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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649405

RESUMO

We investigated sex-related differences in the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using the Korea National Health Insurance Service database. From 2010 to 2016, 9524 patients diagnosed with HCM and had more than 1-year follow-up period were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or new-onset heart failure (HF) admission. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed to adjust for different baseline characteristics. With a 4.4-years' median follow-up interval (range 2.0-6.6 years) and male predominance (77.6%), women with HCM were older (52.6 ± 9.7 vs. 51.4 ± 9.1, p < 0.001), had lower incomes, more comorbidities based on Charlson comorbidity index. Women with HCM had a higher incidence of the primary endpoint than men (incidence rate: 34.15 vs. 22.83 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox analysis showed that female sex was a poor prognostic factor for the primary endpoint (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64, p < 0.001). This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of new-onset HF admission (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.80). However, there was no difference in the incidence of cardiovascular death between the sexes. This result was concordant in the propensity score-matched cohort. In conclusion, women with HCM have worse prognosis, which was mainly driven by a higher new-onset HF admission.

2.
Dermatology ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psoriasis are associated, sharing common genetic predispositions and immunological mechanisms. However, concrete data on psoriasis risk in IBD patients compared to the general population are limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of developing psoriasis in IBD patients compared to controls without IBD. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Database, patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) between 2005 and 2008 were age- and sex-matched 1:4 to non-IBD subjects from 2003 to 2018. IBD patients were defined by combining the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code and at least one prescription of IBD-specific medications. Disease phenotypes, including psoriasis severity and psoriatic arthritis, were also identified. We investigated newly diagnosed psoriasis from 2009 to 2018. Incidence rates and risk of psoriasis were assessed with multivariate Cox regression models. Subgroup analyses for age and sex, and sensitivity analysis involving tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor-naïve patients were performed. RESULTS: During nearly a decade of follow-up, 20,152 IBD patients were identified (14,619 [72.54%] UC and 5,533 [27.46%] CD). Among them, 439 patients were newly diagnosed with psoriasis (incidence rate of 217.68 per 100,000 person-years and 228.62 per 100,000 person-years for UC and CD, respectively). The psoriasis risk was higher in IBD patients than in the matched controls (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 2.95, 95% confidence interval, CI, 2.60-3.33). Moreover, IBD patients aged <30 years were at an increased risk (aHR 3.35, 95% CI 2.58-4.35), a trend that was unchanged across all psoriasis phenotypes. Sensitivity analysis of TNF inhibitor-naïve patients revealed consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: IBD patients were more likely to develop psoriasis compared to non-IBD subjects, including younger patients at an elevated risk regardless of TNF inhibitor use. This advocates the interplay between IBD and psoriasis; thus, inspection of cutaneous manifestation and dermatological consultation may be helpful in IBD patients at risk.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245052, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544706

RESUMO

Emerging evidence that an elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer, but still controversial. The aim of this study to assess the relationship between GGT level and risk of gastrointestinal cancer, and the contribution of the interaction of hyperglycemia with elevated GGT level to the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer by the stratified analysis. A total of 8,120,665 Koreans who received medical checkups in 2009 were included. Subjects were classified according to the quartile of GGT level for women and men. The incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancer for each group were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 129,853 cases of gastrointestinal cancer newly occurred (esophagus, 3,792; stomach, 57,932; and colorectal, 68,789 cases). The highest GGT quartile group showed an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer (esophagus, hazard ratio = 2.408 [95% confidence interval, 2.184-2.654]; stomach, 1.121 [1.093-1.149]; and colorectal, 1.185 [1.158-1.211]). The risk increased significantly with the rise in GGT quartile level, regardless of the site of cancer. The stratified analysis according to glycemic status showed that the effect of elevated GGT was predominant in the risk of esophageal cancer. The effect of elevated GGT further increased the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers in diabetic patients. An elevated level of GGT was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer, regardless of the site of cancer. The effect of the increase in GGT level on the risk of gastrointestinal cancer depended on the type of cancer and glycemic status.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4676, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633333

RESUMO

We evaluated the impacts of lifestyle behaviors, namely smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, on the development of new-onset AF in patients with DM. Using the Korean Nationwide database, we identified subjects diagnosed with type 2 DM and without previous history of AF between 2009 and 2012. Self-reported lifestyle behaviors were analyzed. Among 2,551,036 included subjects, AF was newly diagnosed in 73,988 patients (median follow-up 7.1 years). Both ex-smokers (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.07) and current smokers (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08) demonstrated a higher risk of AF than never smokers. Patients with moderate (15-29 g/day) (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and heavy (≥ 30 g/day) (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21-1.28) alcohol consumption exhibited an increased risk of AF, while subjects with mild alcohol consumption (< 15 g/day) (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.03) had an AF risk similar to that of non-drinkers. Patients who engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a lower risk of AF (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.94) than those who did not. This study suggests that smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity are associated with new-onset AF in patients with DM, and lifestyle management might reduce the risk of AF in this population.

5.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(1): 155-161, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meteorin-like protein (METRNL) (also known as IL-41), recently identified as a myokine, is released in response to muscle contraction. It improves the skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through exerting a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect. However, no independent studies have been published to verify the effects of METRNL on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 human monocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of NFκB and IκB phosphorylation as well as the expression of adhesion molecules were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated the interactions between HUVEC and THP-1 â€‹cells. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of TNFα and MCP-1 in culture medium. RESULTS: Treatment with METRNL suppressed the secretion of TNFα and MCP-1 as well as NFκB and IκB phosphorylation and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HUVECs and THP-1 â€‹cells. Furthermore, treatment with METRNL ameliorated LPS-induced attachment of THP-1 monocytes to HUVECs via inhibition of adhesion molecule expression and apoptosis. Treatment of HUVEC and THP-1 â€‹cells with METRNL enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and PPARδ expression in a dose-dependent manner. Small interference (si) RNA-mediated suppression of AMPK or PPARδ restored all these changes. CONCLUSIONS: It has therefore been shown that METRNL ameliorates inflammatory responses through AMPK and PPARδ-dependent pathways in LPS-treated HUVEC. In sum, the current study may suggest the suppressive potential of METRNL against endothelial inflammation.

6.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561325

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the effects of cooking conditions on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of dry- and wet-aged beef strip loins. Methods: Dry- and wet-aged beef aged for 28 days were cooked using different cooking methods (grilling or oven roasting) × cooking temperatures (150°C or 230°C), and their pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile compounds, and color were measured. Results: Cooking conditions did not affect pH; however, grilling resulted in lower TBARS but higher cooking doneness at the dry-aged beef surface compared to oven roasting (p < 0.05). In descriptive sensory analysis, the roasted flavor of dry-aged beef was significantly stronger when grill-cooked compared to oven roasting. Dry-aged beef grill-cooked at 150°C presented a higher intensity of cheesy flavor, and that grilled at 230°C showed a greater intensity of roasted flavor compared to wet-aged beef at the same condition, respectively. Conclusion: Grilling may be effective for enhancing the unique flavor in dry-aged beef.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544178

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the conjunctiva of pediatric patients with epiblepharon in a case-control study. METHODS: Twenty healthy controls and 15 pediatric patients with epiblepharon were enrolled from April 23, 2020 to June 15, 2020. Epiblepharon severity was divided into class I-III (least to moderate severity) and class IV (most severe). We obtained impression cytologic specimens from the medial palpebral conjunctiva of the participants to measure the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The mean age in the epiblepharon group was 9 years (range 7.5-11 years), and that in the healthy control group was 9.5 years (range 8-11.3 years). IL-1ß, IL-6, and MMP9 expression levels were 2.08 (p < 0.05), 2.11 (p < 0.05), and 2.48 (p < 0.05) fold higher, respectively, in the epiblepharon group than in the healthy control group. However, MUC5AC gene expression was not different between healthy subjects and patients with epiblepharon. IL-1ß, IL-6, and MMP9 expression levels in class IV patients were 1.32 (p < 0.05), 1.77 (p < 0.05), and 1.98 (p < 0.05) fold higher, respectively, than in class I-III patients. CONCLUSION: Epiblepharon may induce chronic inflammatory changes in the conjunctiva in addition to corneal epithelial damage. Therefore, early corrective surgery should be considered to prevent conjunctival inflammation.

8.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(1): 429-457, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443788

RESUMO

Cultured muscle tissue-based protein products, also known as cultured meat, are produced through in vitro myogenesis involving muscle stem cell culture and differentiation, and mature muscle cell processing for flavor and texture. This review focuses on the in vitro myogenesis for cultured meat production. The muscle stem cell-based in vitro muscle tissue production consists of a sequential process: (1) muscle sampling for stem cell collection, (2) muscle tissue dissociation and muscle stem cell isolation, (3) primary cell culture, (4) upscaled cell culture, (5) muscle differentiation and maturation, and (6) muscle tissue harvest. Although muscle stem cell research is a well-established field, the majority of these steps remain to be underoptimized to enable the in vitro creation of edible muscle-derived meat products. The profound understanding of the process would help not only cultured meat production but also business sectors that have been seeking new biomaterials for the food industry. In this review, we discuss comprehensively and in detail each step of cutting-edge methods for cultured meat production. This would be meaningful for both academia and industry to prepare for the new era of cellular agriculture.

9.
Food Chem ; 348: 129038, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508597

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin produced by many species in two fungal genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium under virtually all agricultural environments. Hence, OTA occurs frequently in agricultural commodities and their downstream products worldwide. In this study, thermal stability of OTA in the presence of sugars commonly added to food products including glucose, fructose, and sucrose was investigated by analyzing their reaction products with HPLC-FLD and LC-MS/MS. Samples were heated at three different temperatures (100, 125, and 150 °C) in 10-min intervals for up to 60 min in the absence of food matrix. Analysis showed increased OTα and OTα-amide and decreased OTA isomer (14-R-OTA) formation when OTA was heated with sugars. Among the sugars tested, adding fructose resulted in significantly lower OTA levels than glucose, sucrose, or no sugar added control. Addition of fructose also shifted OTA degradation product profile to less toxic OTα-amide, instead of OTA isomer which has similar toxicity to OTA. These results suggest that added sugars influenced the levels of OTA and its degradation products formed during thermal processing, and may provide a means to reduce the toxicity of OTA in food.

10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain assessment and management are important in postoperative circumstances as overdosing of opioids can induce respiratory depression and critical consequences. We aimed this study to check the reliability of commonly used pain scales in a postoperative setting among Korean adults. We also intended to determine cut-off points of pain scores between mild and moderate pain and between moderate and severe pain by which can help to decide to use pain medication. METHODS: A total of 180 adult patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery were included. Postoperative pain intensity was rated with a visual analog scale (VAS), numeric rating scale (NRS), faces pain scale revised (FPS-R), and verbal rating scale (VRS). The VRS rated pain according to four grades: none, mild, moderate, and severe. Pain assessments were performed twice: when the patients were alert enough to communicate after arrival at the postoperative care unit (PACU) and 30 min after arrival at the PACU. The levels of agreement among the scores were evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The cut-off points were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The ICCs among the VAS, NRS, and FPS-R were consistently high (0.839-0.945). The pain categories were as follow: mild ≦ 5.3 / moderate 5.4 ~ 7.1 /severe ≧ 7.2 in VAS, mild ≦ 5 / moderate 6 ~ 7 / severe ≧ 8 in NRS, mild ≦ 4 / moderate 6 / severe 8 and 10 in FPS-R. The cut-off points for analgesics request were VAS ≧ 5.5, NRS ≧ 6, FPS-R ≧ 6, and VRS ≧ 2 (moderate or severe pain). CONCLUSIONS: During the immediate postoperative period, VAS, NRS, and FPS-R were well correlated. The boundary between mild and moderate pain was around five on 10-point scales, and it corresponded to the cut-off point of analgesic request. Healthcare providers should consider VRS and other patient-specific signs to avoid undertreatment of pain or overdosing of pain medication.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(1): 238-246, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with various morbidities. Although the relationship between cardiovascular disease and PD has been studied, a paucity of information on PD and atrial fibrillation (AF) association exists. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether patients with PD have an increased risk of AF. METHODS: This study included 57,585 patients with newly diagnosed PD (≥40-year-old, mean age 69.7 years, men 40.2%) and without a history of AF from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database between 2010 and 2015. Furthermore, an equal number of age- and sex-matched subjects without PD were selected for comparison. The primary outcome was new-onset AF. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 3.4 ± 1.8 years, AF was newly diagnosed in 3,665 patients. A significantly higher incidence rate of AF was noted among patients with PD than among patients without PD (10.75 and 7.86 per 1000 person-year, respectively). Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that PD was an independent risk factor for AF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.36). Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed that AF risk was higher in the younger age subgroups, and compared with the non-PD group, the youngest PD group (age: 40-49 years) had a threefold increased risk of AF (HR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.20-7.77). INTERPRETATION: Patients with PD, especially the younger age subgroups, have an increased risk of AF. Active surveillance and management of AF should be considered to prevent further complications.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e017783, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372535

RESUMO

Background Although occult hemoglobin in feces is universally valued as a screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC), only few studies investigated the clinical meaning of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in other diseases. We evaluated the clinical utility of FIT in patients with cardiovascular diseases (namely, ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction [MI]). Methods and Results Using the National Health Insurance database, participants (aged >50 years) with CRC screening records from 2009 to 2012 were screened and followed up. Subjects with a history of cardiovascular diseases and CRC were excluded. Ischemic stroke, MI, and other comorbidities were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), codes. Age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and body mass index were adjusted in a multivariate analysis. A total of 6 277 446 subjects were eligible for analysis. During the mean 6.79 years of follow-up, 168 570 participants developed ischemic stroke, 105 983 developed MI, and 11 253 deaths were observed. A multivariate-adjusted model revealed that the risk of ischemic stroke was higher in the FIT-positive population (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% CI, 1.07-1.11). Similarly, FIT-positive subjects were at an increased risk of MI (adjusted HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12). Moreover, increased all-cause mortality was observed in the FIT-positive population (adjusted HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23). The increased risk remained consistent in the stratified analysis on anemia and CRC status. Conclusions Positive FIT findings were associated with ischemic stroke, MI, and mortality. Occult blood in feces may offer more clinical information than its well-known conventional role in CRC screening.

13.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(12): 1397-1407, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271028

RESUMO

In order to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed a list of recommended preventative health behaviors for Americans to enact, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and limiting nonessential trips from home. Drawing upon scarcity theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the economic stressors of perceived job insecurity and perceived financial insecurity are related to employee self-reports of enacting such behaviors. Moreover, we tested propositions regarding the impact of two state-level contextual variables that may moderate those relationships: the generosity of unemployment insurance benefits and extensiveness of statewide COVID-19-related restrictions. Using a multilevel data set of N = 745 currently employed U.S. workers nested within 43 states, we found that both job insecurity and financial insecurity were negatively related to the enactment of the CDC-recommended guidelines. However, the state-level variables acted as cross-level moderators, such that the negative relationship between job insecurity and compliance with the CDC guidelines was attenuated within states that have a more robust unemployment system. However, working in a state with more extensive COVID-19 restrictions seemed to primarily benefit more financially secure workers. When statewide policies were more restrictive, employees reporting more financial security were more likely to enact the CDC-recommended guidelines compared to their financially insecure counterparts. We discuss these findings in light of the continuing need to develop policies to address the public health crisis while also protecting employees facing economic stressors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

14.
Gut Liver ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293482

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Unlike other gastrointestinal tract cancers, there are relatively few reports on the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and TWIST, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of TWIST expression in CTCs in patients with ESCC. Methods: Peripheral blood samples for CTC analyses were prospectively obtained from 52 patients with ESCC prior to treatment between September 2017 and September 2019. CTCs were detected using a centrifugal microfluidic system based on a fluid-assisted separation technique, and CTCs positive for TWIST on immunostaining were defined as TWIST (+) CTCs. Results: Of the 52 patients with ESCC, CTCs and TWIST (+) CTCs were detected in 44 patients (84.6%) and 39 patients (75.0%), respectively. The CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts were significantly higher in patients aged >65 years and those who had a large tumor (>3 cm) than in those aged ≤65 years and those who had a small tumor (≤3 cm), respectively. There were no differences in CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts according to tumor location, histologic grade, or TNM stage. TWIST (+) CTCs were significantly associated with histologic grade; a proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs ≥0.5 was significantly associated with advanced histologic grade. Other clinicopathologic characteristics such as sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, and TNM stages were not significantly associated with TWIST (+) CTCs. Conclusions: Our study showed that TWIST (+) CTCs were frequently detected in patients with ESCC, and a high proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs was associated with poor differentiation.

15.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in managing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) due to genital tract injury after vaginal delivery and to investigate factors associated with outcome of TAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 43 women (mean age, 32.6 years) who underwent TAE to manage PPH secondary to genital tract injury after vaginal delivery was performed at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2018. Clinical data and outcomes were obtained. Patients were classified into clinical success (n = 39) and failure (n = 4) groups, and comparisons between the groups were performed. RESULTS: The clinical success rate of TAE for PPH due to genital tract injury was 90.7%. In the clinical failure group, transfusion volumes were higher (failure vs success: packed red blood cells, 14 pt ± 3.37 vs 6.26 pt ± 4.52, P = .003; platelets, 10.33 pt ± 4.04 vs 2.92 pt ± 6.15, P = .036); hemoglobin levels before the procedure were lower (failure vs success: 7.3 g/dL vs 10.7, P = .016). Periprocedural complications included pulmonary edema (25.6%), fever (23.3%), and pain (9.3%). Twenty-four patients were either followed for > 6 months or answered a telephone survey; 23 (95.8%) recovered regular menstruation, and pregnancy was confirmed in 11 (45.8%). Regarding fertility desires, 7 women attempted to conceive, 6 of whom (85.7%) became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: TAE is an effective and safe method for managing PPH due to genital tract injury after vaginal delivery. Lower hemoglobin levels before the procedure and higher transfusion volumes were associated with clinical failure of TAE.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19867, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199767

RESUMO

Intestinal fibrosis induced by chronic and recurrent colitis, which is exacerbated by bowel stenosis, stricture, and obstruction, is challenging to treat. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulates innate and acquired immunity in response to specific microbial components, but the role of TLR4 in intestinal fibrosis is largely unknown. We investigated its role in intestinal fibrosis using not only a murine fibrosis model but also human myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Colon fibrosis was induced in TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) mice and its wild-type counterparts with 3% dextran sulfate sodium. Absence of TLR4 gene attenuated chronic inflammation and colonic macrophages infiltration; intestinal fibrosis and collagen deposition were suppressed. Also, the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40, and transforming growth factor-ß was reduced in TLR4-deficient peritoneal macrophages. TLR4 was silenced in CCD-18Co cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and matrix metalloproteinase-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and collagen α1 expression was evaluated. Role of TLR4 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated in HCT116 cells. Suppression of TLR4 transcription by siRNAs affected myofibroblasts activity, collagen synthesis, and EMT in the human cancer cell line. Thus, we suggest that TLR4 can be an essential mediator in intestinal chronic inflammation and fibrosis, indicating that TLR4 signaling is a potential therapeutic target for intestinal fibrosis.

17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 469, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have unique immunomodulatory properties. Phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1) regulates the self-renewal ability of stem cells and promotes proliferation. Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the orbit and is characterized by increased orbital levels of adipose tissue. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic mechanism for regulation of adipogenesis by PRL-1-overexpressing PD-MSCs (PD-MSCsPRL-1, PRL-1+) in orbital fibroblast (OF) with GO patients. METHODS: PD-MSCs isolated from human placenta were transfected with the PRL-1 gene using nonviral transfection method. Primary OFs were isolated from orbital adipose tissue specimens from GO patients. After maturation as adipogenic differentiation, normal and GO-derived OFs were cocultured with naïve and PD-MSCsPRL-1. We analyzed the protein levels of adipogenesis markers and their signaling pathways in OFs from GO patients. RESULTS: The characteristics of PD-MSCsPRL-1 were similar to those of naïve cells. OFs from GO patients induced adipocyte differentiation and had significantly decreased a lipid accumulation after coculture with PD-MSCsPRL-1 compared to naïve cells. The mRNA and protein expression of adipogenic markers was decreased in PD-MSCsPRL-1. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) secreting PD-MSCsPRL-1 downregulated the phosphorylated PI3K/AKT/mTOR expression in OFs from GO patients. Interestingly, IGFBP2, - 4, - 6, and - 7 expression in PD-MSCsPRL-1, which was mediated by integrin alpha 4 (ITGA4) and beta 7 (ITGB7), was higher than that in naïve cells and upregulated phosphorylated FAK downstream factor. CONCLUSION: In summary, IGFBPs secreting PD-MSCPRL-1 inhibit adipogenesis in OFs from GO patients by upregulating phosphorylated FAK and downregulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The functional enhancement of PD-MSCs by nonviral gene modification provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of degenerative diseases.

18.
Investig Clin Urol ; 61(6): 573-581, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to avoid misclassification of patients with clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) into active surveillance (AS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with Gleason grade group (GG) 1 PCa on systematic biopsy who underwent mpMRI before radical prostatectomy (RP) were included. mpMRI and pathologic results were compared between the AS and NOT-AS candidates. Unfavorable disease was defined as the identification of T3-4 disease or GG upgrade in the RP specimen. We established an ideal cutoff Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score for predicting unfavorable disease, and analyzed the location of index lesions on mpMRI. RESULTS: PI-RADS scores were not significantly different between AS candidates (n=64) and NOT-AS candidates (n=136; p=0.629). Among 64 AS candidates, GG upgrading and unfavorable disease were diagnosed after RP in 24 (37.5%) and 25 (39.1%) patients, respectively. The rate of unfavorable disease was greater for patients with a PI-RADS score of 5 (83.3%) than in those with a score ≤4 (34.5%; p=0.030). Moreover, most PI-RADS 5 lesions in AS candidates were located in the anterior half of the prostate, with GG upgrading on targeted biopsy in 75.0% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients with GG 1 PCa, PI-RADS scores did not differ significantly between AS and NOT-AS candidates. Nonetheless, AS candidates with PI-RADS 5 lesions were diagnosed with unfavorable disease in >80% of RP specimens. Significant cancer located in the anterior half of the prostate including the transitional zone can be missed by systematic biopsy.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(37): 5661-5672, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues. The effect of periodontitis on the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. AIM: To assessed the risk of IBD among patients with periodontitis, and the risk factors for IBD related to periodontitis. METHODS: A nationwide population-based cohort study was performed using claims data from the Korean National Healthcare Insurance Service. In total, 9950548 individuals aged ≥ 20 years who underwent national health screening in 2009 were included. Newly diagnosed IBD [Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)] using the International Classification of Disease 10th revision and rare intractable disease codes, was compared between the periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups until 2017. RESULTS: A total of 1092825 individuals (11.0%) had periodontitis. Periodontitis was significantly associated with older age, male gender, higher body mass index, quitting smoking, not drinking alcohol, and regular exercise. The mean age was 51.4 ± 12.9 years in the periodontitis group and 46.6 ± 14.2 years in the non-periodontitis group (P < 0.01), respectively. The mean body mass index was 23.9 ± 3.1 and 23.7 ± 3.2 in the periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Men were 604307 (55.3%) and 4844383 (54.7%) in the periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 7.26 years. Individuals with periodontitis had a significantly higher risk of UC than those without periodontitis [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.091; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.008-1.182], but not CD (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.879; 95% confidence interval: 0.731-1.057). The risks for UC were significant in the subgroups of age ≥ 65 years, male gender, alcohol drinker, current smoker, and reduced physical activity. Current smokers aged ≥ 65 years with periodontitis were at a 1.9-fold increased risk of UC than non-smokers aged ≥ 65 years without periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Periodontitis was significantly associated with the risk of developing UC, but not CD, particularly in current smokers aged ≥ 65 years.

20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(39): e327, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volume has been introduced to surgical patients to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. We investigated the effects of protective ventilation (PV) techniques on anesthesia-induced atelectasis identified via lung ultrasonography in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: A total of 42 adult patients who were scheduled for open abdominal surgery with an expected duration > 2 hours were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either conventional ventilation (CV; tidal volume of 9-10 mL/kg predicted body weight [PBW] with no positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]) or PV (tidal volume of 6-8 mL/kg PBW and 5 cmH2O PEEP) via pressure-controlled ventilation with volume guaranteed. Lung ultrasonography was performed at four predefined time points to assess perioperative atelectasis by dividing each hemithorax into six quadrants based on a modified lung ultrasound (LUS) scoring system. RESULTS: The tidal volume delivered to patients was 9.65 ± 1.65 mL/kg PBW in the CV group and 6.31 ± 0.62 mL/kg PBW in the PV group. Ventilation using low tidal volume led to similar LUS scores in all lung areas and at all time points compared to ventilation using high tidal volume. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of patients requiring recruitment maneuvers at the end of surgery. CONCLUSION: Ventilation with low tidal volume combined with 5 cmH2O PEEP did not cause further loss of aeration compared to ventilation with high tidal volume. Low tidal volume ventilation can be used in patients without lung injury based on lung assessment by bedside lung ultrasonography. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003746.

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