d = 0.63; P < .05) and natural logarithm thrombomodulin (d = 6.42; P < .05) than female subjects. CONCLUSION: Completing the 164-km road cycling event in hot conditions resulted in increased concentrations of platelet, platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolytic markers in both men and women. Although platelet activation and coagulation occurred, the fibrinolytic system markers also increased, which appears to balance blood hemostasis and may prevent clot formation during exercise in a hot environment.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(10): 2920-2937, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737585

RESUMO

Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk.


Assuntos
Atletas , Biomarcadores/análise , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dieta , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Resistência Física/fisiologia
19.
J Athl Train ; 52(4): 377-383, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430550

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent case reports on malignant hyperthermia (MH)-like syndrome in physically active populations indicate potential associations among MH, exertional heat stroke (EHS), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER). However, an expert consensus for clinicians working with these populations is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To provide current expert consensus on the (1) definition of MH; (2) history, etiology, and pathophysiology of MH; (3) epidemiology of MH; (4) association of MH with EHS and ER; (5) identification of an MH-like syndrome; (6) recommendations for acute management of an MH-like syndrome; (7) special considerations for physically active populations; and (8) future directions for research. SETTING: An interassociation task force was formed by experts in athletic training, exercise science, anesthesiology, and emergency medicine. The "Round Table on Malignant Hyperthermia in Physically Active Populations" was convened at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, September 17-18, 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider an MH-like syndrome when a diagnosis of EHS or ER cannot be fully explained by clinical signs and symptoms presented by a patient or when recurrent episodes of EHS or ER (or both) are unexplained. Further research is required to elucidate the genetic and pathophysiological links among MH, EHS, and ER.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipertermia Maligna/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Consenso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Golpe de Calor/diagnóstico , Golpe de Calor/etiologia , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Humanos , Hipertermia Maligna/etiologia , Hipertermia Maligna/terapia , Recidiva , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Rabdomiólise/terapia , Síndrome
20.
Peptides ; 91: 26-32, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263851

RESUMO

Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Encefalina Metionina/análogos & derivados , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Cânula , Encefalina Metionina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Fatores de Tempo
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