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1.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 105854, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a completed randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 (1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we examine baseline and change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and related biomarkers with randomized treatment and by clinical factors. METHODS: Baseline 25(OH)D was measured in 15,804 participants (mean age 68 years.; 50.8% women; 15.7% African Americans) and in 1660 1-year follow-up samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemiluminescence. Calcium and parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured by chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry respectively. RESULTS: Mean baseline total 25(OH)D (ng/mL ±â€¯SD) was 30.8 ±â€¯10.0 ng/mL, and correlated inversely with iPTH (r = -0.28), p < .001. After adjusting for clinical factors, 25(OH)D (ng/mL ±â€¯SE) was lower in men vs women (29.7 ±â€¯0.30 vs 31.4 ±â€¯0.30, p < .0001) and in African Americans vs whites (27.9 ±â€¯0.29 vs 32.5 ±â€¯0.22, p < .0001). It was also lower with increasing BMI, smoking, and latitude, and varied by season. Mean 1-year 25(OH)D increased by 11.9 ng/mL in the active group and decreased by 0.7 ng/mL in placebo. The largest increases were noted among individuals with low baseline and African Americans. Results were similar for chemiluminescent immunoassay. Mean calcium was unchanged, and iPTH decreased with treatment. CONCLUSION: In VITAL, baseline 25(OH)D varied by clinical subgroups, was lower in men and African Americans. Concentrations increased with vitamin D supplementation, with the greatest increases in those with lower baseline 25(OH)D. The seasonal trends in 25(OH)D, iPTH, and calcium may be relevant when interpreting 25(OH)D levels for clinical treatment decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: VITAL ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01169259.

2.
BMJ ; 366: l5715, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570340
3.
Br J Sports Med ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562122

RESUMO

In the past few decades, the field of physical activity has grown and evolved in scope, depth, visibility and impact around the world. Global progress has been observed in research and practice in physical activity regarding surveillance, health outcomes, correlates/determinants, interventions, translation and policy. The 2012 and 2016 Lancet series on physical activity provide some of the most comprehensive global analysis on various topics within physical activity. Based on the Lancet series and other key developments in the field, literature searches, and expert group meetings and consultation, we provide a global summary on the progress of, gaps in and future directions for physical activity research in the following areas: (1) surveillance and trends, (2) correlates and determinants, (3) health outcomes and (4) interventions, programmes and policies. Besides lessons learnt within each specific area, several recommendations are shared across areas of research, including improvement in measurement, applying a global perspective with a growing emphasis on low-income and middle-income countries, improving inclusiveness and equity in research, making translation an integral part of research for real-world impact, taking an 'upstream' public health approach, and working across disciplines and sectors to co-design research and co-create solutions. We have summarised lessons learnt and recommendations for future research as 'roadmaps' in progress to encourage moving the field of physical activity towards achieving population-level impact globally.

4.
BMJ ; 366: l4570, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response associations between accelerometer assessed total physical activity, different intensities of physical activity, and sedentary time and all cause mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus from inception to 31 July 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies assessing physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry and associations with all cause mortality and reported effect estimates as hazard ratios, odds ratios, or relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Guidelines for meta-analyses and systematic reviews for observational studies and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts. One author performed a full text review and another extracted the data. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Individual level participant data were harmonised and analysed at study level. Data on physical activity were categorised by quarters at study level, and study specific associations with all cause mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Study specific results were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 39 studies were retrieved for full text review; 10 were eligible for inclusion, three were excluded owing to harmonisation challenges (eg, wrist placement of the accelerometer), and one study did not participate. Two additional studies with unpublished mortality data were also included. Thus, individual level data from eight studies (n=36 383; mean age 62.6 years; 72.8% women), with median follow-up of 5.8 years (range 3.0-14.5 years) and 2149 (5.9%) deaths were analysed. Any physical activity, regardless of intensity, was associated with lower risk of mortality, with a non-linear dose-response. Hazards ratios for mortality were 1.00 (referent) in the first quarter (least active), 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.54) in the second quarter, 0.34 (0.26 to 0.45) in the third quarter, and 0.27 (0.23 to 0.32) in the fourth quarter (most active). Corresponding hazards ratios for light physical activity were 1.00, 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68), 0.44 (0.38 to 0.51), and 0.38 (0.28 to 0.51), and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 1.00, 0.64 (0.55 to 0.74), 0.55 (0.40 to 0.74), and 0.52 (0.43 to 0.61). For sedentary time, hazards ratios were 1.00 (referent; least sedentary), 1.28 (1.09 to 1.51), 1.71 (1.36 to 2.15), and 2.63 (1.94 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of total physical activity, at any intensity, and less time spent sedentary, are associated with substantially reduced risk for premature mortality, with evidence of a non-linear dose-response pattern in middle aged and older adults. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018091808.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Mortalidade/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined differences in energy expenditure and bodily movement among children of different weight status during exergames that varied in mode and intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven 8- to 12-year-old children including overweight/obesity (n = 28) and normal weight (n = 29) played three 10-minute interval Xbox One exergames (Fruit Ninja, Kung-Fu, and Shape Up) categorized based on predominantly upper-, whole-, or lower-limb movement, respectively. The authors measured bodily movement through accelerometry and obtained energy expenditure and metabolic equivalent (MET) via indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Energy expended during gameplay was the highest in Shape Up (P < .01) and higher in Kung-Fu than Fruit Ninja (P < .01). Absolute energy expenditure was significantly higher in overweight/obese children (P < .01), but not when controlling for body mass across 3 exergames (P > .05). Based on the MET cut-points, overweight/obese children spent more time at light intensity (<3 METs) for Fruit Ninja (P < .05) and Shape Up (P < .01), but less time at vigorous intensity (≥6 METs) for Kung-Fu (P < .01) and Shape Up (P < .01). Lower-limb movements during Shape Up were less in overweight/obese children (P = .03). CONCLUSION: Although children in both groups expended similar energy relative to their body mass during gameplay, overweight/obese children spent more time at light intensity but less time at vigorous intensity with fewer movements especially while playing a lower limb-controlled exergame.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364705

RESUMO

In this study, we identified plasma metabolites associated with habitual physical activity among 5197 U.S. participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and the Health Professional Follow-up Study (HPFS). Physical activity was assessed every 2-4 years by self-reported questionnaires. Blood was collected in the NHS between 1989-1990, NHSII during 1996-1999, and the HPFS during 1993-1995. Metabolic profiling was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Our study included 337 known metabolites, with 256 of them classified as lipids. We corrected for multiple testing by controlling the tail probability of the proportion of false positives (TPPFP) and accounted for correlated tests using bootstrapping. We independently replicated the identified metabolites among 2305 women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 1993. After adjusting for multiple variables including body mass index, physical activity was significantly associated with 20 metabolites after correcting for multiple testing (TPPFP<0.05). Specifically, physical activity was positively associated with two amino acids (citrulline and glycine), four cholesteryl esters [CEs] (C18:2, C18:1, C16:0, and C18:3), eight phosphocholines [PCs] and lysophosphatidylcholines [LPCs] (C36:4 PC-A, C34:3 PC plasmalogen, C36:3 PC plasmalogen, C34:2 PC plasmalogen, C36:2 PC, C18:2 LPC, C20:5 LPC, and C18:1 LPC), and three phosphatidylethanolamines [PEs] and lysophosphatidylethanolamines [LPEs] (C18:2 LPE, C18:1 LPE, and C38:3 PE plasmalogen). Half of the identified metabolites were replicated in the WHI. Our study may help identify biomarkers of physical activity and provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of being physically active on cardiometabolic health.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 121(1): 86-94, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity during adulthood has been consistently associated with lower risk of colorectal cancers, but whether physical activity during adolescence may also play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unclear. METHODS: We included 28,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who provided data on physical activity during adolescence (ages 12-22 years) in 1997 and underwent lower bowel endoscopy (1998-2011). We used logistic regression models for clustered data to examine the association between physical activity during adolescence and risk of adenoma later in life. RESULTS: Physical activity during adolescence was inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenoma (2373 cases), independent of physical activity during adulthood. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of adenoma was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-1.02; Ptrend = 0.03) comparing women with ≥ 72 metabolic equivalent of tasks-hours/week (MET-h/week) to < 21 MET-h/week. Women with high physical activity during both adolescence (≥53.3 MET-h/week) and adulthood (≥23.1 MET-h/week) had significantly lower risk of adenoma (all adenomas: OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66-0.88; advanced adenoma: OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45-0.82) compared to women with low physical activity during both stages of life. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that physical activity during adolescence may lower the risk of colorectal adenoma later in life.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38,369,156 person-years of follow-up, 1,391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1,208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (e.g., current versus never smokers hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95%CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend<0.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (e.g., >40 cigarettes/day versus never smokers HR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend=0.001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming ≥5 versus 0 drinks/day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend=0.04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity between several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.

12.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141585

RESUMO

Importance: A goal of 10 000 steps/d is commonly believed by the public to be necessary for health, but this number has limited scientific basis. Additionally, it is unknown whether greater stepping intensity is associated with health benefits, independent of steps taken per day. Objective: To examine associations of number of steps per day and stepping intensity with all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 18 289 US women from the Women's Health Study who agreed to participate by wearing an accelerometer during waking hours for 7 days between 2011 and 2015. A total of 17 708 women wore and returned their devices; data were downloaded successfully from 17 466 devices. Of these women, 16 741 were compliant wearers (≥10 h/d of wear on ≥4 days) and included in the analyses, which took place between 2018 and 2019. Exposures: Steps per day and several measures of stepping intensity (ie, peak 1-minute cadence; peak 30-minute cadence; maximum 5-minute cadence; time spent at a stepping rate of ≥40 steps/min, reflecting purposeful steps). Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality. Results: Of the 16 741 women who met inclusion criteria, the mean (SD) age was 72.0 (5.7) years. Mean step count was 5499 per day, with 51.4%, 45.5%, and 3.1% of time spent at 0, 1 to 39 (incidental steps), and 40 steps/min or greater (purposeful steps), respectively. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 504 women died. Median steps per day across low-to-high quartiles of distribution were 2718, 4363, 5905, and 8442, respectively. The corresponding quartile hazard ratios (HRs) associated with mortality and adjusted for potential confounders were 1.00 (reference), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.47-0.75), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.41-0.72), and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.30-0.60), respectively (P < .01). In spline analysis, HRs were observed to decline progressively with higher mean steps per day until approximately 7500 steps/d, after which they leveled. For measures of stepping intensity, higher intensities were associated with significantly lower mortality rates; however, after adjusting for steps per day, all associations were attenuated, and most were no longer significant (highest vs lowest quartile for peak 1-minute cadence, HR = 0.87 [95% CI, 0.68-1.11]; peak 30-minute cadence, HR = 0.86 [95% CI, 0.65-1.13]; maximum 5-minute cadence, HR = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.62-1.05]; and time spent at a stepping rate of ≥40 steps/min, HR = 1.27 [95% CI, 0.96-1.68]; P > .05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older women, as few as approximately 4400 steps/d was significantly related to lower mortality rates compared with approximately 2700 steps/d. With more steps per day, mortality rates progressively decreased before leveling at approximately 7500 steps/d. Stepping intensity was not clearly related to lower mortality rates after accounting for total steps per day.

13.
Circulation ; 139(8): 1036-1046, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031411

RESUMO

Background: Evidence that higher sedentary time is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is based mainly on self-reported measures. Few studies have examined whether patterns of sedentary time are associated with higher risk for CVD. Methods: Women from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study (n=5638, aged 63-97, mean age=79±7) with no history of myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke wore accelerometers for 4-to-7 days and were followed for up to 4.9 years for CVD events. Average daily sedentary time and mean sedentary bout duration were the exposures of interest. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD using models adjusted for covariates and subsequently adjusted for potential mediators (body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and CVD-risk biomarkers [fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure]). Restricted cubic spline regression characterized dose-response relationships. Results: There were 545 CVD events during 19,350 person-years. Adjusting for covariates, women in the highest (≥ ~11 hr/day) vs. the lowest (≤ ~9 hr/day) quartile of sedentary time had higher risk for CVD (HR=1.62; CI=1.21-2.17; p-trend <0.001). Further adjustment for potential mediators attenuated but did not eliminate significance of these associations (p-trend<.05, each). Longer vs. shorter mean bout duration was associated with higher risks for CVD (HR=1.54; CI=1.27-2.02; p-trend=0.003) after adjustment for covariates. Additional adjustment for CVD-risk biomarkers attenuated associations resulting in a quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR=1.36; CI=1.01-1.83; p-trend=0.10). Dose-response associations of sedentary time and bout duration with CVD were linear (P-nonlinear >0.05, each). Women jointly classified as having high sedentary time and long bout durations had significantly higher risk for CVD (HR=1.34; CI=1.08-1.65) than women with both low sedentary time and short bout duration. All analyses were repeated for incident coronary heart disease (MI or CVD death) and associations were similar with notably stronger hazard ratios. Conclusions: Both high sedentary time and long mean bout durations were associated in a dose-response manner with increased CVD risk in older women, suggesting that efforts to reduce CVD burden may benefit from addressing either or both component(s) of sedentary behavior.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190419, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874775

RESUMO

Importance: To our knowledge, no studies have examined light physical activity (PA) measured by accelerometry and heart disease in older women. Objective: To investigate whether higher levels of light PA were associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of older women from baseline (March 2012 to April 2014) through February 28, 2017, for up to 4.91 years. The setting was community-dwelling participants from the Women's Health Initiative. Participants were ambulatory women with no history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Exposures: Data from accelerometers worn for a requested 7 days were used to measure light PA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for physician-adjudicated CHD and CVD events across light PA quartiles adjusting for possible confounders. Light PA was also analyzed as a continuous variable with and without adjustment for moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Results: Among 5861 women (mean [SD] age, 78.5 [6.7] years), 143 CHD events and 570 CVD events were observed. The HRs for CHD in the highest vs lowest quartiles of light PA were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70; P for trend <.001) adjusted for age and race/ethnicity and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34-0.99; P for trend = .004) after additional adjustment for education, current smoking, alcohol consumption, physical functioning, comorbidity, and self-rated health. Corresponding HRs for CVD in the highest vs lowest quartiles of light PA were 0.63 (95% CI, 0.49-0.81; P for trend <.001) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-1.00; P for trend = .004). The HRs for a 1-hour/day increment in light PA after additional adjustment for MVPA were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.00; P for trend = .05) for CHD and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99; P for trend = .03) for CVD. Conclusions and Relevance: The present findings support the conclusion that all movement counts for the prevention of CHD and CVD in older women. Large, pragmatic randomized trials are needed to test whether increasing light PA among older women reduces cardiovascular risk.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(4): 230-239, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743265

RESUMO

Background: Low physical fitness, obesity, and the combination of the two in adolescence may be related to risk for disability in adulthood, but this has rarely been studied. Objective: To examine individual and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity in male adolescents with later receipt of a disability pension due to all and specific causes. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Sweden. Participants: 1 079 128 Swedish adolescents aged 16 to 19 years who were conscripted into the military between 1972 and 1994. Measurements: Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) were measured at conscription and were related to information on later receipt of a disability pension obtained from the Social Insurance Agency. Results: Over a median follow-up of 28.3 years, 54 304 men were granted a disability pension. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was strongly associated with later receipt of a disability pension due to all causes (hazard ratio, 3.74 [95% CI, 3.55 to 3.95] for lowest vs. highest fitness decile) and specific causes (psychiatric, musculoskeletal, injuries, nervous system, circulatory, and tumors). Obesity was associated with greater risk for receipt of a disability pension due to all and specific causes, with the greatest risks observed for class II and III obesity. Compared with being unfit, being moderately or highly fit was associated with attenuated risk for receipt of a disability pension across BMI categories. Limitation: The cohort did not include women, had data on smoking and alcohol intake only in a subsample, and lacked repeated measures of exposures and covariates. Conclusion: Low cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and the combination of the two were strongly associated with later chronic disability due to a wide range of diseases and causes. Although additional well-designed studies are required, these findings support the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness and healthy body weight during adolescence to prevent later chronic disease. Primary Funding Source: Karolinska Institutet.

17.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(1): e10418, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphones have great potential for monitoring physical activity. Although a previous laboratory-based study reported that smartphone apps were accurate for tracking step counts, little evidence on their accuracy in free-living conditions currently exists. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the accuracy of step counts measured using iPhone in the real world. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of 54 adults (mean age 31 [SD 10] years) who owned an iPhone and analyzed data collected in 2016 and 2017. Step count was simultaneously measured using a validated pedometer (Kenz Lifecorder) and the iPhone. Participants were asked to carry and use their own iPhones as they typically would while wearing a pedometer on the waist for 7 consecutive days during waking hours. To assess the agreement between the two measurements, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients and prepared a Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: The mean step count measured using the iPhone was 9253 (3787) steps per day, significantly lower by 12% (1277/10,530) than that measured using the pedometer, 10,530 (3490) steps per day (P<.001). The Spearman correlation coefficient between devices was 0.78 (P<.001). The largest underestimation of steps by the iPhone was observed among those who reported to have seldom carried their iPhones (seldom carry: mean -3036, SD 2990, steps/day; sometimes carry: mean -1424, SD 2619, steps/day; and almost always carry: mean -929, SD 1443, steps/day; P for linear trend=.08). CONCLUSIONS: Smartphones may be of practical use to individuals, clinicians, and researchers for monitoring physical activity. However, their data on step counts should be interpreted cautiously because of the possibility of underestimation due to noncarrying time.

20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(9): 1822-1829, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In prospective cohort studies, obesity has been linked with a lower risk of subsequent dementia. Reverse causality, whereby neurodegeneration preceding overt dementia symptoms may lower weight, is a possible explanation of these findings. To explore further the weight-dementia association we followed people from early adulthood, an age at which neurodegeneration has typically yet to begin. METHODS: In all, 33,083 male participants in the Harvard Alumni Health Study underwent a medical examination as undergraduates (typically aged 18 years) during which height, weight, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status were assessed. Subsamples provided height and weight in 1962/6 (mean age 50.7 years), 1977 (58.6), 1988 (67.5), and 1993 (71.1). Dementia deaths were extracted from death certificates (mean follow-up 53.1 years). We used latent class mixed models to create body mass index (BMI) trajectories; for comparison, we also constructed models with cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. RESULTS: We found no association between early life BMI and subsequent dementia (age-adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85, 1.04). We identified two latent class groups based on different BMI trajectories-"early decliners" whose BMI began to decline around age 50 years and "late decliners" whose BMI declined about two decades later. The former experienced a raised risk of dementia-related death compared to the latter (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.14, 2.17). Expected associations were identified between CVD risk factors and CVD death. CONCLUSIONS: In a population likely to be free of dementia neuropathology at BMI measurement, we found no association between BMI at baseline and subsequent dementia-related death. Earlier decline in BMI was, however, associated with dementia, which suggests that findings associating BMI with dementia risk may be influenced by reverse causality.

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