Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 489
Filtrar
1.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the associations of surgical margin status and somatic mutations with the incidence of local recurrence (LR) and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing R0-intent (microscopically negative margin) resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM). METHODS: Patients with CLM who underwent initial R0-intent resection and analysis of tumor tissue using next-generation sequencing during 2001-2018 were analyzed. Recurrences were classified as LR (at the resection margin), other intrahepatic recurrence, or extrahepatic recurrence. Predictors and survival effect of LR were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of 552 patients analyzed, 415 (75%) had R0 resection (margin width ≥ 1.0 mm), and 38 (7%) had LR. LR incidence was not affected by surgical margin width. RAS/TP53 co-mutation was associated with increased risk of intrahepatic recurrence (67% vs. 49%; p < 0.001) and overall recurrence (p < 0.001). However, incidence of LR did not differ significantly by RAS/TP53, BRAF, SMAD4, or FBXW7 mutation. Extrahepatic disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.47; p = 0.034), > 8 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy (HR, 1.98; p = 0.033), tumor viability ≥ 50% (HR, 1.55; p = 0.007), RAS/TP53 co-mutation (HR, 1.69; p = 0.001), and SMAD4 mutation (HR, 2.44; p < 0.001) were independently associated with poor overall survival, but surgical margin status was not. CONCLUSIONS: Although somatic mutations were associated with overall recurrence, neither surgical margin width nor somatic mutations affected LR risk after R0-intent hepatectomy for CLM. LR and prognosis were likely driven by individual tumor biology rather than surgical margins.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6274, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725361

RESUMO

Cancer cells bearing distinct KRAS mutations exhibit variable sensitivity to SHP2 inhibitors (SHP2i). Here we show that cells harboring KRAS Q61H are uniquely resistant to SHP2i, and investigate the underlying mechanisms using biophysics, molecular dynamics, and cell-based approaches. Q61H mutation impairs intrinsic and GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis, and impedes activation by SOS1, but does not alter tyrosyl phosphorylation. Wild-type and Q61H-mutant KRAS are both phosphorylated by Src on Tyr32 and Tyr64 and dephosphorylated by SHP2, however, SHP2i does not reduce ERK phosphorylation in KRAS Q61H cells. Phosphorylation of wild-type and Gly12-mutant KRAS, which are associated with sensitivity to SHP2i, confers resistance to regulation by GAP and GEF activities and impairs binding to RAF, whereas the near-complete GAP/GEF-resistance of KRAS Q61H remains unaltered, and high-affinity RAF interaction is retained. SHP2 can stimulate KRAS signaling by modulating GEF/GAP activities and dephosphorylating KRAS, processes that fail to regulate signaling of the Q61H mutant.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515886

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, robotic surgery techniques required to resect gastric and pancreatic malignancies have evolved remarkably; however, the safety and generalizability of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy remain unknown. At our cancer center, gastrectomies and pancreatectomies are performed in a combined foregut minimally-invasive surgery program; this effectively increases the composite case volume and shortens the learning curve for any individual surgeon. In this video, we demonstrate the shared steps in pancreatoduodenectomy and gastrectomy and explain how the skills gained through robotic gastrectomy can be used during robotic pancreatoduodenectomy. During the initial 2-year period of our robotic foregut surgery program, we performed 120 pancreatic and gastric operations, including 22 pancreatoduodenectomies and 37 gastrectomies. Our first robotic pancreatoduodenectomy was performed following successful completion of 45 other robotic foregut operations. Of those 22 patients who underwent robotic pancreatoduodenectomy, the median hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-17 days) and the readmission rate was 14% (3/22). The rate of grade B/C pancreatic fistula was 9% (2/22) and there was no 90-day mortality. In conclusion, the presented video showing the shared steps in robotic pancreatoduodenectomy and gastrectomy demonstrates the potential for a combined robotic surgery program to increase composite case volumes and to shorten the learning curve. At our cancer center, implementation of this approach has been helpful in accelerating the development of our new robotic pancreatectomy program, especially in honing the skills necessary to perform robotic pancreatoduodenectomy.

5.
J Mol Biol ; 433(22): 167244, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537235

RESUMO

The basic molecular mechanism underlying mammalian oxygen-dependent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) via the von Hippel-Lindau E3 ubiquitin ligase is well established. The principal step in this critical cellular process is the hydroxylation of either or both of the two conserved proline residues P402 and P564 within the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD) of HIF-1α subunit via prolyl hydroxylases, which is necessary for binding VHL. However, the significance of the two prolines has remained unclear considering that only one hydroxyproline is sufficient for the recruitment of VHL. Here, we show using biophysical analyses that both hydroxyprolines bind to the same interface on VHL with similar affinity; VHL binding affinity to HIF-1α ODD remains relatively unchanged regardless of whether the ODD contains one or two hydroxyprolines; ODD with two hydroxyprolines can accommodate two VHLs; and the rate of in vitro ubiquitination of ODD with one hydroxyproline via VHL E3 ligase is comparable to the rate observed with ODD containing two hydroxyprolines. However, the two hydroxyprolines show distinct contributions to the intracellular stability of HIF-1α ODD. These results demonstrate for the first time that the graduated HIF-1α stability profile observed over a range of oxygen tension is not attributed to the binding of or ubiquitination via VHL per se, but is likely due to the preceding events such as the efficacy of oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1α.

6.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4355-4364, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375487

RESUMO

Mitosis is a prognostic factor for cutaneous melanoma (CM), but accurate mitosis detection in CM tissues is difficult. Therefore, the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has removed the mitotic rate as a category criterion of the tumor T-category, based on the evidence that the mitotic rate was not an independent prognostic factor for melanoma survival. As single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be potential predictors for cutaneous melanoma-specific survival (CMSS), we investigated the potential prognostic value of SNPs in mitosis-related pathway genes in CMSS by analyzing their associations with outcomes of 850 CM patients from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in a discovery dataset and validated the findings in another dataset of 409 CM patients from the Harvard University Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. In both datasets, we identified two SNPs (SDCCAG8 rs10803138 G>A and MAGI2 rs3807694 C>T) as independent prognostic factors for CMSS, with adjusted allelic hazards ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.90, P = .001) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86, P = .003), respectively. Furthermore, their combined unfavorable alleles also predicted a poor survival in both discovery and validation datasets in a dose-response manner (Ptrend  = .0006 and .0001, respectively). Additional functional analysis revealed that both SDCCAG8 rs10803138 A and MAGI2 rs3807694 T alleles were associated with elevated mRNA expression levels in normal tissues. Therefore, these findings suggest that SDCCAG8 rs10803138 G>A and MAGI2 rs3807694 C>T are independent prognostic biomarkers for CMSS, possibly by regulating the mRNA expression of the corresponding genes involved in mitosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Autoantígenos/genética , Variação Genética , Guanilato Quinases/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Mitose/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Curva ROC , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pancreatology ; 21(7): 1378-1385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) plays an essential role in protein folding, transportation, and degradation, thus regulates ER homeostasis and promotes cell survival, proliferation and invasion. GRP78 expression in PDAC patients who received neoadjuvant therapy has not been reported. METHODS: This retrospective study of resected PDAC patients included 125 patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and 140 patients treated with surgery first (SF). The expression of GRP78 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and survival. RESULTS: GRP78 expression was higher in SF patients compared to NAT patients (P < 0.001). In SF cohort, the median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with GRP78-positive tumors were 11.2 months and 25.0 months, respectively, compared to DFS of 52.1 months (P = 0.008) and OS of 69.5 months (P = 0.02) for those with GRP78-negative tumors. GRP78 expression correlated with higher frequency of recurrent/metastasis (P = 0.045). In NAT cohort, GRP78 expression correlated with shorter OS (P = 0.03), but not DFS (P = 0.08). GRP78 expression was an independent prognosticator for both DFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.049) in SF cohort and was an independent prognosticator for OS (P = 0.03), but not for DFS (P = 0.06) in NAT cohort by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that GRP78 expression in NAT cohort is lower than that in SF cohort. GRP78 expression correlated with shorter survival in both SF and NAT patients. Our findings suggest that targeting GRP78 may help to improve the prognosis in PDAC patients.

8.
J Cell Biol ; 220(10)2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459848

RESUMO

Fertilization is defined as the union of two gametes. During fertilization, sperm and egg fuse to form a diploid zygote to initiate prenatal development. In mammals, fertilization involves multiple ordered steps, including the acrosome reaction, zona pellucida penetration, sperm-egg attachment, and membrane fusion. Given the success of in vitro fertilization, one would think that the mechanisms of fertilization are understood; however, the precise details for many of the steps in fertilization remain a mystery. Recent studies using genetic knockout mouse models and structural biology are providing valuable insight into the molecular basis of sperm-egg attachment and fusion. Here, we review the cell biology of fertilization, specifically summarizing data from recent structural and functional studies that provide insights into the interactions involved in human gamete attachment and fusion.

9.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(8): 1381-1389, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impact of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on outcomes for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients given multimodality therapy (MMT) remains undefined. We sought to evaluate the association of PBT with survival after PDAC resection. METHODS: Pancreatectomy patients (July 2011-December 2017) who received MMT were abstracted from a prospective database. Overall survival (OS) was compared by PBT within 30 days, 24 h (24HR-BT), or 24 h until 30 days (Postop-BT). RESULTS: Most (76.6%) of 312 MMT patients underwent neoadjuvant therapy (NT). Eighty-nine patients (28.5%) received PBT; 58 (18.6%) 24HR-BT, and 31 (9.9%) Postop-BT. Compared with surgery-first, NT patients received more 24HR-BTs (22.2% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.003) and PBTs overall (32.6% vs. 15.1%, p = 0.004). Overall median OS was 45 months. The association of PBT with shorter median OS appeared limited to first 24-h transfusions (34 months 24HR-BT vs. 48 months Postop-BT vs. 53 months no-PBT, p = 0.009) and was dose-dependent, with a median OS of 52 months for 0 units 24HR-BT, 35 months for 1 unit, and 25 months for ≥2 units (p = 0.004). Independent predictors of OS included node-positivity (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93, p < 0.001), perineural invasion (HR: 1.64, p = 0.050), postoperative pancreatic fistula (HR: 1.94, p = 0.018), and 24HR-BT (HR: 1.75, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Transfusions given within 24 h are associated with dose-dependent decreases in survival after pancreatectomy for PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
J Surg Res ; 268: 419-431, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high frequency of regional lymph node (LN) metastases associated with duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (D-NETs), the impact of these metastases on survival and the ideal extent of LN dissection are unknown. We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to investigate factors associated with survival, including LN metastases and types of surgery, in patients with D-NETs. METHODS: All patients with D-NETs recorded in the NCDB between 2004 and 2016 were included in the study. We applied a multivariate Cox regression model to assess the relationship between the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: We identified 7613 patients, among whom 4886 local excisions and 233 radical surgeries had been performed. Among patients with at least 1 LN pathologically examined, the overall incidence of LN metastasis was 41.2%. For all patients, the median OS was 10.6 years. Univariate analyses showed equivalent OS in N0 and N1 groups (HR,0.83; 95% CI,0.64-1.09) and diminished OS in those who had undergone radical surgery compared with those who had undergone local resection (HR,1.35; 95% CI,1.02-1.8). In multivariable analyses, tumor size >50 mm and having more than 9 positive LNs were associated with diminished OS (HR,1.64 and 5.2; 95% CI,1.25-2.16 and 1.91-14.18), whereas the type of surgery did not remain in the model. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that the presence of regional LN metastases and extent of surgery did not affect OS among patients with D-NETs. Radical resection to clear occult LN metastases for nonfunctioning, sporadic D-NETs was not supported by the current study.

11.
Surgery ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventing cervical reoperations is important-especially after parathyroidectomy. We sought to examine early predictors of recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism after surgical cure. METHODS: Adult patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism treated with parathyroidectomy between September 1, 1997, and September 1, 2019, with confirmed eucalcemia at 6 months postoperatively were identified. Recurrence was defined as hypercalcemia (>10.2 mg/dL) with an elevated or nonsuppressed parathyroid hormone level on subsequent follow-up. RESULTS: Parathyroidectomy was performed in 522 patients (median age, 62.1 years, 77% female) with the majority undergoing planned minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (85.4%, n = 446). After a median follow-up of 30.9 months, 13 patients (2.5%) recurred (median time to recurrence 50.2 months, interquartile range 27.9-66.5), all of whom underwent planned minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (n = 13/446, 2.9%). Recurrence was more common in those with higher (but still normal) 6-month calcium (10.1 vs 9.3 mg/dL, P < .001) or parathyroid hormone values (64 vs 46 pg/mL, P < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that age >66.5 years, calcium ≥9.8mg/dL and parathyroid hormone ≥80 pg/mL at 6 months were associated with increased risk of recurrence. In addition, the presence of at least 1 preoperative imaging study that conflicted with intraoperative findings among minimally invasive parathyroidectomy patients (n = 446) was associated with increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio 4.93, 95% confidence interval 1.25-16.53, P = .016). CONCLUSION: Recurrence of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism after initial surgical cure in the era of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is 2.5%. Identification of those at risk for recurrence using 6-month serum calcium ≥9.8 mg/dL, parathyroid hormone ≥80 pg/mL, and/or potentially conflicting localization studies may inform surveillance strategies.

12.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(6): 3252-3262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249459

RESUMO

Both in vivo and in vitro evidence has supported a key role of myeloid cells in immune suppression in melanoma and in promoting melanocytic metastases. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to predict cutaneous melanoma-specific survival (CMSS), but the association between genetic variation in myeloid cell-related genes and cutaneous melanoma (CM) patient survival remains unknown. METHODS: we investigated associations between SNPs in myeloid cell-related pathway genes and CMSS in a discovery dataset of 850 CM patients and replicated the findings in another dataset of 409 CM patients. RESULTS: we identified two SNPs (EML1 rs10151787 A>G and HIST1H4E rs2069018 T>C) as independent prognostic factors for CMSS, with adjusted allelic hazards ratios of 1.56 (95% confidence interval =1.19-2.05, P=0.001) and 1.66 (1.22-2.26, P=0.001), respectively; so were their combined unfavorable alleles in a dose-response manner in both discovery and replication datasets (P trend<0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Additional functional analysis revealed that both EML1 rs10151787 G and HIST1H4E rs2069018 C alleles were associated with elevated mRNA expression levels in normal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that EML1 rs10151787 A>G and HIST1H4E rs2069018 T>C are independent prognostic biomarkers for CMSS.

13.
J Am Coll Surg ; 233(2): 272-284.e13, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFß, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFß, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFß, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize differences in pancreatectomy recommendation rates to surgically eligible patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) of the pancreatic head across age and racial groups. BACKGROUND: Pancreatectomy is not recommended in almost half of otherwise healthy patients with stage I/II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lacking a surgical contraindication. We characterized differences in pancreatectomy recommendation among surgically eligible patients across age and racial groups. METHODS: Non-Hispanic White (NHW) and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) patients were identified in the National Cancer Database with clinical stage I/II pancreatic head adenocarcinoma, Charlson Comorbidity Index of 0-1, and age 40-89 years. Rates of surgery recommendation and overall survival (OS) by age and race were compared. A Pancreatectomy Recommendation Equivalence Point (PREP) was defined as the age at which the rate of not recommending surgery matched the rate of recommending and completing surgery. Marginal standardization was used to identify association of age and race with recommendation. OS was compared using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Among 40,866 patients, 36,133 (88%) were NHW and 4,733 (12%) were NHB. For the entire cohort, PREP was 79 years. PREP was 5 years younger in NHB patients than in NHW patients (75 vs 80 years). Adjusted rates of not recommending surgery were significantly higher for NHB than for NHW patients in each age group. After adjusting for surgery recommendation, we found no difference in OS between NHW and NHB patients (hazard ratio 0.98 [95% CI 0.94-1.02]). CONCLUSIONS: PREP of NHB patients was 5 years younger than NHW patients, and in every age group, the rate of not recommending pancreatectomy was higher in NHB patients. Age and race disparities in treatment recommendations may contribute to shorter longevity of NHB patients.

15.
Cell Rep ; 35(7): 109152, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010634

RESUMO

Enveloped virus entry requires the fusion of cellular and viral membranes, a process directed by their viral fusion glycoproteins. Our current knowledge of this process has been shaped by structural studies of the pre- and post-fusion conformations of these viral fusogens. These structural snapshots have revealed the start and end states necessary for fusion, but the dynamics of the intermediate conformations have remained unclear. Using the influenza C virus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein as a model, we report the structural and biophysical characterization of a trapped intermediate. Crystallographic studies revealed a structural reorganization of the C terminus to create a second chain reversal region, resulting in the N and C termini being positioned in opposing directions. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and bimane-induced quenching measurements suggest intermediate formation is mediated by conserved hydrophobic residues. Our study reveals a late-stage extended intermediate structural event. This work adds to our understanding of virus cell fusion.

16.
Pancreatology ; 21(5): 942-949, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD73, a newly recognized immune checkpoint mediator, is expressed in several types of malignancies. However, CD73 expression and its impact on tumor microenvironment and clinical outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. METHODS: This study included two cohorts: 138 patients from our institution (MDA) and 176 patients from TCGA dataset. CD73 expression, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ and CD45RO + tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The results of CD73 expression were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, survival and TILs. RESULTS: CD73 overexpression correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and tumor size (P = 0.049). For CD73-low group, median overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 26.9 ± 3.8 months and 12.6 ± 2.6 months, respectively, compared to 16.9 ± 4.4 months (P = 0.01) and 7.9 ± 1.2 months (P = 0.01), respectively, in CD73-high group. CD73 was an independent predictor for both RFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.01) by multivariate variate analysis. Similarly, CD73-high tumors had significantly shorter OS than CD73-low tumors in TCGA dataset (P < 0.0001). CD73-high correlated with decreased CD4+ TILs in MDA cohort and decreased CD8A and CR2 (CD21) expression in TCGA cohort. CONCLUSIONS: CD73 overexpression is associated with poor differentiation, tumor size, and shorter survival, and is an independent prognostic factor in PDAC patients. CD73 overexpression is associated with decreased CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ TILs. Our data support that CD73 plays an important role in immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promote tumor progression in PDAC.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(5): 396, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842617

RESUMO

Background: Peroxisomes are ubiquitous and dynamic organelles that are involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipids. However, whether genetic variants in the peroxisome pathway genes are associated with survival in patients with melanoma has not been established. Therefore, our aim was to identify additional genetic variants in the peroxisome pathway that may provide new prognostic biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma (CM). Methods: We assessed the associations between 8,397 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 88 peroxisome pathway genes and CM disease-specific survival (CMSS) in a two-stage analysis. For the discovery, we extracted the data from a published genome-wide association study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). We then replicated the results in another dataset from the Nurse Health Study (NHS)/Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Results: Overall, 95 (11.1%) patients in the MDACC dataset and 48 (11.7%) patients in the NHS/HPFS dataset died of CM. We found 27 significant SNPs in the peroxisome pathway genes to be associated with CMSS in both datasets after multiple comparison correction using the Bayesian false-discovery probability method. In stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, with adjustment for other covariates and previously published SNPs in the MDACC dataset, we identified 2 independent SNPs (TMEM135 rs567403 C>G and PEX5 rs7969508 A>G) that predicted CMSS (P=0.003 and 0.031, respectively, in an additive genetic model). The expression quantitative trait loci analysis further revealed that the TMEM135 rs567403 GG and PEX5 rs7969508 GG genotypes were associated with increased and decreased levels of mRNA expression of their genes, respectively. Conclusions: Once our findings are replicated by other investigators, these genetic variants may serve as novel biomarkers for the prediction of survival in patients with CM.

18.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(6): 1414-1422, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831256

RESUMO

Systemic chemotherapy improves the survival of patients who undergo pancreatectomy, but whether chemotherapy should be delivered before or after surgery remains debated. At The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been preferentially treated with preoperative therapy-a practice supported by a robust history of institutional and national trials. In the following review, we discuss the historical use of perioperative therapy, our experience with it at MD Anderson Cancer Center and internationally, and the future of treatment and trials for PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3480-3489, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive melanoma has changed dramatically over the last few years such that completion lymph node dissection (CLND) has become uncommon, and many patients receive adjuvant immunotherapy or targeted therapy. This study seeks to characterize patterns and predictors of early recurrence in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with primary cutaneous melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between 3/2016 and 12/2019 were identified. The subset with a positive SLN who did not undergo CLND were examined for further analysis of outcomes and predictors of recurrence. RESULTS: Overall, 215 patients with SLN-positive melanoma who did not have CLND were identified. Adjuvant systemic therapy was administered to 102 (47%), with 93% of this subset receiving immunotherapy (n = 95). Median follow-up from SLNB was 20 months (IQR 12-28.5 months), and 57 patients (27%) recurred during this time. The SLN basin was the most common site of recurrence (n = 38, 67% of recurrence), with isolated nodal recurrence being the most common first site of recurrent disease (n = 22, 39% of recurrence). On multivariable analysis, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) of the primary tumor, two or more involved nodes, and > 1 mm nodal deposit were independently associated with higher rates of nodal relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Nodal recurrence is a primary driver of early disease relapse for patients with SLN-positive melanoma who do not undergo CLND in the era of effective adjuvant systemic therapy. LVI, ≥ 2 nodes, or > 1 mm nodal disease identifies patients at particularly high risk of nodal relapse.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Melanoma/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
20.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(1): 143-151, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An opioid reduction education program to decrease discharge opioid prescriptions was initiated in our Department of Surgical Oncology. The study's aim was to measure the results and sustainability of these interventions 1 year later. METHODS: This prospective quality improvement project identified patients undergoing resection in five index tumor sites (peritoneal surface, sarcoma, stomach, pancreas, liver) at a high-volume cancer center. Patients were grouped into pre-education (PRE: July 2017-July 2018) and posteducation (POST: September 2018-July 2019) periods, before and after departmental education talks and videos in August 2018. Opioids were converted to oral morphine equivalents (OME) to compare the groups. RESULTS: Of 1168 evaluable patients (PRE 646, 55%; POST 522, 45%), the median last-24-h inpatient OME was 15 mg in PRE patients and 10 mg in POST patients (p < .001). Median discharge OME decreased from 200 mg in PRE to 100 mg in POST patients (p < .001). The frequency of patients with zero discharge opioids increased from 11% to 19% (p < .001). This discharge OME reduction amounted to 52,200 mg OME saved, or the equivalent of 6960 5-mg oxycodone pills not disseminated. CONCLUSIONS: A perioperative opioid reduction education program targeted to providers halved discharge OME, with sustained reductions 1 year later.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...