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1.
J Med Entomol ; 58(6): 2292-2298, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999147

RESUMO

Resistance status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) from 13 districts in Sarawak State, Malaysia, was evaluated against four major classes of adulticides, namely organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid. Adult bioassays were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard protocols to assess knockdown and mortality rates of Ae. albopictus. Among the tested pyrethroids, only cyfluthrin was able to exhibit complete knockdown. On the other hand, different susceptibility and resistance patterns were observed in other adulticides. As for mortality rates, the mosquitoes were susceptible to cyfluthrin and dieldrin but exhibited various susceptibilities to other tested adulticides. Cross-resistance was discovered within and between tested insecticide classes. Significant correlations were found within pyrethroid and carbamate classes (i.e., bendiocab and propoxur, P = 0.036; etofenprox and permethrin, P = 0.000; deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, P = 0.822; deltamethrin and permethrin, P = 0.042). Additionally, insecticides belonging to different groups were also found significantly correlated (i.e., malathion and deltamethin, P = 0.019; malathion and bendiocarb, P = 0.008; malathion and propoxur, P = 0.007; and bendiocarb and deltamethrin, P = 0.031). In conclusion, cyfluthrin was effective for Aedes albopictus control in Sarawak State and these data may assist local authorities to improve future vector control operations.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Malásia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009205, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, dengue remains a top priority disease and usage of insecticides is the main method for dengue vector control. Limited baseline insecticide resistance data in dengue hotspots has prompted us to conduct this study. The present study reports the use of a map on the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to provide a quick visualization and overview of the distribution of insecticide resistance. METHOD AND RESULTS: The insecticide resistance status of Aedes populations collected from 24 dengue hotspot areas from the period of December 2018 until June 2019 was proactively monitored using the World Health Organization standard protocol for adult and larval susceptibility testing was conducted, together with elucidation of the mechanisms involved in observed resistance. For resistance monitoring, susceptibility to three adulticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, and malathion) was tested, as well as susceptibility to the larvicide, temephos. Data showed significant resistance to both deltamethrin and permethrin (pyrethroid insecticides), and to malathion (organophosphate insecticide) in all sampled Aedes aegypti populations, while variable resistance patterns were found in the sampled Aedes albopictus populations. Temephos resistance was observed when larvae were tested using the diagnostic dosage of 0.012mg/L but not at the operational dosage of 1mg/L for both species. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights evidence of a potential threat to the effectiveness of insecticides currently used in dengue vector control, and the urgent requirement for insecticide resistance management to be integrated into the National Dengue Control Program.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/transmissão , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malásia/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; 20(3): 208-216, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524879

RESUMO

Maggot therapy, also known as maggot debridement therapy, larval therapy, biodebridement, or biosurgery, is a type of biotherapy involving the intentional application of live, disinfected fly larvae or maggots into the nonhealing wound of a human or animal to debride the necrotic wound, reduce bacterial contamination of the wound as well as enhance the formation of healthy granulation tissue and stimulate healing in nonhealing wounds. In addition, van der Plas et al reported that the use of the medicinal larvae as natural remover of necrotic and infected tissue had prevented amputation in 11 selected patients. In Malaysia, Aaron et al had demonstrated prevention of amputation in 25 patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Cicatrização , Animais , Desbridamento , Humanos , Larva , Malásia
4.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266525

RESUMO

Wireless sensors are becoming essential in machine-type communications and Internet of Things. As the key performance metrics, the spectral efficiency as well as the energy efficiency have been considered while determining the effectiveness of sensor networks. In this paper, we present several power-splitting solutions to maximize the average harvested energy under a rate constraint when both the information and power are transmitted through the same wireless channel to a sensor (i.e., a receiver). More specifically, we first designed the optimal dynamic power-splitting policy, which decides the optimal fractional power of the received signal used for energy harvesting at the receiver. As effective solutions, we proposed two types of single-threshold-based power-splitting policies, namely, Policies I and II, which decide to switch between energy harvesting and information decoding by comparing the received signal power with some given thresholds. Additionally, we performed asymptotic analysis for a large number of packets along with practical statistics-based policies. Consequently, we demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed power-splitting solutions in terms of the rate-energy trade-off.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927814

RESUMO

A new design approach for a mmWave high gain planar antenna is presented. The proposed method can increase antenna directivity with a minimally enlarged radiation patch while the operation frequency is still matched at a higher target frequency. The fundamental structure of the proposed antenna is configured by a H-shaped and slot-loaded patch with a shorting pin symmetrically located across a signal excitation port. Further, to match the operation frequency with the frequency for the highest achievable gain, a vertically stacked matching conductor was inserted along the signal feed path between the radiation patch and the ground layer. The proposed single antenna showed the simulated directivity of 9.46 dBi while the conventional patch with a same dielectric had 8.07 dBi. To verify practical performance, a 2 × 2 array antenna was fabricated at 28 GHz and showed the measured gain of 12.5 dBi including the array feed loss.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937799

RESUMO

This article presents a dual-polarized, high gain multi-beam and high T/Rx channel-to-channel isolation antenna module for 24 GHz sensor applications. The proposed antenna is configured to support 2-Tx and 2-Rx channels with a pair of vertically polarized (VP) radiation pattern and a pair of horizontally polarized (HP) radiation pattern. Further, each linearly polarized T/Rx antenna is configured by 2 × 4 array with a multi-layer integrated feed network, resulting in four sets of 2 × 4 array antennas fabricated within a single printed circuit board (PCB). Since multiple RF channels must be ensured with minimal interference, high antenna-to-antenna, including Tx-to-Tx, Rx-to-Rx, and Tx-to-Rx port isolations in the proposed antenna are achieved by multi-layered feed network and four sets of T-shaped magnetic walls. To verify the performance of the proposed structure, a 2-Tx and 2-Rx antenna module was fabricated at 24 GHz. The fabricated antenna showed a measured maximum 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 3.9% with a maximum measured gain of 11.7 dBi, considering both Tx and Rx. Further, the measured channel-to-channel isolations were always better than 35.6 dB at 24 GHz.

7.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 1534734620948299, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815407

RESUMO

Leeches are hermaphrodite, bloodsucking parasitic worms usually found in places with fresh water. Leech therapy existed 3000 years, and it is being used at a different scope. Several species of leeches have been used in medicine, and the most common species used is Hirudo medicinalis. Leeches suck the excess blood, reduce the swelling in the tissues, and promote healing by allowing fresh oxygenated blood to reach the area until normal circulation can be restored. Pain relief from leech therapy is rapid, effective, and long-lasting in many conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of healing utilizing sterile medicinal leeches, Hirudinaria manillensis, in the management of pain and wound healing. Leech was taken out from its sterile tube by using a pair of non-tooth sterile plastic forceps and gloved hands. Each leech was left in place for as long as it was feeding. Leeches were removed only after they became detached from the patient. The specimen jars containing the used leeches were sealed in either a biohazard bag or in a small yellow clinical waste bin liner securely fastened with a cable tie. The leech was killed by using 70% alcohol prior to disposal into a yellow hazard bin, which undergoes incineration. All 3 patients had improvements in their condition, especially in terms of reduction in the pain and improvement in their sense of balance. All the wounds healed well. Therefore, leech therapy is effective in reducing pain and increasing perfusion to allow the wounds to heal quickly. However, a more robust trial is needed to show significance as the sample size is small.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(3)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646026

RESUMO

Dengue is placing huge burdens on the Malaysian healthcare system as well as the economy. With the expansion in the number of high-rise residential buildings, particularly in the urban centers, the flight range and behavior of Aedes mosquitoes may be altered in this habitat type. In this study, we aimed to expand the understanding of the vertical distribution and dispersal of Aedes in nine selected high-rise residences in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, and Johor using ovitraps as the sampling method. We discovered that Ae. aegypti is the predominant species in all study sites. Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are most abundant within the first three levels and could be found up to level 21 (approximately 61.1-63.0 m). Pearson correlation analyses exhibited negative correlations in eight out of nine study sites between the ovitrap indexes (OIs) within each floor level, suggesting that Aedes density decreased as the building level increased. Our findings provide information to the public health authorities on 'hot spot' floors for effective suppression of dengue transmission.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 964-970, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228777

RESUMO

Two confirmed human cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) were reported in the district of Miri, Sarawak, in 2016. Following that, a mosquito-based ZIKV surveillance study was conducted within 200-m radius from the case houses. Mosquito surveillance was conducted using five different methods, that is, biogents sentinel mosquito (BG) sentinel trap, modified sticky ovitrap, resting catch, larval surveillance, and conventional ovitrap. A total of 527 and 390 mosquito samples were obtained from the case houses in two localities, namely, Kampung Lopeng and Taman Shang Ri La, Miri, Sarawak, respectively. All mosquitoes collected were identified, which consisted of 11 species. Aedes albopictus, both the adult and larval stages, was the dominant species. Resting catch method obtained the highest number of adult mosquitoes (67%), whereas ovitrap showed the highest catch for larval mosquitoes (84%). Zika virus was detected in both adults and larvae of Ae. albopictus together with adults of Culex gelidus, and Culex quinquefasciatus using the real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. It was noteworthy that Ae. albopictus positive with ZIKV were caught and obtained from four types of collection method. By contrast, Cx. gelidus and Culex quinquefasciatus adults collected from sticky ovitraps were also found positive with ZIKV. This study reveals vital information regarding the potential vectors of ZIKV and the possibility of transovarian transmission of the virus in Malaysia. These findings will be essentials for vector control program managers to devise preparedness and contingency plans of prevention and control of the arboviral disease.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Culex/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecção por Zika virus/etiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
10.
Heliyon ; 6(1): e03230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993521

RESUMO

In recent decades, dengue incidence has trended upward worldwide causing urgent needs for new or modified vector control methods. We modified the existing indoor residual spraying (IRS) method by applying insecticide on the outer walls of building structures in an outdoor residual spraying (ORS) study. A semi-field study was conducted to investigate the bio-efficacy of two different deltamethrin formulations: K-Othrine® Polyzone, new polymer-enhanced deltamethrin formulated as a suspension concentrate (SC-PE), and K-Othrine® WG 250, traditional deltamethrin formulated as water dispersible granule (WG). The residual bio-efficacy of deltamethrin SC-PE was compared to deltamethrin WG on finished cement surfaces applied to the outer walls at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Malaysia. Standard WHO cone wall bioassays were adapted to evaluate the effective duration of action of these deltamethrin formulations against susceptible laboratory-reared and wild, free-flying Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Analyses of bioassay results showed that deltamethrin SC-PE 30 mg/m2 has improved longevity in comparison to deltamethrin WG 30 mg/m2. Deltamethrin SC-PE 30 mg/m2 was effective until week 17 (producing > 80% mortality), surpassing deltamethrin WG 30 mg/m2 which only lasted until week 10. This was supported by post-hoc test analyses which demonstrated that deltamethrin SC-PE 30 mg/m2 produced the highest mean of mortality in laboratory-reared Aedes species and the wild Ae. albopictus. However, the effective duration of action of deltamethrin SC-PE (17 weeks) was less than the recommended period by WHO (6 months) but was reasonable given that the spraying was undertaken outdoor. This preliminary data could be of use for the deployment of locally adapted ORS operation in controlling dengue.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18391, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804507

RESUMO

This paper presents a wide-angle scanning phased array antenna using high gain pattern reconfigurable antenna (PRA) elements. Using PRA elements is an attractive solution for wide-angle scanning phased array antennas because the scanning range can be divided into several subspaces. To achieve the desired scanning performance, some characteristics of the PRA element such as the number of switching modes, tilt angle, and maximum half-power beamwidth (HPBW) are required. We analyzed the required characteristics of the PRA element according to the target scanning range and element spacing, and presented a PRA element design guideline for phased array antennas. In accordance with the guideline, the scanning range was set as ±70° and a high gain PRA element with three reconfigurable patterns was used to compose an 8x1 array antenna with 0.9 λ0 spacing. After analyzing whether the active element patterns meet the guideline, the array antenna was fabricated and measured to demonstrate the scanning performance. The fabricated array can scan its beam from -70° to 70° by dividing the scanning range into three subspaces. It shows that even if the array antenna has large element spacing, the desired scanning performance can be obtained using the elements designed under the guideline.

12.
Curr Biol ; 29(24): 4241-4248.e5, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761702

RESUMO

Dengue has enormous health impacts globally. A novel approach to decrease dengue incidence involves the introduction of Wolbachia endosymbionts that block dengue virus transmission into populations of the primary vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The wMel Wolbachia strain has previously been trialed in open releases of Ae. aegypti; however, the wAlbB strain has been shown to maintain higher density than wMel at high larval rearing temperatures. Releases of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes carrying wAlbB were carried out in 6 diverse sites in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with high endemic dengue transmission. The strain was successfully established and maintained at very high population frequency at some sites or persisted with additional releases following fluctuations at other sites. Based on passive case monitoring, reduced human dengue incidence was observed in the release sites when compared to control sites. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia provides a promising option as a tool for dengue control, particularly in very hot climates.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia/metabolismo , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Malásia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Wolbachia/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2869, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253776

RESUMO

Clostridial neurotoxins, including tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins, generally target vertebrates. We show here that this family of toxins has a much broader host spectrum, by identifying PMP1, a clostridial-like neurotoxin that selectively targets anopheline mosquitoes. Isolation of PMP1 from Paraclostridium bifermentans strains collected in anopheline endemic areas on two continents indicates it is widely distributed. The toxin likely evolved from an ancestral form that targets the nervous system of similar organisms, using a common mechanism that disrupts SNARE-mediated exocytosis. It cleaves the mosquito syntaxin and employs a unique receptor recognition strategy. Our research has an important impact on the study of the evolution of clostridial neurotoxins and provides the basis for the use of P. bifermentans strains and PMP1 as innovative, environmentally friendly approaches to reduce malaria through anopheline control.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
14.
Insects ; 9(2)2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670071

RESUMO

This study is intended to provide a comprehensive characterization of the resistance mechanisms in the permethrin-selected (IMR-PSS) and laboratory susceptible (IMR-LS) Aedes aegypti strain from Malaysia. Both IMR-PSS and IMR-LS provide a standard model for use in assessing the pyrethroid resistance in field-collected strains collected from three dengue hotspots: the Taman Seri Bayu (TSB), the Flat Camar (FC), and the Taman Dahlia (TD). Two established methods for determining the resistance mechanisms of the pyrethroid are the quantification of detoxification enzymes via enzyme microassay and the nucleotide sequencing of the domain 2 region from segment 1 to 6 via classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification-were employed. Enzyme activities in IMR-LS served as the resistance threshold reference, providing a significant standard for comparison with IMR-PSS and other field-collected strains. The amino acids in the domain 2 region of voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc) of IMR-LS were served as the reference for detection of any changes of the knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles in IMR-PSS and field-collected strains. Studies clearly indicated that the IMR-LS was highly susceptible to insecticides, whilst the IMR-PSS was highly resistant to pyrethroids and conferred with two resistance mechanisms: the elevated oxidase enzyme activity and the altered target-site mutations. Mutations of V1023G alone, and the combination mutations of V1023G with S996P in IMR-PSS, as well as the in field-collected Aedes aegypti strain, indicate the spread of the (kdr) gene in Aedes aegypti, particularly in dengue-endemic areas in Malaysia.

15.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(3): 1388-1394, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617840

RESUMO

The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malásia
16.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193326, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474401

RESUMO

A large scale study was conducted to elucidate the true relationship among entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors that contributed to dengue outbreak in Malaysia. Two large areas (Selayang and Bandar Baru Bangi) were selected in this study based on five consecutive years of high dengue cases. Entomological data were collected using ovitraps where the number of larvae was used to reflect Aedes mosquito population size; followed by RT-PCR screening to detect and serotype dengue virus in mosquitoes. Notified cases, date of disease onset, and number and type of the interventions were used as epidemiological endpoint, while rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and air pollution index (API) were indicators for environmental data. The field study was conducted during 81 weeks of data collection. Correlation and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model were used to determine the relationship. The study showed that, notified cases were indirectly related with the environmental data, but shifted one week, i.e. last 3 weeks positive PCR; last 4 weeks rainfall; last 3 weeks maximum relative humidity; last 3 weeks minimum and maximum temperature; and last 4 weeks air pollution index (API), respectively. Notified cases were also related with next week intervention, while conventional intervention only happened 4 weeks after larvae were found, indicating ample time for dengue transmission. Based on a significant relationship among the three factors (epidemiological, entomological and environmental), estimated Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) model for both locations produced high accuracy 84.9% for Selayang and 84.1% for Bandar Baru Bangi in predicting the actual notified cases. Hence, such model can be used in forestalling dengue outbreak and acts as an early warning system. The existence of relationships among the entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors can be used to build an early warning system for the prediction of dengue outbreak so that preventive interventions can be taken early to avert the outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Surtos de Doenças , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Malásia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 36, 2017 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28209130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently a major global issue. As the rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance has superseded the rate of discovery and introduction of new effective drugs, the medical arsenal now is experiencing shortage of effective drugs to combat diseases, particularly against diseases caused by the dreadful multidrug-resistant strains, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ability of fly larvae to thrive in septic habitats has prompted us to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of larval extract of flies, namely Lucilia cuprina, Sarcophaga peregrina and Musca domestica against 4 pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli] via a simple and sensitive antibacterial assay, resazurin-based turbidometric (TB) assay as well as to demonstrate the preliminary chemical profile of larval extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: The resazurin-based TB assay demonstrated that the L. cuprina larval extract was inhibitory against all tested bacteria, whilst the larval extract of S. peregrina and M. domestica were only inhibitory against the MRSA, with a MIC of 100 mg ml-1. Subsequent sub-culture of aliquots revealed that the larval extract of L. cuprina was bactericidal against MRSA whilst the larval extracts of S. peregrina and M. domestica were bacteriostatic against MRSA. The GC-MS analysis had quantitatively identified 20 organic compounds (fatty acids or their derivatives, aromatic acid esters, glycosides and phenol) from the larval extract of L. cuprina; and 5 fatty acid derivatives with known antimicrobial activities from S. peregrina and M. domestica. CONCLUSION: The resazurin-based turbidometric assay is a simple, reliable and feasible screening assay which evidently demonstrated the antibacterial activity of all fly larval extracts, primarily against the MRSA. The larval extract of L. cuprina exerted a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The present study revealed probable development and use of novel and effective natural disinfectant(s) and antibacterial agent(s) from flies and efforts to screen more fly species for antibacterial activity using resazurin-based TB assay should be undertaken for initial screening for subsequent discovery and isolation of potential novel antimicrobial substances, particularly against the multi-drug resistant strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Larva/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxazinas/química , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Xantenos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Moscas Domésticas/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcofagídeos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(1): 148-156, 2017 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920393

RESUMO

Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied. The prevalence of Wolbachia-infected field-collected Ae. albopictus was estimated to be 98.6% (N = 142) for females and 95.1% (N = 102) for males in the population studied. The Ae. albopictus were naturally infected with both wAlbA and wAlbB strains. We also found that the native Wolbachia has no impact on CHIKV infection and minimal effect on CHIKV dissemination to secondary organs.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Filogenia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186395

RESUMO

Many macrofungus sclerotia are well-known medicinal herbs, health food and nutritional supplements. However, the prevalent adulterant commercial products are major hindrances to their incorporation into mainstream medical use in many countries. The mushroom sclerotia of Lignosus rhinocerotis, Poria cocos, Polyporus umbellatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium and Omphalia lapidescens are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, IR macro-fingerprint method was used in the identification of these sclerotia. The results showed that the spectrum of L. rhinocerotis (LR) was comparable with P. cocos with 94.4% correlation, except that the peak at 1543cm(-1) of LR appeared in lower intensity. The spectrum of P. umbellatus and P. tuber-regium was also correlated (91.5%), as both spectra could be clearly discriminated in that P. umbellatus spectrum has small base peaks located at the range of 1680-1500cm(-1). O. lapidescens was not comparable with all the other sclerotia as its spectrum was totally different. Its base peak was broad and derivated equally along the range. The first IR has revealed the dissimilarity among five mushrooms sclerotia. The second derivative and 2DIR further enhanced the identification in detail.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pleurotus/química , Polyporus/química , Poria/química
20.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1205, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26630916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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