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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360285

RESUMO

The association of short-term particulate matter concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among cancer survivors is yet unclear. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from South Korea, the study population consisted of 22,864 5-year cancer survivors with CVD events during the period 2015-2018. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, each case date (date of incident CVD) was matched with three or four referent dates, resulting in a total of 101,576 case and referent dates. The daily average particulate matter 10 (PM10), 2.5 (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) on the day of case or referent date (lag0), 1-3 days before the case or referent date (lag1, lag2, and lag3), and the mean value 0-3 days before the case or referent date (lag0-3) were determined. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD according to quartiles of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10. Compared to the 1st (lowest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10, the 4th (highest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10 was associated with higher odds for CVD (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21). The 4th quartiles of lag1 (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19), lag2 (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), lag3 (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12), and lag0-3 (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) PM2.5 were associated with higher odds for CVD compared to the respective 1st quartiles. Similarly, the 4th quartile of lag0-3 PM2.5-10 was associated with higher CVD events (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19) compared to the 1st quartile. Short-term exposure to high levels of PM may be associated with increased CVD risk among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer survivors are currently considered high-risk populations for cardiovascular disease. However, no studies have directly evaluated risks and benefits of physical activity for stroke among long-term colorectal cancer survivors. METHODS: This large-scale observational cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 who survived at least 5 years were studied. The primary outcome was stroke, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhage stroke. All patients were followed up to the date of stroke, death, or December 2018, whichever occurred earliest. RESULTS: Of 20,674 colorectal cancer survivors with a median age of 64 years, stroke occurred in 601 patients (2.9%). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity lowered stroke risk in 5-9 time/week group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.93; P=0.010), but not in ≥10 time/week group (aHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62-1.17; P=0.327). Walking also lowered stroke risk in 4-5 time/week group (aHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97; P=0.028), but not in ≥6 time/week group (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.18; P=0.707). In addition, benefits of physical activity were maximized when carried out both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and walking with moderate frequency (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (5-9 time/week) and walking (4-5 time/week) significantly lowers the risk of stroke, whereas high-frequency physical activity reduces the benefits of physical activity. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Physical activity with moderate frequency is important in the prevention of stroke for long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive studies on the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and depression, the associations of depressive symptom severity with prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes remain unclear. We aimed to investigate changes in these outcomes of diabetes as depressive symptoms aggravate. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14 328 participants in the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into depressive symptom groups of none, mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depending on their Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted in three models adjusted for expanding confounders to evaluate the associations between severity of depressive symptoms and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of DM. RESULTS: As depressive symptom severity worsened, both prevalence and awareness of DM increased regardless of models (p value for trend <0.01 in all models for prevalence and awareness; adjusted OR (aOR) 2.14, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.56 for prevalence in the severe group, model 1; aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.64 for awareness in the moderately severe group, model 1). Notwithstanding higher awareness of diabetes in the moderately severe and severe groups (84.5% and 86.2%, respectively, vs 71.3% in the none group), these groups were treated less (aOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.55 in the severe group, model 3) or inadequately controlled (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.98 in the moderately severe group, model 3). CONCLUSIONS: The gap between patients' higher awareness and lower treatment rate or control of diabetes among individuals with severe depressive symptoms highlights the unmet needs for postdiagnostic multidisciplinary care for patients with comorbid depression and DM.


Assuntos
Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência
4.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 710, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no evidence whether it is best to stop drinking alcohol at all or whether it is okay to drink a little in that light-to-moderate alcohol use was associated with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to non-drinker among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, who are regarded as vulnerable to CVD. Therefore, we evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and incident CVD among long-term survivors of CRC. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Korean National Insurance Service of 20,653 long-term survivors of CRC diagnosed between 2006 and 2012. Participants were followed up to the date of CVD, death, or December 31, 2018. All patients were categorized according to their daily alcohol consumption (g/day). The outcomes were incident CVD, including ischemic heart disease (IHD) and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and history of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. RESULTS: There was no association between alcohol consumption and incident CVD among long-term survivors of CRC. Additionally, hazardous alcohol consumption (≥ 40 g/day in male patients and ≥ 20 g/day in female patients) was associated with increased CVD, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.51 [1.15-1.97], 1.60 [1.03-2.48], and 2.65 [1.25-5.62], respectively) compared with non-drinkers. CONCLUSION: No discernable protective association was found between alcohol consumption and incident CVD for even light-to-moderate drinking among long-term survivors of CRC. Alcohol consumption ≥40 g/day in male patients and ≥ 20 g/day in female patients was associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with non-drinkers. These novel results provide useful evidence when advising survivors of CRC regarding alcohol use.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10152, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980955

RESUMO

The association of fluctuations in body mass index with cardiovascular risk in long-term is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate cardiovascular outcomes of weight fluctuation. Total of 67,101 obese adults from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who received health examinations in three separate biennial periods were included. Participants were followed up from January 1, 2008 to the date of cardiovascular disease, death, or December 31, 2015, and categorized into 9 distinctive groups according to the BMI. Continuous weight gain showed an increased risk of overall cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.36; P = 0.007), whereas weight loss after weight maintenance (HR, 0.91; P = 0.016) and weight maintenance after weight loss (HR, 0.91; P = 0.004) were ameliorative compared to the no weight change group. As for coronary heart disease, weight maintenance after weight gain was unfavorable (HR, 1.25; P = 0.004) while weight loss after weight maintenance (HR, 0.82; P < 0.001), weight cycling (HR, 0.83; P = 0.043), and weight maintenance after weight loss (HR, 0.88; P = 0.012) were beneficial. Weight maintenance after weight loss is beneficial for obese adults in terms of cardiovascular risks. In addition, weight loss is in part related to reduced risk of coronary heart disease despite weight cycling.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916625

RESUMO

(1) Background: There is limited information regarding association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (2). Methods: This study acquired data of 164,093 adults aged at least 40 years who were residing in 7 metropolitan cities between 2002 and 2005 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort database. CKD risk was evaluated using the multivariate Cox hazards proportional regression. All participants were followed up with until CKD, death, or 31 December 2013, whichever occurred earliest. (3) Results: Among 1,259,461 person-years of follow-up investigation, CKD cases occurred in 1494 participants. Air pollutant exposures including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 showed no significant association with incident CKD after adjustments for age, sex, household income, area of residence, and the Charlson comorbidity index. The results were consistent in the sensitivity analyses including first and last year annual exposure analyses as well as latent periods-washed-out analyses. (4) Conclusions: Long-term exposure to air pollution is not likely to increase the risk of CKD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
7.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 39(5): 833-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between hemoglobin (Hb) level including anemia and fracture has not been studied thoroughly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 197, 187 adults ≥ 50 years from the National Health Insurance Service of Korea were studied. Hb was determined during health screening examinations in 2004 or 2005. From 1 January 2006, participants were followed up for fracture until 31 December 2013. Hb levels (g/dL) were categorized into five groups, with normal hemoglobin levels subdivided into three groups (low normal, normal, and high normal Hb): < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 to < 17, 17 for men and < 12, ≥ 12 to < 13, ≥ 13 to < 14, ≥ 14 to < 16, ≥ 16 for women. Anemia was defined as Hb < 13 g/dL and < 12 g/dL for men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for fracture according to Hb. RESULTS: Compared to individuals with normal Hb, those with anemia and low normal Hb were associated with significantly increased risk of fracture. In women, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17), hip (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.59), and radius fracture (aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25). In men, those with anemia had a higher risk for any (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), vertebral (aHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.53), and hip fracture (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.30-2.08). This risk-enhancing association was preserved among various subgroups. CONCLUSION: Among adults ≥ 50 years, anemia and low normal Hb are risk factors for fracture.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(25): 2487-2497, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780974

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the trade-off between the health benefits of physical activity (PA) and the potential harmful effects of increased exposure to air pollution during outdoor PA. We examined the association of the combined effects of air pollution and changes in PA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: This nationwide cohort study included 1 469 972 young adults aged 20-39 years. Air pollution exposure was estimated by the annual average cumulative level of particulate matter (PM). PA was calculated as minutes of metabolic equivalent tasks per week (MET-min/week) based on two consecutive health examinations from 2009 to 2012. Compared with the participants exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10 who continuously engaged in ≥1000 MET-min/week of PA, those who decreased their PA from ≥1000 MET-min/week to 1-499 MET-min/week [PM10 adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.48] and to 0 MET-min/week (physically inactive; PM10 aHR 1.38; 95% CI 1.07-1.78) had an increased risk of CVD (P for trend <0.01). Among participants exposed to high levels of PM2.5 or PM10, the risk of CVD was elevated with an increase in PA above 1000 MET-min/week. CONCLUSION: Reducing PA may lead to subsequent elevation of CVD risk in young adults exposed to low-to-moderate levels of PM2.5 or PM10, whereas a large increase in PA in a high-pollution environment may adversely affect cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668451

RESUMO

In a cohort of 190,599 participants from The National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) study, we investigated the association of changes in the predicted body composition and metabolic profiles with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population, which was hitherto incompletely elucidated. At baseline and follow-up examinations, the body composition, including lean body mass (LBM), body fat mass (BFM), and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM), were estimated using a prediction equation, and the risk of MetS was analyzed according to relative body composition changes. An increase in relative LBM and ASM decreased the risk of MetS in men and women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.78 and 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.79 and 0.79-0.81, respectively; all p < 0.001). As relative LBM and ASM increased, the risk of MetS was more significantly reduced in the group with higher baseline BMI and body fat mass index (BFMI)(all p-trend < 0.001). In men, when the relative LBM increased (aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.73), the risk of MetS was low despite increased BMI. Thus, our findings suggested that an increase in the relative LBM and ASM reduced the risk of MetS, whereas an increase in the relative BFMI increased the risk of MetS; this result was consistent in men despite an increase in BMI.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to investigate adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) in various size on the incidence of prevalent autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs): Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We investigated 230,034 participants in three metropolitan cities of South Korea from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Starting from January 2010, subjects were followed up until the first event of prevalent AIRDs, death, or December 2013. 2008-2009 respective averages of PM2.5 (< 2.5µm) and PMcoarse (2.5µm to 10µm) were linked with participants' administrative district codes. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression analysis in one- and two-pollutant model. RESULTS: Adjusted for age, sex, region, and household income in two-pollutant model, RA incidence was positively associated with 10µg/m³ increment of PM2.5 (aHR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06-2.86), but not with PMcoarse (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.85). In one-pollutant model, an elevated incidence rate of RA was slightly attenuated (PM2.5 aHR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.61; PMcoarse aHR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.80-1.61), with marginal statistical significance of PM2.5. RA incidence was also higher in 4th quartile group of PM2.5 compared to 1st quartile group (aHR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.07-3.11). No adverse effects of PM were found on AS or SLE in one- and two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Important components of PM10 associated with RA incidence were fine fractions (PM2.5), while no positive association was found between PM and AS or SLE.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(1): 203-214, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of physical activity among long-term breast cancer survivors on the occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We investigated the risk of CVD among 39,775 breast cancer patients who were newly diagnosed in 2006 and survived until 2011 within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were followed up from 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis to the date of CVD event, death, or December 31, 2018, whichever came earliest. Every 500 MET-mins/week correspond to 152, 125, and 62.5 min per week of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by physical activity levels. RESULTS: Compared with those with physical activity of 0 MET-min/week, those with 1-499 (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98), 500-999 (aHR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.90), and ≥ 1,000 (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.93) MET-min/week of PA had lower risk of CVD. Higher levels of PA were associated with lower risk of stroke (p for trend = 0.016). The benefits of PA on obese and overweight breast cancer survivors were smaller than those in normal weight survivors. The frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) showed a reverse J-curve association with CVD, and the best benefit occurred in the 3-4 times MVPA per week group (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that even small amounts of PA may be beneficial in potentially decreasing the risk of CVD, CHD, and stroke in breast cancer survivors. Our result will be useful to prescribe and delivery exercise among long-term breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(3): 211-219, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925510

RESUMO

Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young adults might be clinically overlooked for future HCC risk. Thus, we examined the association between weight change and future risk of developing HCC in young adults. We collected a nationwide and population-based cohort data of more than 2.2 million men and women aged between 20 and 39 who were without previous cancer diagnosis and underwent two consecutive biennial national health screening between 2002 and 2005 from the National Health Insurance Service database. The individuals were categorized as weight loss (≥5.0 kg and 2.0-4.9 kg), stable weight (weight gain or loss <2.0 kg), and weight gain (2.0-4.9 kg and ≥5.0 kg) and were followed-up for incident HCC from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2018. During 12 years of follow-up, there were 2694 HCCs in men and 306 HCCs in women. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for socioeconomic, health behavior, medical characteristics, and family history, weight gain of more than 5.0 kg and between 2.0 and 4.9 kg were associated with significantly increased risk in young men [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.01-1.32] and young women (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.77), respectively. Protective association of weight loss with HCC was not observed. The association of weight gain and HCC risk was stronger in young adults with underlying liver diseases compared to those without any liver disease (Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Weight gain during young adulthood should not be clinically overlooked for future HCC risk, especially among those with underlying liver diseases.

13.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 37(6): 567-571, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined whether tibolone (TIB), a type of hormone replacement therapy widely used in Asia and Europe, affects dementia risk in postmenopausal women. Our study aims to investigate the association of TIB and dementia risk in Korean women aged 50-80 years. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims database merged with national health examination data from 2002 to 2015. Among 13,110 participants, exposure to TIB was determined using the standardized defined daily dose (DDD) system from 2003 to 2007. Starting from 2007, participants were followed up for overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) until 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia according to TIB use. RESULTS: TIB use was not significantly associated with the risk of total dementia (aHR = 1.040; 95% CI = 0.734-1.472; p = .827), AD (aHR = 0.949; 95% CI = 0.652-1.381; p = .785) and VD (aHR = 1.245; 95% CI = 0.631-2.457; p = .528). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TIB use does not have a significant association with dementia risk. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the role of exogenous hormones in the development of dementia.

14.
Environ Int ; 145: 106161, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA), especially outdoor PA, may have twofold effects on diabetes risk: the health benefits of PA and the potential detrimental effects caused by augmented exposure to air pollution. We examined the association of combined effects of PA and air pollution with diabetes in older adults. METHODS: The study participants consisted of 1,259,871 older adults aged 58 years or more from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. The exposure to air pollution was estimated by the average ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) of the participants' residence area. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of developing diabetes according to the combined effect of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and air pollution exposure. RESULTS: Engaging in 5 or more times of MVPA/week was associated with decreased risk of diabetes within groups with both high and low/moderate levels of exposure to PM10 (low/moderate PM10 aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.93; high PM10 aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99) or PM2.5 (low/moderate PM2.5 aHR 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.90; high PM10 aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99) exposure. The risk-reducing effects upon MVPA tended to be slightly attenuated, which showed the reverse J-shaped association, but still significant, among those who were exposed to a high level of air pollution. The association was consistent among stratified analyses according to the possible confounders. CONCLUSION: MVPA may be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes development within groups with both high and low/moderate levels of exposure to PM10 or PM2.5 in older adults. Future studies are necessary to validate whether the positive health effects of MVPA outweigh the potential detrimental effects due to augmented exposure to air pollution during MVPA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Metabolism ; 112: 154348, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the possible association between antibiotic overuse and childhood obesity, studies on this association are lacking in Asia. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between the number, duration of antibiotic exposure, timing of antibiotics initiation and childhood obesity. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, Korean children born between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012, who underwent government-provided health examinations at age 4-6 and 30-36 months, were included. The main outcome was obesity (body mass index in 95th percentile) at 30-36 months. The exposure variable was antibiotic prescription during the first 24 months of life. The number, prevalence, and odds ratio (OR) of obese children based on antibiotic exposure were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 31,733 children, 31,457 (99.1%) children used antibiotics and 2843 (9%) were obese at 30-36 months. There was a clear dose-response relationship between obesity and number of antibiotic classes, cumulative days, and earlier antibiotic initiation. Children who used five or more antibiotic classes had higher odds of obesity than those who used only one class (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.12-1.8). Children with >180 days of antibiotic exposure had higher risk of obesity than those with 1-30 exposure days (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.19-1.64). Children with earlier initiation of antibiotics had higher risk of obesity (OR 1.15 per 6 months, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). CONCLUSION: Increased number of antibiotic classes, longer duration of antibiotic prescription and earlier antibiotic initiation before 24 months was associated with childhood obesity at 30-36 months. This South Korean retrospective study supports judicious use of antibiotics in the first 24 months of life to avoid the potential risk of childhood obesity. Future studies need to be performed to confirm or refute the results presented herein.

16.
Diabetologia ; 63(11): 2305-2314, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820349

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The increasing incidence of diabetes among young adults is a disease burden; however, the effects of early-onset diabetes, prediabetes and glycaemic recovery on CVD or mortality remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of these factors with 10 year all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and CVD incidence in Korean young adults. METHODS: This large and longitudinal cohort study included data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Information Database; 2,502,375 young adults aged 20-39 years without diabetes mellitus and CVD at baseline were included. Glycaemic status was measured twice, first in 2002-2003 and second in 2004-2005. Changes in fasting glucose levels were evaluated according to fasting glucose status: normal fasting glucose (NFG; <5.5 mmol/l), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.5-6.9 mmol/l), and diabetic fasting glucose (DFG; ≥7.0 mmol/l). Primary outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality risk. The secondary outcome was incidence of CVD, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. All outcomes arose from the 10 year follow-up period 1 Jan 2006 to 31 December 2015. RESULTS: Individuals with NFG at baseline, who were subsequently newly diagnosed with diabetes and prediabetes (IFG), had increased all-cause mortality (HR [95% CI] 1.60 [1.44, 1.78] and 1.13 [1.09, 1.18], respectively) and CVD incidence (1.13 [1.05, 1.23] and 1.04 [1.01, 1.07], respectively). In those with DFG at baseline, early recovery to NFG and IFG was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (0.57 [0.46, 0.70] and 0.65 [0.53, 0.81], respectively) and CVD incidence (0.70 [0.60, 0.81] and 0.78 [0.66, 0.91], respectively). Among patients with IFG at baseline, early recovery to NFG was associated with decreased CVD mortality (0.74 [0.59, 0.93]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Early-onset diabetes or prediabetes increased CVD risks and all-cause mortality after the 10 year follow-up. Furthermore, recovery of hyperglycaemia could reduce the subsequent 10 year risk for CVD incidence and all-cause mortality. Graphical abstract.

17.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 839-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507945

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air particulate matter (PM) is an environmental exposure associated with oxidation and inflammation. Whether particulate matter is associated with risk of osteoporotic bone fracture is unclear. We investigated the association between exposure to PM and risk of bone fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data of 44,602 participants living in three metropolitan cities in Republic of Korea from National Health Insurance Service database. We examined the association of 2 year averaged concentrations of PM and osteoporotic fracture over 4 years. Exposure to 2-year averaged air pollution [PM2.5 (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10 [< 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter], PM coarse (PM ranging from 2.5 µm to 10 µm)] concentrations were estimated from 2008 to 2009 in Air Korea data. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for osteoporotic fractures were calculated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, household income, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, PM 2.5 in one pollutant model increased the risk of osteoporotic fractures, compared to the first quartile group (4th quartile group aHR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.24). Also, PM 2.5 increased the risk of spine and non-spine fractures compared to the first quartile group (4th quartile group aHR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, aHR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). We found no association between PM10/PM coarse and osteoporotic fractures. CONCLUSION: We found that PM2.5 is a risk factor for osteoporotic bone fractures.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(7): 667-673, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide victims are likely to visit a primary care provider within 1 month of the suicide attempt. However, it is impossible for primary care providers to screen all patients for suicidal ideation or attempts. We, therefore, aimed to investigate potential differences in the chief diagnoses received by primary care patients with and without suicidal ideation, as this information may provide clues and predict patients at risk of suicide. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,211 Korean adults aged ≥20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2014 and provided information about their histories of suicidal ideation and visits to primary care providers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether suicidal ideation was associated with specific diseases after controlling for age, sex, household income, education, occupation, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. RESULTS: Among primary care patients, the sample-weighted percentage of suicidal ideation was approximately 12%. The diagnoses of neoplasm and mental disorder were associated with a higher likelihood of suicidal ideation {odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 8.32 (1.01-68.56) and 6.19 (1.72-22.33), respectively}. Notably, diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue were also associated with suicidal ideation [OR (95% CI): 1.93 (1.09-3.43)]. CONCLUSION: The observed visit patterns and correlations of certain diagnoses with suicidal ideation suggest that primary care physicians should pay attention to patients with relevant disorders, consider screening suicidal ideation, and properly consult to a psychiatrist.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 430, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter is a rising concern for global public health. It was recently suggested that exposure to fine particulate matter may contribute to the development of diabetes and dyslipidaemia. This study aims to examine the potential associations of ambient particulate matter exposure with changes in fasting glucose and lipid profiles in Koreans. METHOD: We used the data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), a nationwide database representative of the Korean population. A total of 85,869 individuals aged ≥20 years were included. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between exposure to particulate matter and changes in fasting glucose and lipid profiles at 2-year intervals after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Significant associations were observed between an increase in interquartile range for particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and elevated levels of fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p for trend = 0.015 and 0.010, respectively), while no association for particulate matter sized 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM10-2.5) was noted after adjusting for the other covariates. Sub-group analyses showed stronger associations in individuals who were older (≥60 years) or physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: Fine particulate matter exposure affects worsening fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, with no evidence of an association for coarse particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Glicemia/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326144

RESUMO

Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between particulate matter (PM) and CVD risk among cancer survivors (alive >5 years since diagnosis) is unclear. We investigated the risk of CVD among 40,899 cancer survivors within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Exposure to PM was determined by assessing yearly average PM levels obtained from the Air Korea database from 2008 to 2011. PMs with sizes <2.5 (PM2.5), <10 (PM10), or 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) µm in diameter were compared, with each PM level exposure further divided into quintiles. Patients were followed up from January 2012 to date of CVD event, death, or December 2017, whichever came earliest. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by PM exposure levels. Compared with cancer survivors in the lowest quintile of PM2.5 exposure, those within the highest quintile had a greater risk for CVD (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59). Conversely, increasing PM10 and PM2.5-10 levels were not associated with increased CVD risk (p for trend 0.078 and 0.361, respectively). Cancer survivors who reduce PM2.5 exposure may benefit from lower risk of developing CVD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Material Particulado , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , República da Coreia
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