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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445062

RESUMO

Allium hookeri (AH) is a medicinal food that has been used in Southeast Asia for various physiological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of the cholinergic system and the anti-neuroinflammation effects of AH on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) impaired the performance of the mice on the Y-maze test, passive avoidance test, and water maze test. However, the number of error actions was reduced in the AH groups supplemented with leaf and root extracts from AH. AH treatment improved working memory and avoidance times against electronic shock, increased step-through latency, and reduced the time to reach the escape zone in the water maze test. AH significantly improved the cholinergic system by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity, and increasing acetylcholine concentration. The serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IFN-γ) increased by scopolamine treatment were regulated by the administration of AH extracts. Overexpression of NF-κB signaling and cytokines in liver tissue due to scopolamine were controlled by administration of AH extracts. AH also significantly decreased Aß and caspase-3 expression but increased NeuN and ChAT. The results suggest that AH extracts improve cognitive effects, and the root extracts are more effective in relieving the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. They have neuroprotective effects and reduce the development of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Allium , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolina/sangue , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Allium/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Escopolamina
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13066, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158561

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and diabetes in Korean adults. We analyzed 26,653 men and women (aged > 18 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2018). PA was measured using a validated Global PA Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for various confounders. Transport PA accounted for the majority of total PA (46%, men; 58%, women), followed by leisure-time PA (30%; 22%) and work PA (24%; 20%). In men, ORs (95% CI) of diabetes comparing ≥ 600 metabolic task of equivalent (MET)-min/week vs. no activity were 0.82 (0.71-0.95) for leisure-time PA, 0.85 (0.75-0.96) for transport PA, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for leisure-time + transport PA. In women, ORs (95% CI) of diabetes comparing the same groups were 0.73 (0.60-0.89) for leisure-time PA, 0.97 (0.85-1.10) for transport PA, and 0.88 (0.78-1.00) for leisure-time + transport PA. However, work PA showed no association with diabetes. In conclusion, leisure-time PA was inversely associated with diabetes in both men and women, while transport PA was inversely associated only in men. But work PA was not associated with diabetes in Korean adults.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
3.
J Dual Diagn ; 17(1): 34-51, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substance abuse comorbidity is highly prevalent and is linked to detrimental outcomes in individuals with psychotic disorder, but the role of personality traits as the underlying mechanism is being increasingly underscored. This study aimed to profile temperamental risks of comorbid substance use disorder in psychotic disorders by performing meta-analyses on personality trait differences between psychotic disorders with comorbidity (dual diagnosis; DD) and without it (psychotic disorders; PSD). Methods: A systematic review of English articles using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses. Only original empirical studies including participants with diagnosis of psychotic disorders based on structured diagnostic interviews, with and without substance use disorder evaluated with reliable and valid tests were included. Articles were independently extracted by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. All pooled analyses were based on random-effect models. Thirteen studies (N = 885) met our inclusion criteria. All effect-size estimates were calculated based on means and standard deviations of included measures. Separate effect size estimates were obtained for four traits in the UPPS model (negative urgency, low premeditation, low perseverance, sensation seeking), four traits in the HS model (unconscientious disinhibition, negative affect, disagreeable disinhibition, positive affect) and trait anhedonia. Results: Negative urgency (four studies with 262 participants; ES = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.34, 0.84]), low premeditation (five studies with 349 participants; ES = 0.60; 95% CI [0.39, 0.80]), sensation seeking (seven studies with 550 participants; ES = 0.63; 95% CI [0.17, 1.09]) and unconscientious disinhibition (five studies with 291 participants; ES = 0.36; 95% CI [0.13, 0.59]) were elevated in DD than PSD. Heterogeneity of sensation seeking was significant (I 2 = 86.2%). Conclusions: The findings of the current meta-analysis highlight a unique profile of impulsive and externalizing trait personality domains pertaining to DD. The study emphasizes the importance of emotion regulation interventions targeting impulsivity or negative affect (i.e. negative urgency, low premeditation) in substance abuse comorbidity patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
4.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(1): 86-95, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048561

RESUMO

The majority of children with physical disabilities experience significant restrictions in their daily lives. Notably, they are at a risk for lower levels of activity and involvement in critical life domains. To address this issue, this study investigated whether behavioral activation (BA), in tandem with the installment of power-assisted devices (PAD), would have beneficial effects on activity levels, overall involvement in life domains, mobility, and depressive symptoms among children with physical disabilities. From among 123 children with physical disabilities aged 6-13 who used a nonpowered wheelchair device, 40 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into either the PAD-only group or the BA + PAD group. The participants were assessed at 3 time periods (pretreatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks), using standardized self-report measures and digital odometers. Both groups showed an increase in the distance traveled. Although BA + PAD had no additional benefits over PAD-only in improving the distance traveled and depressive symptoms, the BA + PAD group showed significantly higher levels of activity and overall involvement in life domains than the PAD-only group did. The findings provide preliminary support for the provision of BA for children with physical disabilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271990

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to validate a newly developed breath acetone (BrAce) analyzer, and to explore if BrAce could predict aerobic exercise-related substrate use. Six healthy men ran on a treadmill at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for 1 h after two days of a low-carbohydrate diet. BrAce and blood ketone (acetoacetate (ACAC), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB)) levels were measured at baseline and at different time points of post-exercise. BrAce values were validated against blood ketones and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Our results showed that BrAce was moderately correlated with BOHB (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), ACAC (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) and blood ketone (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), suggesting that BrAce reflect blood ketone levels, which increase when fat is oxidized. Furthermore, BrAce also negatively correlated with RER (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). In our multiple regression analyses, we found that when BMI and VO2max were added to the prediction model in addition to BrAce, R2 values increased up to 0.972 at rest and 0.917 at 1 h after exercise. In conclusion, BrAce level measurements of our BrAce analyzer reflect blood ketone levels and the device could potentially predict fat oxidation.


Assuntos
Acetona , Testes Respiratórios , Gastos em Saúde , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923247

RESUMO

Healthy food promotes beneficial bacteria in the gut microbiome. A few prebiotics act as food supplements to increase fermentation by beneficial bacteria, which enhance the host immune system and health. Allium hookeri is a healthy food with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. A. hookeri is used as a feed supplement for broiler chickens to improve growth performance. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, A. hookeri may alter the gut microbiome. In the current study, 16S rRNA sequencing has been carried out using samples obtained from the cecum of broiler chickens exposed to diets comprising different tissue types (leaf and root) and varying amounts (0.3% and 0.5%) of A. hookeri to investigate their impact on gut microbiome. The microbiome composition in the groups supplemented with A. hookeri leaf varied from that of the control group. Especially, exposure to 0.5% amounts of leaf resulted in differences in the abundance of genera compared with diets comprising 0.3% leaf. Exposure to a diet containing 0.5% A. hookeri leaf decreased the abundance of the following bacteria: Eubacterium nodatum, Marvinbryantia, Oscillospira, and Gelria. The modulation of gut microbiome by leaf supplement correlated with growth traits including body weight, bone strength, and infectious bursal disease antibody. The results demonstrate that A. hookeri may improve the health benefits of broiler chickens by altering the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biodiversidade
7.
Arch Pharm Res ; 42(4): 370, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725247

RESUMO

The author would like to include conflict of interest statement of the online published article. The correct conflict of interest statement should read as: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

8.
Arch Pharm Res ; 41(7): 743-752, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978428

RESUMO

Aging is a key risk factor for many diseases, understanding the mechanism of which is becoming more important for drug development given the fast-growing aging population. In the course of our continued efforts to discover anti-aging natural products, the active constituent 6-shogaol was isolated from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The chemical structure of 6-shogaol was identified by comparison of its NMR data with literature values. The lifespan-extending effect of 6-shogaol was observed in a dose-dependent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans that has been widely used as a model organism for human aging studies. Mechanism of such action was investigated using C. elegans models, suggesting that 6-shogaol is capable of increasing stress tolerances via enzyme induction. The proposed mechanism was further supported by observation of the increase in SOD and HSP expressions upon treatment with 6-shogaol in transgenic strains of C. elegans which contain GFP-based reporters. In addition, the mechanism was elaborated by confirming that the effect observed for 6-shogaol is independent from other aging-related factors that are known to affect the aging process of C. elegans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/isolamento & purificação , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 26(6): 568-575, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534560

RESUMO

In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans, and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.

10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 528, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). METHODS: Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Ansiedade/terapia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Arch Pharm Res ; 40(7): 825-835, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667441

RESUMO

This study contributes to the continual discovery of lifespan-extending compounds from plants, using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. An ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan showed a significant lifespan-extending activity. Subsequent activity-guided chromatography of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction led to the isolation of brazilin. Brazilin showed potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and superoxide anion quenching activities and also revealed a lifespan-extending activity in C. elegans under normal culture conditions. Brazilin also exhibited the protective effects against thermal, oxidative and osmotic stress conditions to improve the survival rate of the nematode. Furthermore, brazilin elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in C. elegans. Further studies showed that brazilin-mediated increased stress tolerance of worms could be due to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). Besides, there were no significant, brazilin-induced changes in aging-related factors, including progeny production, food intake, and growth, indicating brazilin influences longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Brazilin increased the body movement of aged worms, indicating brazilin affects the healthspan and lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that brazilin contributes to the lifespan of C. elegans under both normal and stress conditions by increasing the expressions of stress resistance proteins.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caesalpinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Benzopiranos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 23(6): 582-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26535084

RESUMO

Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan.

13.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 23(1): 77-83, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25593647

RESUMO

The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins.

14.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 21(6): 442-6, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24404334

RESUMO

Here in this study, we isolated 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (PGG) from Curcuma longa L. and elucidated the lifespanextending effect of PGG using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. In the present study, PGG demonstrated potent lifespan extension of worms under normal culture condition. Then, we determined the protective effects of PGG on the stress conditions such as thermal and oxidative stress. In the case of heat stress, PGG-treated worms exhibited enhanced survival rate, compared to control worms. In addition, PGG-fed worms lived longer than control worms under oxidative stress induced by paraquat. To verify the possible mechanism of PGG-mediated increased lifespan and stress resistance of worms, we investigated whether PGG might alter superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and intracellular ROS levels. Our results showed that PGG was able to elevate SOD activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner.

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