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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

2.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between nut consumption and cardiovascular (CV) mortality remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: to examine whether nut consumption is associated with CV mortality and estimate the proportion of reduced risk of CV mortality explained by intermediate factors. METHODS: We studied 39,167 women from the Women's Health Study; 28,034 provided blood samples. Nut consumption was self-reported at baseline and at follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was cardiovascular death, which was ascertained via medical records, confirmed with the national death index and death certificates. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 19 years, 959 CV deaths occurred. In a multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, postmenopausal status, marital status, family history of premature myocardial infarction and the alternate healthy eating index score, hazard ratios for CV mortality were 0.93 (0.76-1.14) for nut consumption of 1-3 times/month, 0.84 (0.69-1.01) for nut intake of 1 time/week, and 0.73 (0.61-0.87) for nut consumption of ≥2 times/week when compared to women who did not consume nuts (p = 0.0004). LDL and total cholesterol accounted for about 19%, HbA1c 18% and all mediating factors together accounted for about 6.6% of the lower risk of CV mortality for those who consumed nuts ≥2 times/week. For the secondary outcome of CV events, although the effect was noted to be in the same direction with increasing nut consumption associated with lower risk of CV events, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that nut consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality in women. Lipids, inflammatory markers and glucose metabolism account for a modest proportion of the lowered CV mortality observed with nut consumption, assuming a causal nut-CV mortality association.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452861

RESUMO

We appreciate the comments from Tecer et al.1 Our intent in reporting the results of a randomized trial of marine omega-3s and/or vitamin D supplementation and knee pain in a large community-based population of older adults (VITAL)2 , was that our findings would be generalizable to the broader knee osteoarthritis (OA) population and relevant to the practicing clinician. We recruited participants nationwide, reducing biases from focusing only on a local population, but precluding the ability to perform physical exams. We did not include fibromyalgia or mood disorders in the analysis. However, a strength of this trial is the large cohort and randomization such that these potential confounders would be equally distributed among the treatment groups and thus the results still valid.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sedentary time (ST) and/or sedentary behavior patterns are related to incident diabetes in the U.S.'s oldest age-groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Women without physician-diagnosed diabetes (n = 4,839, mean ± SD age = 79 ± 7 years) wore accelerometers for ≥4 days and were followed up to 6 years for self-reported newly diagnosed diabetes requiring treatment with medications. Hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes were estimated across quartiles of accelerometer-measured ST and mean bout duration with use of Cox proportional hazards models. We conducted isotemporal substitution analyses using Cox regression and tested associations with risk for diabetes after statistically replacing ST with light physical activity (PA) or moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and after replacing light PA with MVPA. RESULTS: During 20,949 person-years, 342 diabetes cases were identified. Women in ST quartile (Q)2, Q3, and Q4 (vs. Q1) had incident diabetes HR 1.20 (95% CI 0.87-1.65), 1.33 (0.97-1.82), and 1.21 (0.86-1.70); P trend = 0.04. Respective HRs following additional adjustment for BMI and MVPA were 1.04 (95% CI 0.74-1.47), 1.04 (0.72-1.50), and 0.85 (0.56-1.29); P trend = 0.90. Fully adjusted isotemporal substitution results indicated that each 30 min of ST replaced with MVPA (but not light PA) was associated with 15% lower risk for diabetes (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96]; P = 0.01); the HR for replacing 30 min of light PA with MVPA was 0.85 (95% CI 0.73-0.98); P = 0.03. Mean bout duration was not associated with incident diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Statistically replacing ST or light PA with MVPA was associated with lower diabetes risk in older women. While reducing ST is important for several health outcomes, results indicate that to reduce diabetes risk among older adults, the primary public health focus should be on increasing MVPA.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025850, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206192

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiologic and trial data suggest that vitamin D supplementation may reduce metastatic cancer and cancer mortality, reflecting shared biological pathways. Objective: To follow up on the possible reduction in cancer death in the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) with an evaluation of whether vitamin D reduces the incidence of advanced (metastatic or fatal) cancer and an examination possible effect modification by body mass index. Design, Setting, and Participants: VITAL is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU/d) and marine omega-3 fatty acids (1 g/d). This multicenter clinical trial was conducted in the United States; participants included men aged 50 years or older and women aged 55 years or older who were free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Randomization took place from November 2011 through March 2014, and study medication ended on December 31, 2017. Data for this secondary analysis were analyzed from November 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. Interventions: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU/d) and marine omega-3 fatty acids (1 g/d) supplements. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the present analysis, the primary outcome was a composite incidence of metastatic and fatal invasive total cancer, because the main VITAL study showed a possible reduction in fatal cancer with vitamin D supplementation and effect modification by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) for total cancer incidence reduction for individuals with normal BMI, but not for individuals with overweight or obesity. Secondary analyses included examination of BMI (<25, 25 to < 30, and ≥30) as effect modifiers of the observed associations. Results: Among 25 871 randomized VITAL participants (51% female; mean [SD] age, 67.1 [7.1] years), 1617 were diagnosed with invasive cancer over a median intervention period of 5.3 years (range, 3.8-6.1 years). As previously reported, no significant differences for cancer incidence by treatment arm were observed. However, a significant reduction in advanced cancers (metastatic or fatal) was found for those randomized to vitamin D compared with placebo (226 of 12 927 assigned to vitamin D [1.7%] and 274 of 12 944 assigned to placebo [2.1%]; HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .04). When stratified by BMI, there was a significant reduction for the vitamin D arm in incident metastatic or fatal cancer among those with normal BMI (BMI<25: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.45-0.86]) but not among those with overweight or obesity (BMI 25-<30: HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.68-1.17]; BMI≥30: HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.74-1.49]) (P = .03 for interaction by BMI). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, supplementation with vitamin D reduced the incidence of advanced (metastatic or fatal) cancer in the overall cohort, with the strongest risk reduction seen in individuals with normal weight. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01169259.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141990

RESUMO

A high level of physical fitness, especially cardiorespiratory fitness, is associated with lower incidence of hypertension. However, the relationship between flexibility, which is a component of physical fitness, and the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between flexibility and the incidence of hypertension in a cohort study. A total of 22,972 (14,805 men and 8167 women; median age 49 years) normotensive participants were included in this study. Between April 2001 and March 2002, flexibility (standing forward bending) was measured using a standing trunk flexion meter. The participants were divided into quartiles of flexibility by sex and age group. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg, or a self-reported history of previously diagnosed hypertension or current medication for hypertension at a health examination between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the incidence of hypertension were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise habits, smoking status, and drinking status. During 102,948 person years of follow-up (median 5.6 years), 4235 participants developed hypertension. Compared with the lowest flexibility (quartile 1), hazard ratios and 95% CI were 0.96 (0.88 - 1.04) for quartile 2, 0.94 (0.86 - 1.03) for quartile 3, and 0.83 (0.76 - 0.91) for quartile 4. A high level of flexibility was associated with lower incidence of hypertension, independent of other confounding factors.

9.
Games Health J ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146563

RESUMO

Objective: The benefits of exergaming on executive function in children have been increasingly reported; however, weight-dependent effects of exergames on executive function, and inhibitory control in particular, remain poorly understood. We examined performance on an inhibitory control task at baseline and following acute bouts of exergaming in children who varied in weight status. Materials and Methods: Forty 8-12-year-old children with obesity (n = 20) and normal weight (n = 20) performed neutral, congruent, and incongruent conditions of a Victoria Stroop Test (VST) before and after exergames through an Xbox One in an elementary classroom. We measured time spent in moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity through ActiGraph accelerometers and recorded gameplay time. Results: At baseline, children with obesity relative to their normal-weight peers had significantly longer reaction times (P = 0.011), resulting in significantly longer completion time (P = 0.005) during incongruent trials requiring greater inhibitory control, and therefore had higher interference scores (P = 0.024). However, following acute bouts of exergames, children with obesity compared with their normal-weight counterparts significantly decreased completion time (P = 0.013), made fewer errors (P = 0.012) during incongruent trials, and subsequently had reduced interference effects (P = 0.037). Children with obesity and normal-weight children spent similar time (minutes) (7.8 vs. 8.6, P = 0.725) in moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity during similar gameplay time (8.7 vs. 10.5, P = 0.819). Conclusion: Our results suggest that greater, acute cognitive gains occur in children with obesity relative to normal-weight children following similar intensity and duration of exergames, which may be due to reduced inhibitory control capacity at baseline in childhood obesity.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025466, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211107

RESUMO

Importance: Higher Mediterranean diet (MED) intake has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. Objective: To characterize the relative contribution of conventional and novel biomarkers in MED-associated type 2 diabetes risk reduction in a US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among 25 317 apparently healthy women. The participants with missing information regarding all traditional and novel metabolic biomarkers or those with baseline diabetes were excluded. Participants were invited for baseline assessment between September 1992 and May 1995. Data were collected from November 1992 to December 2017 and analyzed from December 2018 to December 2019. Exposures: MED intake score (range, 0 to 9) was computed from self-reported dietary intake, representing adherence to Mediterranean diet intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through annual questionnaires; reported cases were confirmed by either telephone interview or supplemental questionnaire. Proportion of reduced risk of type 2 diabetes explained by clinical risk factors and a panel of 40 biomarkers that represent different physiological pathways was estimated. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 25 317 female participants was 52.9 (9.9) years, and they were followed up for a mean (SD) of 19.8 (5.8) years. Higher baseline MED intake (score ≥6 vs ≤3) was associated with as much as a 30% lower type 2 diabetes risk (age-adjusted and energy-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62-0.79; when regression models were additionally adjusted with body mass index [BMI]: hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Biomarkers of insulin resistance made the largest contribution to lower risk (accounting for 65.5% of the MED-type 2 diabetes association), followed by BMI (55.5%), high-density lipoprotein measures (53.0%), and inflammation (52.5%), with lesser contributions from branched-chain amino acids (34.5%), very low-density lipoprotein measures (32.0%), low-density lipoprotein measures (31.0%), blood pressure (29.0%), and apolipoproteins (23.5%), and minimal contribution (≤2%) from hemoglobin A1c. In post hoc subgroup analyses, the inverse association of MED diet with type 2 diabetes was seen only among women who had BMI of at least 25 at baseline but not those who had BMI of less than 25 (eg, women with BMI <25, age- and energy-adjusted HR for MED score ≥6 vs ≤3, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.77-1.33; P for trend = .92; women with BMI ≥25: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P for trend < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher MED intake scores were associated with a 30% relative risk reduction in type 2 diabetes during a 20-year period, which could be explained in large part by biomarkers of insulin resistance, BMI, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation.

11.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(24): 1499-1506, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the joint associations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a harmonised meta-analysis including nine prospective cohort studies from four countries. 44 370 men and women were followed for 4.0 to 14.5 years during which 3451 participants died (7.8% mortality rate). Associations between different combinations of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were analysed at study level using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and summarised using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Across cohorts, the average time spent sedentary ranged from 8.5 hours/day to 10.5 hours/day and 8 min/day to 35 min/day for MVPA. Compared with the referent group (highest physical activity/lowest sedentary time), the risk of death increased with lower levels of MVPA and greater amounts of sedentary time. Among those in the highest third of MVPA, the risk of death was not statistically different from the referent for those in the middle (16%; 95% CI 0.87% to 1.54%) and highest (40%; 95% CI 0.87% to 2.26%) thirds of sedentary time. Those in the lowest third of MVPA had a greater risk of death in all combinations with sedentary time; 65% (95% CI 1.25% to 2.19%), 65% (95% CI 1.24% to 2.21%) and 263% (95% CI 1.93% to 3.57%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Higher sedentary time is associated with higher mortality in less active individuals when measured by accelerometry. About 30-40 min of MVPA per day attenuate the association between sedentary time and risk of death, which is lower than previous estimates from self-reported data.

12.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098434

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Interventions that reduce inflammation may delay progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes. We examined the effects of vitamin D3 and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation vs placebo on 5 year changes in serum inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study reports pre-specified secondary outcomes of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial to Prevent and Treat Diabetic Kidney Disease, in which 1312 US adults with type 2 diabetes and without known cardiovascular disease, malignancy, or end-stage kidney disease were randomised using computer-generated random numbers in blocks of eight to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) vs placebo and n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]; 1 g/day) vs placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants, examiners, and researchers assessing outcomes were blinded to intervention assignment. We measured serum IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at baseline and after 2 and 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 333 participants were randomised to vitamin D3 and placebo n-3 fatty acids, 289 to n-3 fatty acids and placebo vitamin D3, 370 to vitamin D3 and n-3 fatty acids, and 320 to 2 placebos; 989 (75%) and 934 (71%) participants returned blood samples at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Participants had a mean age of 67.6 years (46% women). Overall, baseline geometric means of IL-6, hsCRP and NT-proBNP were 1.2 pg/ml, 1.9 mg/l and 262 ng/l, respectively. After 5 years, mean IL-6 and hsCRP remained within 6% of their baseline values while mean NT-proBNP increased by 55% overall. Compared with placebo, participants assigned to vitamin D3 had a 1.24-fold greater increase in NT-proBNP over 5 years (95% CI 1.09, 1.41; p = 0.003), while IL-6 and hsCRP did not have a significant difference in change. Comparing n-3 fatty acids with placebo, there was no significant difference in change in IL-6, hsCRP or NT-proBNP. No heterogeneity was observed in subgroup analyses accounting for baseline eGFR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, initial biomarker concentration, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level or EPA+DHA index. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Among adults with type 2 diabetes, supplementation with vitamin D3 or n-3 fatty acids did not reduce IL-6, hsCRP or NT-proBNP over 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684722 FUNDING: The study was funded by grant R01DK088762 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Graphical abstract.

13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(12): 1280-1289, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119047

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies suggest that higher intake or blood levels of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids may be associated with lower risks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, evidence from randomized trials is limited. Objective: To evaluate whether daily supplementation with vitamin D3, marine ω-3 fatty acids, or both prevents the development or progression of AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design randomized clinical trial of supplementation with vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants included 25 871 men and women in the US. Randomization was from November 2011 to March 2014, and study pill-taking ended as planned on December 31, 2017. Interventions: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 2000 IU per day, and marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was total AMD events, a composite of incident cases of AMD plus cases of progression to advanced AMD among participants with AMD at baseline, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat population. Results: In total, 25 871 participants with a mean (SD) age of 67.1 (7.0) years were included in the trial. Of them, 50.6% were women, 71.3% were self-declared non-Hispanic White participants, and 20.2% were Black participants. During a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 324 participants experienced an AMD event (285 incident AMD and 39 progression to advanced AMD). For vitamin D3, there were 163 events in the treated group and 161 in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.27). For ω-3 fatty acids, there were 157 events in the treated group and 167 in the placebo group (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76-1.17). In analyses of individual components for the primary end point, HRs comparing vitamin D3 groups were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86-1.37) for incident AMD and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.33-1.21) for AMD progression. For ω-3 fatty acids, HRs were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.73-1.17) for incident AMD and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.56-1.97) for AMD progression. Conclusion and Relevance: Neither vitamin D3 nor marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation had a significant overall effect on AMD incidence or progression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01782352.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16534, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024201

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for > 13 cancer sites, although it is unknown whether there is a common mechanism across sites. Evidence suggests a role for impaired branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) metabolism in obesity, insulin resistance, and immunity; thus, we hypothesized circulating BCAAs may be associated with incident obesity-related cancers. We analyzed participants in the prospective Women's Health Study without a history of cancer at baseline blood collection (N = 26,711, mean age = 54.6 years [SD = 7.1]). BCAAs were quantified via NMR spectroscopy, log-transformed, and standardized. We used Cox proportional regression models adjusted for age, race, smoking, diet, alcohol, physical activity, menopausal hormone use, Body Mass Index (BMI), diabetes, and other risk factors. The endpoint was a composite of obesity-related cancers, defined per the International Agency for Research on Cancer 2016 report, over a median 24 years follow-up. Baseline BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 compared with BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m2 was associated with 23% greater risk of obesity-related cancers (n = 2751 events; multivariable HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.37). However, BCAAs were not associated with obesity-related cancers (multivariable HR per SD = 1.01 [0.97-1.05]). Results for individual BCAA metabolites suggested a modest association for leucine with obesity-related cancers (1.04 [1.00-1.08]), and no association for isoleucine or valine (0.99 [0.95-1.03] and 1.00 [0.96-1.04], respectively). Exploratory analyses of BCAAs with individual sites included positive associations between leucine and postmenopausal breast cancer, and isoleucine with pancreatic cancer. Total circulating BCAAs were unrelated to obesity-related cancer incidence although an association was observed for leucine with incident obesity-related cancer.

17.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of glaucoma. METHODS: A total of 27,051 glaucoma-free participants aged 20-87 years underwent physical fitness tests between April 2001 and March 2002. The MPF index was calculated using an age- and sex-specific summed z-score from grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time. The participants were divided into quartiles according to the MPF index and each physical fitness test. Participants were followed up for the development of glaucoma, which was defined based on physician-diagnosed glaucoma at an annual health examination between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios for the incidence of glaucoma were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During follow-up, 303 participants developed glaucoma. Compared with the lowest MPF index group, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing glaucoma was 0.64 (0.46-0.89) for the highest MPF index group (P for trend = .001). Vertical jump and whole-body reaction time were associated with incident glaucoma (P for trend = .01 and <.001, respectively). There were no associations between the other physical fitness tests and the incidence of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Higher MPF is associated with lower incidence of glaucoma.

18.
JAMA ; 324(5): 471-480, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749491

RESUMO

Importance: Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with higher risk for depression later in life, but there have been few long-term, high-dose large-scale trials. Objective: To test the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on late-life depression risk and mood scores. Design, Setting, and Participants: There were 18 353 men and women aged 50 years or older in the VITAL-DEP (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial-Depression Endpoint Prevention) ancillary study to VITAL, a randomized clinical trial of cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention among 25 871 adults in the US. There were 16 657 at risk for incident depression (ie, no depression history) and 1696 at risk for recurrent depression (ie, depression history but no treatment for depression within the past 2 years). Randomization occurred from November 2011 through March 2014; randomized treatment ended on December 31, 2017, and this was the final date of follow-up. Intervention: Randomized assignment in a 2 × 2 factorial design to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d of cholecalciferol) and fish oil or placebo; 9181 were randomized to vitamin D3 and 9172 were randomized to matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms (total of incident and recurrent cases) and the mean difference in mood scores (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ-8]; score range, 0 points [least symptoms] to 24 points [most symptoms]; the minimal clinically important difference for change in scores was 0.5 points). Results: Among the 18 353 randomized participants (mean age, 67.5 [SD, 7.1] years; 49.2% women), the median treatment duration was 5.3 years and 90.5% completed the trial (93.5% among those alive at the end of the trial). Risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the vitamin D3 group (609 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 12.9/1000 person-years) and the placebo group (625 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 13.3/1000 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.09]; P = .62); there were no significant differences between groups in depression incidence or recurrence. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for change in mood scores over time; mean change in PHQ-8 score was not significantly different from zero (mean difference for change in mood scores, 0.01 points [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.05 points]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 50 years or older without clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline, treatment with vitamin D3 compared with placebo did not result in a statistically significant difference in the incidence and recurrence of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms or for change in mood scores over a median follow-up of 5.3 years. These findings do not support the use of vitamin D3 in adults to prevent depression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01169259 and NCT01696435.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitaminas/farmacologia
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

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