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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2103974, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
4.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.

5.
Adv Mater ; 33(25): e2100026, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984170

RESUMO

Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin-film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter-scale constructs, such as spheroids, assembloids, and organoids. Herein, examples of 3D mechanical interfaces are presented, in which thin ribbons of parylene-C form the basis of transparent, highly compliant frameworks that can be reversibly opened and closed to capture, envelop, and mechanically restrain fragile 3D tissues in a gentle, nondestructive manner, for precise measurements of viscoelastic properties using techniques in nanoindentation. Finite element analysis serves as a design tool to guide selection of geometries and material parameters for shape-matching 3D architectures tailored to organoids of interest. These computational approaches also quantitate all aspects of deformations during the processes of opening and closing the structures and of forces imparted by them onto the surfaces of enclosed soft tissues. Studies of cerebral organoids by nanoindentation show effective Young's moduli in the range from 1.5 to 2.5 kPa depending on the age of the organoid. This collection of results suggests broad utility of compliant 3D mesostructures in noninvasive mechanical measurements of millimeter-scale, soft biological tissues.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5990, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239608

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronic stimulators are of rapidly growing interest as unusual therapeutic platforms, i.e., bioelectronic medicines, for treating disease states, accelerating wound healing processes and eliminating infections. Here, we present advanced materials that support operation in these systems over clinically relevant timeframes, ultimately bioresorbing harmlessly to benign products without residues, to eliminate the need for surgical extraction. Our findings overcome key challenges of bioresorbable electronic devices by realizing lifetimes that match clinical needs. The devices exploit a bioresorbable dynamic covalent polymer that facilitates tight bonding to itself and other surfaces, as a soft, elastic substrate and encapsulation coating for wireless electronic components. We describe the underlying features and chemical design considerations for this polymer, and the biocompatibility of its constituent materials. In devices with optimized, wireless designs, these polymers enable stable, long-lived operation as distal stimulators in a rat model of peripheral nerve injuries, thereby demonstrating the potential of programmable long-term electrical stimulation for maintaining muscle receptivity and enhancing functional recovery.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Poliuretanos/química , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos , Regeneração , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27906-27915, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106394

RESUMO

Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the real-time characterization of sweat dynamics and sweat chemistry in the context of sports performance and healthcare diagnostics. This paper presents a collection of advances in biochemical sensors and microfluidic designs that support multimodal operation in the monitoring of physiological signatures directly correlated to physical and mental stresses. These wireless, battery-free, skin-interfaced devices combine lateral flow immunoassays for cortisol, fluorometric assays for glucose and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and digital tracking of skin galvanic responses. Systematic benchtop evaluations and field studies on human subjects highlight the key features of this platform for the continuous, noninvasive monitoring of biochemical and biophysical correlates of the stress state.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eabb1093, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923633

RESUMO

Implantable drug release platforms that offer wirelessly programmable control over pharmacokinetics have potential in advanced treatment protocols for hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, diabetic conditions, and others. We present a system with this type of functionality in which the constituent materials undergo complete bioresorption to eliminate device load from the patient after completing the final stage of the release process. Here, bioresorbable polyanhydride reservoirs store drugs in defined reservoirs without leakage until wirelessly triggered valve structures open to allow release. These valves operate through an electrochemical mechanism of geometrically accelerated corrosion induced by passage of electrical current from a wireless, bioresorbable power-harvesting unit. Evaluations in cell cultures demonstrate the efficacy of this technology for the treatment of cancerous tissues by release of the drug doxorubicin. Complete in vivo studies of platforms with multiple, independently controlled release events in live-animal models illustrate capabilities for control of blood glucose levels by timed delivery of insulin.

9.
Lab Chip ; 20(1): 84-92, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776526

RESUMO

Eccrine sweat is a rich and largely unexplored biofluid that contains a range of important biomarkers, from electrolytes, metabolites, micronutrients and hormones to exogenous agents, each of which can change in concentration with diet, stress level, hydration status and physiologic or metabolic state. Traditionally, clinicians and researchers have used absorbent pads and benchtop analyzers to collect and analyze the biochemical constituents of sweat in controlled, laboratory settings. Recently reported wearable microfluidic and electrochemical sensing devices represent significant advances in this context, with capabilities for rapid, in situ evaluations, in many cases with improved repeatability and accuracy. A limitation is that assays performed in these platforms offer limited control of reaction kinetics and mixing of different reagents and samples. Here, we present a multi-layered microfluidic device platform with designs that eliminate these constraints, to enable integrated enzymatic assays with demonstrations of in situ analysis of the concentrations of ammonia and ethanol in microliter volumes of sweat. Careful characterization of the reaction kinetics and their optimization using statistical techniques yield robust analysis protocols. Human subject studies with sweat initiated by warm-water bathing highlight the operational features of these systems.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Etanol/análise , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Suor/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cinética , Suor/metabolismo
10.
Small ; 15(51): e1905263, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762183

RESUMO

A flexible liquid metal loudspeaker (LML) is demonstrated consisting of a gallium-based eutectic liquid metal (Galinstan) and basic aqueous electrolyte (NaOH(aq) ). The LML is driven by liquid metal motion induced by the electrochemically controlled interfacial tension of the Galinstan in NaOH(aq) electrolyte under an applied alternating current (AC) voltage. The fabricated LML produces sound waves in the human audible frequency band with a sound pressure level of ≈40-50 dB at 1 cm from the device and exhibits mechanical stability under bending deformation with a bending radius of 3 mm. Various sounds can be generated with the LML from a single tone to piano notes and human voices. To understand the underlying mechanism of sound generation by the LML, motion analyses, sound measurements, and electrical characterization are conducted at various frequencies. For the first time, this work suggests a new type of liquid metal-based electrochemically driven sound generator in the field of flexible acoustic devices that can be applied to future wearable electronics.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Metais/química , Ligas/química , Eletrólitos/química , Gálio/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Tensão Superficial
11.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10469-10480, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461268

RESUMO

Textile-based electronics have attracted much attention as they can perfectly combine the functionality of wearable devices with the soft and comfortable properties of flexible textile fibers. In this work, we report a dynamically stretchable high-performance supercapacitor for powering an integrated sensor in an all-in-one textile system to detect various biosignals. The supercapacitor fabricated with MWCNT/MoO3 nanocomposite electrodes and nonaqueous gel electrolyte, along the course direction of the fabric, exhibits stable and high electrochemical performance under dynamic and static deformation, including stretching in real time, regardless of the strain rate. The strain sensor created along the wale direction of the fabric shows a high sensitivity of 46.3 under an applied strain up to 60%, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10 000 cycles of stretching/releasing. Finally, the supercapacitor and strain sensor are integrated into an all-in-one textile system via liquid-metal interconnections, and the sensor is powered by the stored energy in the supercapacitor. This system sewed into cloth successfully detects strain due to joint movement and the wrist pulse. This work demonstrates the high feasibility of utilizing the fabricated stretchable all-in-one textile system for real-time health monitoring in everyday wearable devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Capacitância Elétrica , Têxteis , Eletroquímica , Molibdênio/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Nanofios/química , Nanofios/ultraestrutura , Imagem Óptica , Óxidos/química
12.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(1): 91-99, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586283

RESUMO

The demand for novel electronics that can monitor human health, for example, the physical conditions of individuals, during daily life using different techniques from those used in traditional clinic diagnostic facilities is increasing. These novel electronics include stretchable sensor devices that allow various biosignals to be directly measured on human skin without restricting routine activity. The thin, skin-like characteristics of these devices enable stable operation under various deformations, such as stretching, pressing, and rubbing, experienced while attached to skin. The mechanically engineered design of these devices also minimizes the inconvenience caused by long-term wear owing to conformal lamination on the skin. The final form of a skin-attachable device must be an integrated platform with an independent and complete system containing all components on a single, thin, lightweight, stretchable substrate. To fabricate fully integrated devices, various aspects, such as material design for deformable interconnection, fabrication of high-performance active devices, miniaturization, and dense arrangement of component devices, should be considered. In particular, a power supply system is critical and must be combined in an electromechanically stable and efficient manner with all devices, including sensors. Additionally, the biosignals obtained by these sensors should be wirelessly transmitted to external electronic devices for free daily activity. This Account covers recent progress in developing fully integrated, stretchable, skin-attachable devices by presenting our strategies to achieve this goal. First, we introduce several integration methods used in this field to build stretchable systems with a special focus on the utilization of liquid gallium alloy. The unique characteristics and patterning process of liquid metal are summarized. Second, various skin-attachable sensors, including strain, pressure, with enhanced sensitivity and mechanical properties are discussed along with their applications for biosignal monitoring. Dual mode sensors that simultaneously detect temperature and pressure signals without interference are also introduced. Third, we emphasize supercapacitors as promising, efficient energy storage devices for power management systems in wearable devices. Supercapacitors for skin-attachable applications should have a high performance, such as high operation voltage, high energy and power densities, cyclic and air stability and water resistance. For this, strategies to select novel materials for electrode, electrolyte, and encapsulation are suggested. Several approaches to fabricate stretchable supercapacitor systems are also presented. Finally, we introduce recent examples of skin-attachable, stretchable electronics that integrate sensors, power management devices, and wireless data transfer functions on a single elastomer substrate. Conventional wireless technologies, such as near-field communications (NFC) and Bluetooth, are incorporated in miniaturized features on the devices. To date, much research has been performed in this field, but there are still many technologies to develop. The performance of individual devices and mass fabrication techniques should be enhanced. We expect that future electronic devices with fully integrated functions will include advanced human-machine interaction capabilities and expand the overall abilities of the human body.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Ligas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Gálio/química , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio
13.
ACS Nano ; 13(1): 855-866, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592405

RESUMO

For practical applications of high-performance supercapacitors as wearable energy storage devices attached to skin or clothes, the supercapacitors are recommended to have stable mechanical and electrochemical performances during dynamic deformations, including stretching, due to real-time movements of the human body. In this work, we demonstrate a skin-like, dynamically stretchable, planar supercapacitor (SPS). The SPS consists of buckled manganese/molybdenum (Mn/Mo) mixed oxide@multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes; organic gel polymer electrolyte of adiponitrile, succinonitrile, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and poly(methyl methacrylate); and a porous, elastomeric substrate. The addition of an Mn/Mo mixed oxide to the MWCNT film produces an 8-fold increase in the areal capacitance. The use of an organic solvent-based electrolyte enhances the operation cell voltage to 2 V and air stability to one month under ambient air conditions. The fabricated planar supercapacitors are biaxially stretchable up to 50% strain and maintain ∼90% of their initial capacitance after 1000 repetitive stretching/releasing cycles. Furthermore, the SPS exhibits stable electrochemical performance under dynamic stretching in real time regardless of the strain rate and performs reliably during repetitive bending/spreading motions of an index finger while attached to skin.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(36): 30706-30715, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113812

RESUMO

A highly-durable, highly-flexible transparent electrode (FTE) is developed by applying a composite made of a thin metal grid and a doped conducting polymer onto a colorless polyimide-coated NOA63 substrate. The proposed FTE exhibits a transparency of 90.7% at 550 nm including the substrate and a sheet resistance of 30.3 Ω/sq and can withstand both moderately high-temperature annealing (∼180 °C) and acidic solution (70 °C, pH 0.3) processes without performance degradation. The fabricated FTE yielded good mechanical stability under 10 000 cycles of bending deformations at a bending radius less than 1 mm without degradation of electrical conductivity. The high durability of the proposed FTE allows for the fabrication of flexible energy harvesting devices requiring harsh conditions, such as highly flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) with a steady-state power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.7%. Notably, 93% of the original PCE is maintained after 2000 bending cycles at an extremely small bending radius of 1.5 mm. The FPSCs installed on curved surfaces of commercial devices drive them under various environments. The applicability of the proposed FTE is further confirmed via the fabrication of a flexible perovskite light-emitting diode. The proposed FTE demonstrates great potential for applications in the field of flexible optoelectronic devices.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(33): 28027-28035, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047263

RESUMO

Here, we report on a highly conductive, stretchable, and transparent electrode of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fabricated via modification with triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO20-PPO70-PEO20, Pluronic P123), and post-treatment with sulfuric acid. The fabricated electrode exhibits high transparency (89%), high electrical conductivity (∼1700 S/cm), and minimal change in resistance (∼4%) under repetitive stretch-release cycles at 40% tensile strain after stabilization. P123 acts as a secondary dopant and plasticizer, resulting in enhanced electrical conductivity and stretchability of PEDOT:PSS. Furthermore, after sulfuric acid post-treatment, P123 helps the electrode to maintain its stretchability. A successful demonstration of the stretchable interconnection was shown by stretching the P123-modified PEDOT:PSS electrodes, which were connected with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in series. Finally, a stretchable and transparent touch sensor consisting of our fabricated electrodes and an LED array and stretchable semitransparent supercapacitor were presented, suggesting a great potential of our electrodes in the application to various deformable devices.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(31): 26248-26257, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004211

RESUMO

A wire-shaped supercapacitor (WSS) has structural advantages of high flexibility and ease of incorporation into conventional textile substrates. In this work, we report a thin reproducible WSS fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), combined with an organic electrolyte of propylene carbonate (PC)-acetonitrile (ACN)-lithium perchlorate (LiClO4)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that extends the voltage window to 1.6 V. The MWCNTs were uniformly deposited on a curved surface of a thin Au wire using an LbL assembly technique, resulting in linearly increased areal capacitance of the fabricated WSS. Vanadium oxide was coated on the LbL-assembled MWCNT electrode to induce pseudocapacitance, hence enhancing the overall capacitance of the fabricated WSS. Both the cyclic stability of the WSS and the viscosity of the electrolyte could be optimized by controlling the mixing ratio of PC to ACN. As a result, the fabricated WSS exhibits an areal capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at 0.2 mA cm-2, an energy density of 1.86 µ W h cm-2, and a power density of 8.5 mW cm-2, in addition to a high cyclic stability with a 94% capacitance retention after 10 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. This work demonstrates a great potential of the fabricated scalable WSS in the application to high-performance textile electronics as an integrated energy storage device.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(16): 13729-13740, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624049

RESUMO

As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO4/CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 µA mM-1 cm-2 and 71.44 mV pH-1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.


Assuntos
Suor , Eletrodos , Glucose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanotubos de Carbono
18.
Nanoscale ; 8(34): 15611-20, 2016 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27511060

RESUMO

In this study, we report the fabrication of a high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive, referred to as poly(methyl methacrylate)-propylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate-hydroquinone (PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ). Hexagonal MSCs fabricated on thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films had interdigitated electrodes made of spray-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on Au. The addition of HQ as a redox-active additive enhanced not only the specific capacitance but also the energy density of the MSCs dramatically, which is approximately 35 times higher than that of MSCs without the HQ additive. In addition, both areal capacitance and areal energy density could be doubled by fabrication of double-sided MSCs, where two MSCs are connected in parallel. The double-sided MSCs exhibited stable electrochemical performance during repeated deformation by bending. By dry-transferring the double-sided MSCs based on PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ on a deformable polymer substrate, we fabricated a stretchable MSC array, which also retained its electrochemical performance during a uniaxial strain of 40%. Furthermore, a wearable energy storage bracelet made of such an MSC array could operate a µ-LED on the wrist.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(25): 16016-25, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267316

RESUMO

We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (µ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the µ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

20.
Adv Mater ; 28(4): 748-56, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641239

RESUMO

A stretchable multisensor system is successfully demonstrated with an integrated energy-storage device, an array of microsupercapacitors that can be repeatedly charged via a wireless radio-frequency power receiver on the same stretchable polymer substrate. The integrated devices are interconnected by a liquid-metal interconnection and operate stably without noticeable performance degradation under strain due to the skin attachment, and a uniaxial strain up to 50%.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Ligas/química , Capacitância Elétrica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Gases/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Ondas de Rádio , Raios Ultravioleta , Tecnologia sem Fio
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