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1.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 781-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452043

RESUMO

The phytopathogenic Burkholderia species B. glumae and B. plantarii are the causal agents of bacterial wilt, grain rot, and seedling blight, which threaten the rice industry globally. Toxoflavin and tropolone are produced by these phytopathogens and are considered the most hostile biohazards with a broad spectrum of target organisms. However, despite their nonspecific toxicity, the effects of toxoflavin and tropolone on bacteria remain unknown. RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis was employed to determine the genome-wide expression patterns under phytotoxin treatment. Expression of 2327 and 830 genes was differentially changed by toxoflavin and tropolone, respectively. Enriched biological pathways reflected the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome function, beginning with the inhibition of membrane biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism under oxidative stress or iron starvation. Conversely, several systems such as bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation, and sulfur/taurine transporters were highly expressed as countermeasures against the phytotoxins. In addition, our findings revealed that three hub genes commonly induced by both phytotoxins function as the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelator. Our study provides new insights into the effects of phytotoxins on bacteria for better understanding of the interactions between phytopathogens and other microorganisms. These data will also be applied as a valuable source in subsequent applications against phytotoxins, the major virulence factor.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Burkholderia/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Tropolona/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/metabolismo , Tropolona/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141941

RESUMO

Tristetraprolin (TTP), a well-characterized AU-rich element (ARE) binding protein, functions as a tumor suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a bioactive substance derived from a natural medicinal plant affects the induction of TTP and to elucidate its mechanism. We examined the effects of natural bioactive materials including Resveratrol (RSV), thymoquinone (TQ) and curcumin on the expression of TTP in cancer cell. TQ derived from a natural plant Nigella sativa increased the expression levels of TTP mRNA and proteins in a dose-dependent manner in gastric and breast cancer cells. TQ-induced TTP increased the instability of MUC4 mRNA by direct binding of TTP to ARE in the 3'UTR of MUC4 mRNA. The induction of TTP by TQ also reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. The expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT)-related genes, which were target genes of TTP, was also decreased by the TQ treatment. In the in vivo experiments using mouse melanoma cells, TQ-induced TTP inhibited metastasis of tumor cells. We have found that TQ-induced TTP might inhibit metastasis by reducing tumor cell migration and invasion through destabilization of MUC4 mRNA, which suggest the MUC4 as a novel target to TTP.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086120

RESUMO

Kombucha tea (KT) has emerged as a substance that protects the liver from damage; however, its mechanisms of action on the fatty liver remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the potential role of KT and its underlying mechanisms on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). db/db mice that were fed methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diets for seven weeks were treated for vehicle (M + V) or KT (M + K) and fed with MCD for four additional weeks. Histomorphological injury and increased levels of liver enzymes and lipids were evident in the M + V group, whereas these symptoms were ameliorated in the M + K group. The M + K group had more proliferating and less apoptotic hepatocytic cells than the M + V group. Lipid uptake and lipogenesis significantly decreased, and free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation increased in the M + K, when compared with the M + V group. With the reduction of hedgehog signaling, inflammation and fibrosis also declined in the M + K group. Palmitate (PA) treatment increased the accumulation of lipid droplets and decreased the viability of primary hepatocytes, whereas KT suppressed PA-induced damage in these cells by enhancing intracellular lipid disposal. These results suggest that KT protects hepatocytes from lipid toxicity by influencing the lipid metabolism, and it attenuates inflammation and fibrosis, which contributes to liver restoration in mice with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Chá de Kombucha , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Palmitatos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Hedgehog , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 32(5): 251-265, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084462

RESUMO

Background: A highly potent pan-Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor with excellent kinome selectivity was developed for topical delivery to treat severe asthma. This poorly soluble drug discovery candidate, iJAK-001, is expected to exhibit long duration of JAK/STAT pathway inhibition at low doses in asthmatics because of depot effect after dry powder inhalation. Human dose projection for inhaled molecules with low aqueous solubility remains to be a daunting challenge because of several limitations: (1) bioanalytical measurement of dissolved fraction after inhalation of solid particles is uncertain; (2) distribution of these particles is not homogenous in the lung; (3) in vitro solubility measurements to estimate fraction dissolved may not be a reflection of local surface lung concentration; (4) lack of a surrogate biomarker of lung target engagement, and (5) invasive procedure needed to sample human lung tissue in the clinic. Methods: We leveraged in silico, in vitro, and in vivo tools preclinically and found significant differences in lung to plasma partition ratio when iJAK-001 was given intravenously (IV) or intratracheally in a solution-based formulation versus that in suspension, as well as pharmacodynamic response in preclinical asthma models when delivered systemically via IV infusion versus inhaled. Results and Conclusion: The combined results from above suggest that caution must be exercised using either lung or plasma exposure for human dose projection. Instead, using the local inhibitor concentration estimate based on delivery efficiency, dose, fraction absorbed, and rate of absorption normalized by lung (cardiac) blood flow may be more appropriate for dose projection.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4777, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886220

RESUMO

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a useful marker for the diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In addition, PCT is affected by renal function. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between PCT and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Hence, we investigated whether serum PCT levels at the time of admission were associated with the development of AKI and clinical outcomes. A total of 790 patients in whom PCT was measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) were analyzed retrospectively. We attempted to investigate whether serum PCT levels measured at the time of admission could be used as a risk factor for the development of AKI in septic and nonseptic patients or as a risk factor for all-cause mortality, and diagnostic usefulness of PCT was further assessed. Serum PCT levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without AKI (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical factors, laboratory findings, and comorbidities, PCT as a continuous variable showed a significant association with AKI (OR 1.006, 95% CI [1.000-1.011]; P = 0.035). However, PCT was not effective in predicting mortality. The cut-off value of PCT for the prediction of AKI incidence was calculated to be 0.315 ng/ml, with sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 56.9%, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) from an equation adjusted for optimum thresholds of PCT levels for developing AKI with and without sepsis were 2.422 (1.222-4.802, P = 0.011) and 1.798 (1.101-2.937, P = 0.019), respectively. However, there were no absolute differences between the pre- and posttest probabilities after including the PCT value for AKI development. This study suggests that the PCT value was higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients, but PCT measurement at the time of admission did not improve the prediction model for AKI.

6.
Innate Immun ; 25(2): 132-143, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774010

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation and intestinal epithelial injury. Loss of function mutations in the intracellular bacterial sensor NOD2 are major risk factors for the development of CD. In the absence of robust bacterial recognition by NOD2 an inflammatory cascade is initiated through alternative PRRs leading to CD. In the present study, MCC950, a specific small molecule inhibitor of NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), abrogated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation in Nod2-/- mice. NLRP3 inflammasome formation was observed at a higher rate in NOD2-deficient small intestinal lamina propria cells after insult by DSS. NLRP3 complex formation led to an increase in IL-1ß secretion in both the small intestine and colon of Nod2ko mice. This increase in IL-1ß secretion in the intestine was attenuated by MCC950 leading to decreased disease severity in Nod2ko mice. Our work suggests that NLRP3 inflammasome activation may be a key driver of intestinal inflammation in the absence of functional NOD2. NLRP3 pathway inhibition can prevent intestinal inflammation in the absence of robust NOD2 signaling.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499999

RESUMO

Chiral differentiation of protonated isoleucine (Ile) using permethylated ß-cyclodextrin (perCD) in the gas-phase was studied using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, ion-mobility, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The gaseous protonated non-covalent complexes of perCD and d-Ile or l-Ile produced by electrospray ionization were interrogated by laser pulses in the wavenumber region of 2650 to 3800 cm-1. The IRMPD spectra showed remarkably different IR spectral features for the d-Ile or l-Ile and perCD non-covalent complexes. However, drift-tube ion-mobility experiments provided only a small difference in their collision cross-sections, and thus a limited separation of the d- and l-Ile complexes. DFT calculations revealed that the chiral distinction of the d- and l-complexes by IRMPD spectroscopy resulted from local interactions of the protonated Ile with perCD. Furthermore, the theoretical results showed that the IR absorption spectra of higher energy conformers (by ∼13.7 kcal mol-1) matched best with the experimentally observed IRMPD spectra. These conformers are speculated to be formed from kinetic-trapping of the solution-phase conformers. This study demonstrated that IRMPD spectroscopy provides an excellent platform for differentiating the subtle chiral difference of a small amino acid in a cyclodextrin-complexation environment; however, drift-tube ion-mobility did not have sufficient resolution to distinguish the chiral difference.

8.
Plant Pathol J ; 34(5): 412-425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369851

RESUMO

The Hfq protein is a global small RNA chaperone that interacts with regulatory bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) and plays a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The roles of Hfq in the virulence and pathogenicity of several infectious bacteria have been reported. This study was conducted to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in Burkholderia glumae, a causal agent of rice grain rot. Therefore, mutant strains of the rice-pathogenic B. glumae BGR1, targeting each of the two hfq genes, as well as the double defective mutant were constructed and tested for several phenotypic characteristics. Bacterial swarming motility, toxoflavin production, virulence in rice, siderophore production, sensitivity to H2O2, and lipase production assays were conducted to compare the mutant strains with the wild-type B. glumae BGR1 and complementation strains. The hfq1 gene showed more influence on bacterial motility and toxoflavin production than the hfq2 gene. Both genes were involved in the full virulence of B. glumae in rice plants. Other biochemical characteristics such as siderophore production and sensitivity to H2O2 induced oxidative stress were also found to be regulated by the hfq1 gene. However, lipase activity was shown to be unassociated with both tested genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in B. glumae. Identification of virulence-related factors in B. glumae will facilitate the development of efficient control measures.

9.
Genes Genomics ; 40(11): 1157-1167, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315522

RESUMO

Sulfolobus species can grow on a variety of organic compounds as carbon and energy sources. These species degrade glucose to pyruvate by the modified branched Entner-Doudoroff pathway. We attempted to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under sugar-limited and sugar-rich conditions. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to quantify the expression of the genes and identify those DEGs between the S. acidocaldarius cells grown under sugar-rich (YT with glucose) and sugar-limited (YT only) conditions. The functions and pathways of the DEGs were examined using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the DEGs. Transcriptome analysis of the DSM 639 strain grown on sugar-limited and sugar-rich media revealed that 853 genes were differentially expressed, among which 481 were upregulated and 372 were downregulated under the glucose-supplemented condition. In particular, 70 genes showed significant changes in expression levels of ≥ twofold. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that the genes encoding components of central carbon metabolism, the respiratory chain, and protein and amino acid biosynthetic machinery were upregulated under the glucose condition. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the sulfur assimilation genes (Saci_2197-2204) including phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and sulfite reductase were significantly upregulated in the presence of glucose. The present study revealed metabolic networks in S. acidocaldarius that are induced in a glucose-dependent manner, improving our understanding of biomass production under sugar-rich conditions.

10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(35): e226, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140191

RESUMO

Background: Asbestos exposure causes asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) including asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer. Although Korea used substantial amounts of asbestos in the past, no study has focused on its occupational burden of disease (OBD). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the OBDs of ARDs in Korea. Methods: The CARcinogen Exposure (CAREX) database was used to determine the proportion of exposed population. Relative risks for lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer were used to determine the population-attributable fraction. Data for deaths caused by ARDs during 1998-2013 were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. The potential years of life lost (PYLL) and annual average PYLL (APYLL) indicated OBDs. Results: In Korea, the number of ARD-attributable deaths and PYLL due to all ARDs during 1998-2013 were 4,492 and 71,763.7, respectively. The number of attributable deaths and PYLL due to asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer were 37 and 554.2, 808 and 15,877.0, 3,256 and 47,375.9, 120 and 1,605.5, and 271 and 6,331.1, respectively; additionally, the APYLL were 15.0, 19.7, 14.6, 13.4, and 23.4, respectively, and the average age at death was 70.4, 62.6, 69.1, 69.9, and 61.8, respectively. Our study showed that although the use of asbestos has ceased in Korea, the incidence of ARDs tends to increase. Conclusion: Therefore, efforts to reduce future OBDs of ARDs, including early detection and proper management of ARDs, are needed in Korea.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153004

RESUMO

Practical applications of innovative host-guest systems are challenging because of unexpected guest competitors and/or subtle environmental differences. Herein, a supramolecular mass spectrometry (MS)-based method using a synthetic host, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), was developed for identifying and quantifying N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in therapeutic glycoproteins, which critically reduces drug efficacy. The development of a reliable derivatization-free analytical method for Neu5Gc is highly challenging because of the interference by the abundant N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). CB[7] recognized the subtle structural differences between Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac. Distinct host-guest interactions between CB[7] and the two sialic acids produced a highly linear relationship between the complexation and concentration proportions of the two sialic acids in MS. Furthermore, the developed method had sub-picomolar quantification limits and a wide range of applicability for diverse glycoproteins, demonstrating the potential utility of this method as a reliable assay of Neu5Gc in therapeutic glycoproteins.

12.
Plant Pathol J ; 34(2): 104-112, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628816

RESUMO

Accurate and rapid detection of bacterial plant pathogen is the first step toward disease management and prevention of pathogen spread. Bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn), Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss), and Rathayibacter tritici (Rt) cause Goss's bacterial wilt and blight of maize, Stewart's wilt of maize and spike blight of wheat and barley, respectively. The bacterial diseases are not globally distributed and not present in Korea. This study adopted comparative genomics approach and aimed to develop specific primer pairs to detect these three bacterial pathogens. Genome comparison among target pathogens and their closely related bacterial species generated 15-20 candidate primer pairs per bacterial pathogen. The primer pairs were assessed by a conventional PCR for specificity against 33 species of Clavibacter, Pantoea, Rathayibacter, Pectobacterium, Curtobacterium. The investigation for specificity and sensitivity of the primer pairs allowed final selection of one or two primer pairs per bacterial pathogens. In our assay condition, a detection limit of Pss and Cmn was 2 pg/µl of genomic DNA per PCR reaction, while the detection limit for Rt primers was higher. The selected primers could also detect bacterial cells up to 8.8 × 103 cfu to 7.84 × 104 cfu per gram of grain seeds artificially infected with corresponding bacterial pathogens. The primer pairs and PCR assay developed in this study provide an accurate and rapid detection method for three bacterial pathogens of grains, which can be used to investigate bacteria contamination in grain seeds and to ultimately prevent pathogen dissemination over countries.

13.
Analyst ; 143(8): 1786-1796, 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561029

RESUMO

The investigation of ion structures based on a combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) experiments and theoretical collision cross section (CCS) calculations has become important to many fields of research. However, the accuracy of current CCS calculations for ions in nitrogen drift gas limits the information content of many experiments. In particular, few studies have evaluated and attempted to improve the theoretical tools for CCS calculation in nitrogen drift gas. In this study, based on high-quality experimental measurements and theoretical modeling, a comprehensive evaluation of various aspects of CCS calculations in nitrogen drift gas is performed. It is shown that the modification of the ion-nitrogen van der Waals (vdW) interaction potential enables accurate CCS predictions of 29 small ions with ca. 3% maximum relative error. The present method exhibits no apparent systematic bias with respect to ion CCS (size) and dipole moment, suggesting that the method adequately describes the long-range interactions between the ions and the buffer gas. However, the method shows limitations in reproducing experimental CCS at low temperatures (<150 K) and for macromolecular ions, and calculations for these cases should be complemented by CCS calculation methods in helium drift gas. This study presents an accurate and well-characterized CCS calculation method for ions in nitrogen drift gas that is expected to become an important tool for ion structural characterization and molecular identification. The experimental values reported here also provide a foundation for future studies aiming at developing more efficient computational tools.

14.
Mol Microbiol ; 108(6): 661-682, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569300

RESUMO

Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 has three genes (MSMEG_6383, furA1; MSMEG_3460, furA2; MSMEG_6253, furA3) encoding FurA (ferric-uptake regulator A) paralogs. Three FurA paralogs in M. smegmatis are functionally redundant and negatively regulate expression of a subset of genes involved in peroxide detoxification such as ahpC, katG1 and katG2, as well as their own genes. The FurA paralogs sense H2 O2 via metal-catalyzed His oxidation (MCHO) in the same way as PerR. The propensity of FurA2 and FurA3 for MCHO is greater than that of FurA1. The three furA genes are transcribed into leaderless mRNAs lacking the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. FurA1 and FurA3 have the quaternary structure of homodimers like most Fur homologs, whereas FurA2 occurs as a monomer. The monomeric structure of FurA2 is determined by the C-terminal region of its dimerization domain. FurA2 monomers appear to cooperatively bind to the FurA-binding site with an inverted repeat configuration and have a broader binding specificity for the target DNA than dimeric FurA1 and FurA3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that the FurA paralogs do not regulate genes related to iron homeostasis in M. smegmatis, and that expression of SigF-regulated genes is significantly decreased in a furA triple mutant relative to the wild-type strain of M. smegmatis.

15.
Plant Pathol J ; 34(1): 11-22, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422784

RESUMO

Type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs) are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL) were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM) of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif) (MIX T6SEs), 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 31, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295978

RESUMO

Bacterial-fungal interactions are widely found in distinct environments and contribute to ecosystem processes. Previous studies of these interactions have mostly been performed in soil, and only limited studies of aerial plant tissues have been conducted. Here we show that a seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Burkholderia glumae (Bg), and an air-borne plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum (Fg), interact to promote bacterial survival, bacterial and fungal dispersal, and disease progression on rice plants, despite the production of antifungal toxoflavin by Bg. We perform assays of toxoflavin sensitivity, RNA-seq analyses, lipid staining and measures of triacylglyceride content to show that triacylglycerides containing linolenic acid mediate resistance to reactive oxygen species that are generated in response to toxoflavin in Fg. As a result, Bg is able to physically attach to Fg to achieve rapid and expansive dispersal to enhance disease severity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Burkholderia/fisiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interações Microbianas , Mutação , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Triazinas/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacologia
17.
Plant Pathol J ; 33(4): 370-381, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811754

RESUMO

Rathayibacter tritici, which is a Gram positive, plant pathogenic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterium, causes spike blight in wheat and barley. For successful pathogenesis, R. tritici is associated with Anguina tritici, a nematode, which produces seed galls (ear cockles) in certain plant varieties and facilitates spread of infection. Despite significant efforts, little research is available on the mechanism of disease or bacteria-nematode association of this bacterium due to lack of genomic information. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of R. tritici NCPPB 1953 with diverse features of this strain. The whole genome consists of one circular chromosome of 3,354,681 bp with a GC content of 69.48%. A total of 2,979 genes were predicted, comprising 2,866 protein coding genes and 49 RNA genes. The comparative genomic analyses between R. tritici NCPPB 1953 and R. toxicus strains identified 1,052 specific genes in R. tritici NCPPB 1953. Using the BlastKOALA database, we revealed that the flexible genome of R. tritici NCPPB 1953 is highly enriched in 'Environmental Information Processing' system and metabolic processes for diverse substrates. Furthermore, many specific genes of R. tritici NCPPB 1953 are distributed in substrate-binding proteins for extracellular signals including saccharides, lipids, phosphates, amino acids and metallic cations. These data provides clues on rapid and stable colonization of R. tritici for disease mechanism and nematode association.

18.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180870, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719615

RESUMO

While the immune system is essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis, health and survival of humans, aberrant immune responses can lead to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological modulation of drug targets in the immune system to ameliorate disease also carry a risk of immunosuppression that could lead to adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the 'immune fingerprint' of novel therapeutics as they relate to current and, clinically used immunological therapies to better understand their potential therapeutic benefit as well as immunosuppressive ability that might lead to adverse events such as infection risks and cancer. Since the mechanistic investigation of pharmacological modulators in a drug discovery setting is largely compound- and mechanism-centric but not comprehensive in terms of immune system impact, we developed a human tissue based functional assay platform to evaluate the impact of pharmacological modulators on a range of innate and adaptive immune functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate a qualitative and quantitative immune system impact of pharmacological modulators, which might help better understand and predict the benefit-risk profiles of these compounds in the treatment of immune disorders.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Mycobiology ; 45(1): 31-38, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435352

RESUMO

Cordyceps militaris, known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris. The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry.

20.
Plant Pathol J ; 33(2): 148-162, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381962

RESUMO

As a step towards discovering novel pathogenesis-related proteins, we performed a genome scale computational identification and characterization of secreted and transmembrane (TM) proteins, which are mainly responsible for bacteria-host interactions and interactions with other bacteria, in the genomes of six representative Burkholderia species. The species comprised plant pathogens (B. glumae BGR1, B. gladioli BSR3), human pathogens (B. pseudomallei K96243, B. cepacia LO6), and plant-growth promoting endophytes (Burkholderia sp. KJ006, B. phytofirmans PsJN). The proportions of putative classically secreted proteins (CSPs) and TM proteins among the species were relatively high, up to approximately 20%. Lower proportions of putative type 3 non-classically secreted proteins (T3NCSPs) (~10%) and unclassified non-classically secreted proteins (NCSPs) (~5%) were observed. The numbers of TM proteins among the three clusters (plant pathogens, human pathogens, and endophytes) were different, while the distribution of these proteins according to the number of TM domains was conserved in which TM proteins possessing 1, 2, 4, or 12 TM domains were the dominant groups in all species. In addition, we observed conservation in the protein size distribution of the secreted protein groups among the species. There were species-specific differences in the functional characteristics of these proteins in the various groups of CSPs, T3NCSPs, and unclassified NCSPs. Furthermore, we assigned the complete sets of the conserved and unique NCSP candidates of the collected Burkholderia species using sequence similarity searching. This study could provide new insights into the relationship among plant-pathogenic, human-pathogenic, and endophytic bacteria.

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