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1.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 155, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignancies are molecularly complex and become more resistant with each line of therapy. We hypothesized that offering matched, individualized combination therapies to patients with treatment-naïve, advanced cancers would be feasible and efficacious. Patients with newly diagnosed unresectable/metastatic, poor-prognosis cancers were enrolled in a cross-institutional prospective study. METHODS: A total of 145 patients were included in the study. Genomic profiling (tissue and/or circulating tumor DNA) was performed in all patients, and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry, tumor mutational burden, and microsatellite status assessment were performed in a subset of patients. We evaluated safety and outcomes: disease-control rate (stable disease for ≥ 6 months or partial or complete response), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Seventy-six of 145 patients (52%) were treated, most commonly for non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancers, carcinomas of unknown primary, and hepatobiliary malignancies (53% women; median age, 63 years). The median number of deleterious genomic alterations per patient was 5 (range, 0-15). Fifty-four treated patients (71%) received ≥ 1 molecularly matched therapy, demonstrating the feasibility of administering molecularly matched therapy. The Matching Score, which reflects the percentage of targeted alterations, correlated linearly with progression-free survival (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.01), and high (≥ 60%) Matching Score was an independent predictor of improved disease control rate [OR 3.31 (95% CI 1.01-10.83), P = 0.048], PFS [HR 0.55 (0.28-1.07), P = 0.08], and OS [HR 0.42 (0.21-0.85), P = 0.02]. Serious adverse event rates were similar in the unmatched and matched groups. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized combination therapies targeting a majority of a patient's molecular alterations have antitumor activity as first-line treatment. These findings underscore the feasibility and importance of using tailored N-of-1 combination therapies early in the course of lethal malignancies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: I-PREDICT ( NCT02534675 ) was registered on August 25, 2015.

2.
Cancer ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (adeno-NOS), are rare salivary gland cancers. Data on the efficacy of systemic therapy for these diseases are limited. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from patients seen at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during 1990 to 2020. Objective response rate (ORR) was assessed per RECIST v1.1. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression model was performed to identify predictors of survival. RESULTS: The analysis included 200 patients (110 with SDC and 90 with adeno-NOS); 77% had androgen-receptor-positive tumors and 47% had HER2-positive (2+-3+) tumors. Most patients without metastasis at diagnosis underwent surgery (98%) and postoperative radiotherapy (87%). Recurrence rate was 55%, and the median RFS was 2 years. Nodal involvement and positive surgical margins were associated with recurrence (P < .005). Among patients with stage IVA-B disease, addition of systemic therapy to local therapy increased OS (P = .049). The most-used palliative-systemic-therapy regimen was platinum doublet ± trastuzumab. For first-line therapy, the ORR and median PFS were 33% and 5.76 months, respectively, and for second-line therapy the ORR and median PFS were 25% and 5.3 months, respectively. ORR and PFS were higher with HER2-targeting agents. Median OS was 5 years overall and 2 years for metastatic disease. Older age and higher stage were associated with worse OS. CONCLUSION: Adding systemic therapy to local therapy may improve outcomes of patients with locoregionally advanced SDC or adeno-NOS. Except for HER2-targeted therapy, response to palliative systemic therapy is limited. These findings may be used as a benchmark for future drug development.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5045, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413300

RESUMO

Radiographic imaging is the standard approach for evaluating the disease involvement of lymph nodes in patients with operable NSCLC although the impact of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) on lymph nodes has not yet been characterized. Herein, we present an ad hoc analysis of the NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) where we observed a phenomenon we refer to as "nodal immune flare" (NIF) in which patients treated with neoadjuvant ICIs demonstrate radiologically abnormal nodes post-therapy that upon pathological evaluation are devoid of cancer and demonstrate de novo non-caseating granulomas. Abnormal lymph nodes are analyzed by computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography to evaluate the size and the maximum standard uptake value post- and pre-therapy in NEOSTAR and an independent neoadjuvant chemotherapy cohort. NIF occurs in 16% (7/44) of patients treated with ICIs but in 0% (0/28) of patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. NIF is associated with an inflamed nodal immune microenvironment and with fecal abundance of genera belonging to the family Coriobacteriaceae of phylum Actinobacteria, but not with tumor responses or treatment-related toxicity. Our findings suggest that this apparent radiological cancer progression in lymph nodes may occur due to an inflammatory response after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, and such cases should be evaluated by pathological examination to distinguish NIF from true nodal progression and to ensure appropriate clinical treatment planning.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante
5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(18): 5062-5071, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers - Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIMAC-CIDC) Network is supported by the NCI to identify biomarkers of response to cancer immunotherapies across clinical trials using state-of-the-art assays. A primary platform for CIMAC-CIDC studies is cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF), performed at all CIMAC laboratories. To ensure the ability to generate comparable CyTOF data across labs, a multistep cross-site harmonization effort was undertaken. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first harmonized standard operating procedures (SOPs) across the CIMAC sites. Because of a new acquisition protocol comparing original narrow- or new wide-bore injector introduced by the vendor (Fluidigm), we also tested this protocol across sites before finalizing the harmonized SOP. We then performed cross-site assay harmonization experiments using five shared cryopreserved and one lyophilized internal control peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) with a shared lyophilized antibody cocktail consisting of 14 isotype-tagged antibodies previously validated, plus additional liquid antibodies. These reagents and samples were distributed to the CIMAC sites and the data were centrally analyzed by manual gating and automated methods (Astrolabe). RESULTS: Average coefficients of variation (CV) across sites for each cell population were reported and compared with a previous multisite CyTOF study. We reached an intersite CV of under 20% for most cell subsets, very similar to a previously published study. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish the ability to reproduce CyTOF data across sites in multicenter clinical trials, and also highlight the importance of quality control procedures, such as the use of spike-in control samples, for tracking variability in this assay.

6.
Adv Ther ; 38(8): 4581-4591, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) have a poor prognosis. Blocking the PD-1-PD-L1 axis has shown promising activity in this patient population. We assessed the safety and antitumor activity of PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with refractory advanced CSCC. METHODS: This was a prespecified subgroup analysis of patients with advanced CSCC who enrolled in an open-label, phase II clinical trial for pembrolizumab in patients with refractory rare cancers during 2016-2018. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 21 days until progressive disease, unacceptable adverse event, or completion of 24 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was nonprogression rate (NPR) at 27 weeks; secondary endpoints included safety, objective response rate (ORR) per irRECIST, clinical benefit rate (CBR), progression-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: Twenty patients with refractory CSCC enrolled; 19 were evaluable for efficacy. Median follow-up time was 44.1 months. The NPR at 27 weeks was 37% (95% CI 0.16-0.62). Three patients had a complete response (CR), three had a partial response, and one had stable disease, for an ORR of 32% and a CBR of 37%; median duration of response was 27.3 months. All three patients with a CR remained free of recurrence at the time of writing. Severe treatment-related adverse events (grade ≥ 3) occurred in 10% of patients (2/20). PD-L1 expression was not correlated with response to pembrolizumab. CONCLUSION: A long-term follow-up confirms pembrolizumab's antitumor activity and safety profile in patients with refractory CSCC. Patients with a CR may experience cure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02721732, Registered March 29, 2016.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(18): 5072-5083, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers - Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIMAC-CIDC) network supported by the NCI Cancer Moonshot initiative was established to provide correlative analyses for clinical trials in cancer immunotherapy, using state-of-the-art technology. Fundamental to this initiative is implementation of multiplex IHC assays to define the composition and distribution of immune infiltrates within tumors in the context of their potential role as biomarkers. A critical unanswered question involves the relative fidelity of such assays to reliably quantify tumor-associated immune cells across different platforms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three CIMAC sites compared across their laboratories: (i) image analysis algorithms, (ii) image acquisition platforms, (iii) multiplex staining protocols. Two distinct high-dimensional approaches were employed: multiplexed IHC consecutive staining on single slide (MICSSS) and multiplexed immunofluorescence (mIF). To eliminate variables potentially impacting assay performance, we completed a multistep harmonization process, first comparing assay performance using independent protocols followed by the integration of laboratory-specific protocols and finally, validating this harmonized approach in an independent set of tissues. RESULTS: Data generated at the final validation step showed an intersite Spearman correlation coefficient (r) of ≥0.85 for each marker within and across tissue types, with an overall low average coefficient of variation ≤0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support interchangeability of protocols and platforms to deliver robust, and comparable data using similar tissue specimens and confirm that CIMAC-CIDC analyses may therefore be used with confidence for statistical associations with clinical outcomes largely independent of site, antibody selection, protocol, and platform across different sites.

8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 111, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When applying secondary analysis on published survival data, it is critical to obtain each patient's raw data, because the individual patient data (IPD) approach has been considered as the gold standard of data analysis. However, researchers often lack access to IPD. We aim to propose a straightforward and robust approach to obtain IPD from published survival curves with a user-friendly software platform. RESULTS: Improving upon existing methods, we propose an easy-to-use, two-stage approach to reconstruct IPD from published Kaplan-Meier (K-M) curves. Stage 1 extracts raw data coordinates and Stage 2 reconstructs IPD using the proposed method. To facilitate the use of the proposed method, we developed the R package IPDfromKM and an accompanying web-based Shiny application. Both the R package and Shiny application have an "all-in-one" feature such that users can use them to extract raw data coordinates from published K-M curves, reconstruct IPD from the extracted data coordinates, visualize the reconstructed IPD, assess the accuracy of the reconstruction, and perform secondary analysis on the basis of the reconstructed IPD. We illustrate the use of the R package and the Shiny application with K-M curves from published studies. Extensive simulations and real-world data applications demonstrate that the proposed method has high accuracy and great reliability in estimating the number of events, number of patients at risk, survival probabilities, median survival times, and hazard ratios. CONCLUSIONS: IPDfromKM has great flexibility and accuracy to reconstruct IPD from published K-M curves with different shapes. We believe that the R package and the Shiny application will greatly facilitate the potential use of quality IPD and advance the use of secondary data to facilitate informed decision making in medical research.


Assuntos
Software , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients with cancer diagnoses and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection will require surgical treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of adverse postoperative events following surgery in patients with cancer. METHODS: This was a propensity-matched cohort study from April 6, 2020 to October 31, 2020 at the UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Cancer patients were identified who underwent elective surgery after recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection and matched to controls based on patient, disease, and surgical factors. Primary study outcome was a composite of the following adverse postoperative events that occurred within 30 days of surgery: death, unplanned readmission, pneumonia, cardiac injury, or thromboembolic event. RESULTS: A total of 5682 patients were included for study, and 114 (2.0%) had a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The average time from infection to surgery was 52 (range 20-202) days. Compared with matched controls, there was no difference in the rate of adverse postoperative outcome (14.3% vs. 13.4%, p = 1.0). Patients with a SARS-CoV-2-related inpatient admission before surgery had increased odds of postoperative complication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.4 [1.6-34.3], p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A minimal wait time of 20 days after recovering from minimally symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be safe for cancer patients undergoing low-risk elective surgery. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections requiring inpatient treatment were at increased risk for adverse events after surgery. Additional wait time may be required in those with more severe infections.

11.
Pharm Stat ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008317

RESUMO

Bayesian sequential monitoring is widely used in adaptive phase II studies where the objective is to examine whether an experimental drug is efficacious. Common approaches for Bayesian sequential monitoring are based on posterior or predictive probabilities and Bayesian hypothesis testing procedures using Bayes factors. In the first part of the paper, we briefly show the connections between test-based (TB) and posterior probability-based (PB) sequential monitoring approaches. Next, we extensively investigate the choice of local and nonlocal priors for the TB monitoring procedure. We describe the pros and cons of different priors in terms of operating characteristics. We also develop a user-friendly Shiny application to implement the TB design.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952700

RESUMO

An aneuploid-immune paradox encompasses somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs), unleashing a cytotoxic response in experimental precancer systems, while conversely being associated with immune suppression and cytotoxic-cell depletion in human tumors, especially head and neck cancer (HNSC). We present evidence from patient samples and cell lines that alterations in chromosome dosage contribute to an immune hot-to-cold switch during human papillomavirus-negative (HPV-) head and neck tumorigenesis. Overall SCNA (aneuploidy) level was associated with increased CD3+ and CD8+ T cell microenvironments in precancer (mostly CD3+, linked to trisomy and aneuploidy), but with T cell-deficient tumors. Early lesions with 9p21.3 loss were associated with depletion of cytotoxic T cell infiltration in TP53 mutant tumors; and with aneuploidy were associated with increased NK-cell infiltration. The strongest driver of cytotoxic T cell and Immune Score depletion in oral cancer was 9p-arm level loss, promoting profound decreases of pivotal IFN-γ-related chemokines (e.g., CXCL9) and pathway genes. Chromosome 9p21.3 deletion contributed mainly to cell-intrinsic senescence suppression, but deletion of the entire arm was necessary to diminish levels of cytokine, JAK-STAT, and Hallmark NF-κB pathways. Finally, 9p arm-level loss and JAK2-PD-L1 codeletion (at 9p24) were predictive markers of poor survival in recurrent HPV- HNSC after anti-PD-1 therapy; likely amplified by independent aneuploidy-induced immune-cold microenvironments observed here. We hypothesize that 9p21.3 arm-loss expansion and epistatic interactions allow oral precancer cells to acquire properties to overcome a proimmunogenic aneuploid checkpoint, transform and invade. These findings enable distinct HNSC interception and precision-therapeutic approaches, concepts that may apply to other CN-driven neoplastic, immune or aneuploid diseases, and immunotherapies.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2722, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976164

RESUMO

The mechanism by which anti-cancer immunity shapes early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is unknown. In this study, we characterize the immune contexture of invasive lung ADC and its precursors by transcriptomic immune profiling, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF). Our results demonstrate that anti-tumor immunity evolved as a continuum from lung preneoplasia, to preinvasive ADC, minimally-invasive ADC and frankly invasive lung ADC with a gradually less effective and more intensively regulated immune response including down-regulation of immune-activation pathways, up-regulation of immunosuppressive pathways, lower infiltration of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and anti-tumor helper T cells (Th), higher infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs), decreased T cell clonality, and lower frequencies of top T cell clones in later-stages. Driver mutations, chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) and aberrant DNA methylation may collectively impinge host immune responses and facilitate immune evasion, promoting the outgrowth of fit subclones in preneoplasia into dominant clones in invasive ADC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Transcriptoma , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Células Clonais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
14.
Cancer ; 127(16): 2916-2925, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction chemotherapy (IC) has been associated with a decreased risk of distant metastasis in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is not well established. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with OPSCC treated with IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) were compared with the outcomes of those treated with CRT alone. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary end points were the times to locoregional and distant recurrence. RESULTS: In an existing database, 585 patients met the inclusion criteria: 137 received IC plus CRT, and 448 received CRT. Most patients were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV; 90.9%). Patients receiving IC were more likely to present with a higher T stage, a higher N stage, and low neck disease. The 3-year OS rate was significantly lower in patients receiving IC (75.7%) versus CRT alone (92.9%). In a multicovariate analysis, receipt of IC (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.4; P < .001), HPV tumor status (aHR, 0.36; P = .002), and receipt of concurrent cetuximab (aHR, 2.7; P = .002) were independently associated with OS. The risk of distant metastasis was also significantly higher in IC patients (aHR, 2.8; P = .001), whereas an HPV-positive tumor status (aHR, 0.44; P = .032) and completion of therapy (aHR, 0.51; P = .034) were associated with a lower risk of distant metastasis. In HPV-positive patients, IC remained associated with distant metastatic progression (aHR, 2.6; P = .004) but not OS. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior studies, IC was independently associated with worse OS and a higher risk of distant metastasis in patients with OPSCC. Future studies are needed to validate these findings.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8511, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875760

RESUMO

Multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) has arisen as an important tool for immuno-profiling tumor tissues. We updated our manual protocol into an automated protocol that allows the use of up to seven markers in five mIF panels to apply to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. Using a tyramide signal amplification system, we optimized five mIF panels that included cytokeratin to characterize malignant cells (MCs), immune checkpoint markers (i.e., PD-L1, B7-H3, B7-H4, IDO-1, VISTA, LAG3, ICOS, TIM3, and OX40), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytic markers (i.e., CD3, CD8, CD45RO, granzyme B, PD-1, and FOXP3), and markers to characterize myeloid-derived suppressor cells (i.e., CD68, CD66b, CD14, CD33, Arg-1, and CD11b). To determine analytical reproducibility and the impact of those panels for immuno-profiling tumor tissues, we performed an exploratory analysis in a set of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. The slides were scanned, and the different cell phenotypes were quantified by simultaneous co-localizations with the markers using image analysis software. Comparison between the time points of staining showed high analytical reproducibility. The analysis of NSCLC cases showed an immunosuppressive microenvironment with PD-L1/PD-1 expression as a predominant axis. Interestingly, high density of MCs expressing B7-H4 was correlated with recurrence. Unexpectedly, MCs expressing OX40 were also detected, and those cells were a closer distance to CD3+T-cells than were MCs expressing other immune checkpoints. Two different cellular patterns of spatial distribution were determined according the CD3 distribution, and the predominant pattern was related with active immunosuppressive interaction with MCs. Our study shows that these five mIF panels can identify multiple targets in a single cell with high reproducibility. The study of different cell populations and their spatial relationship can open new ideas for therapeutic approaches.

16.
Pharm Stat ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793044

RESUMO

Incorporating historical data has a great potential to improve the efficiency of phase I clinical trials and to accelerate drug development. For model-based designs, such as the continuous reassessment method (CRM), this can be conveniently carried out by specifying a "skeleton," that is, the prior estimate of dose limiting toxicity (DLT) probability at each dose. In contrast, little work has been done to incorporate historical data into model-assisted designs, such as the Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN), Keyboard, and modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI) designs. This has led to the misconception that model-assisted designs cannot incorporate prior information. In this paper, we propose a unified framework that allows for incorporating historical data into model-assisted designs. The proposed approach uses the well-established "skeleton" approach, combined with the concept of prior effective sample size, thus it is easy to understand and use. More importantly, our approach maintains the hallmark of model-assisted designs: simplicity-the dose escalation/de-escalation rule can be tabulated prior to the trial conduct. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed method can effectively incorporate prior information to improve the operating characteristics of model-assisted designs, similarly to model-based designs.

17.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 30(5): 1273-1287, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689524

RESUMO

Bayesian adaptive randomization is a heuristic approach that aims to randomize more patients to the putatively superior arms based on the trend of the accrued data in a trial. Many statistical aspects of this approach have been explored and compared with other approaches; yet only a limited number of works has focused on improving its performance and providing guidance on its application to real trials. An undesirable property of this approach is that the procedure would randomize patients to an inferior arm in some circumstances, which has raised concerns in its application. Here, we propose an adaptive clip method to rectify the problem by incorporating a data-driven function to be used in conjunction with Bayesian adaptive randomization procedure. This function aims to minimize the chance of assigning patients to inferior arms during the early time of the trial. Moreover, we propose a utility approach to facilitate the selection of a randomization procedure. A cost that reflects the penalty of assigning patients to the inferior arm(s) in the trial is incorporated into our utility function along with all patients benefited from the trial, both within and beyond the trial. We illustrate the selection strategy for a wide range of scenarios.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 504-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603241

RESUMO

Ipilimumab improves clinical outcomes when combined with nivolumab in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy and impact on the immune microenvironment in operable NSCLC remain unclear. We report the results of the phase 2 randomized NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) of neoadjuvant nivolumab or nivolumab + ipilimumab followed by surgery in 44 patients with operable NSCLC, using major pathologic response (MPR) as the primary endpoint. The MPR rate for each treatment arm was tested against historical controls of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The nivolumab + ipilimumab arm met the prespecified primary endpoint threshold of 6 MPRs in 21 patients, achieving a 38% MPR rate (8/21). We observed a 22% MPR rate (5/23) in the nivolumab arm. In 37 patients resected on trial, nivolumab and nivolumab + ipilimumab produced MPR rates of 24% (5/21) and 50% (8/16), respectively. Compared with nivolumab, nivolumab + ipilimumab resulted in higher pathologic complete response rates (10% versus 38%), less viable tumor (median 50% versus 9%), and greater frequencies of effector, tissue-resident memory and effector memory T cells. Increased abundance of gut Ruminococcus and Akkermansia spp. was associated with MPR to dual therapy. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant nivolumab + ipilimumab-based therapy enhances pathologic responses, tumor immune infiltrates and immunologic memory, and merits further investigation in operable NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(7): 1965-1976, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD73 is a membrane-bound enzyme crucial in adenosine generation. The adenosinergic pathway plays a critical role in immunosuppression and in anti-tumor effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Here, we interrogated CD73 expression in a richly annotated cohort of human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and its association with clinicopathological, immune, and molecular features to better understand the role of this immune marker in LUAD pathobiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protein expression of CD73 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 106 archived LUADs from patients that underwent surgical treatment without neoadjuvant therapy. Total CD73 (T +) was calculated as the average of luminal (L +) and basolateral (BL +) percentage membrane expression scores for each LUAD and was used to classify tumors into three groups based on the extent of T CD73 expression (high, low, and negative). RESULTS: CD73 expression was significantly and progressively increased across normal-appearing lung tissue, adenomatous atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, and LUAD. In LUAD, BL CD73 expression was associated with an increase in PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and increase of tumor-associated immune cells. Stratification of LUADs based on T CD73 extent also revealed that tumors with high expression of this enzyme overall exhibited significantly elevated immune infiltration and PD-L1 protein expression. Immune profiling demonstrated that T-cell inflammation and adenosine signatures were significantly higher in CD73-expressing lung adenocarcinomas relative to those lacking CD73. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that higher CD73 expression is associated with an overall augmented host immune response, suggesting potential implications in the immune pathobiology of early stage lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings warrant further studies to explore the role of CD73 in immunotherapeutic response of LUAD.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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