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1.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133752

RESUMO

AIM: The number of elderly patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms has steadily increased, but few studies have focused on the clinical outcomes of esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection in these patients. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection among elderly patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms. METHODS: Patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal neoplasms between December 2005 and December 2017 were eligible. The patients were divided into two groups according to age: Not-old (<75 years, n = 369) and Old (≥75 years, n = 44). Clinical features and treatment outcomes were retrospectively investigated by reviewing medical records. RESULTS: In total, 413 patients with 459 lesions were enrolled in to this study. Comorbidities, except for a previous history of malignancy, were not significantly different between the two groups. Procedure-related characteristics and the rate of adverse events were similar in the two groups. During a median follow-up period of 33.4 months, the overall survival rate was lower in the Old group (P = 0.046), and the cumulative recurrence rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.334). CONCLUSION: Based on these favorable outcomes, endoscopic submucosal dissection is as feasible and effective for the treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms among elderly patients as it is among non-elderly patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing globally, patients with both NAFLD and chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also frequently found. This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of concurrent NAFLD on the prognosis of patients with CHB-related HCC. METHODS: Patients with CHB-related HCC who underwent surgical resection were consecutively selected from August 2009 to December 2013. The association between histologically proven concurrent NAFLD and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Propensity score (PS) matching was adapted to adjust for baseline characteristics. We also investigated the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) among patients with NAFLD and its association with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Among 338 CHB-related HCC patients selected, 196 patients (58.0%) were diagnosed with concurrent NAFLD. The median follow-up duration was 74.9 months. The patients with NAFLD tended to have better recurrence-free survival (RFS; log-rank, P = 0.16) and had significantly better overall survival (OS; log-rank, P = 0.004) than those without NAFLD. However, the survival benefit of the concurrent NAFLD was not significant in a multivariable Cox analysis (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.73, P = 0.84) or an analysis after PS matching (log-rank, P = 0.57). Regarding the presence or absence of NASH, no differences in the RFS (log-rank, P = 0.61) and OS (log-rank, P = 0.26) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent NAFLD was not associated with both RFS and OS in patients with CHB-related HCC after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Moreover, NAFLD patients with NASH did not have significantly different clinical outcomes compared with NAFLD patients without NASH.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3932, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127608

RESUMO

The combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) is highly synergistic in advanced gastric cancer. We aimed to explain these synergistic effects at the molecular level. Thus, we constructed a weighted correlation network using the differentially expressed genes between Stage I and IV gastric cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and three modules were derived. Next, we investigated the correlation between the eigengene of the expression of the gene network modules and the chemotherapeutic drug response to DCF from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database. The three modules were associated with functions related to cell migration, angiogenesis, and the immune response. The eigengenes of the three modules had a high correlation with DCF (-0.41, -0.40, and -0.15). The eigengenes of the three modules tended to increase as the stage increased. Advanced gastric cancer was affected by the interaction the among modules with three functions, namely cell migration, angiogenesis, and the immune response, all of which are related to metastasis. The weighted correlation network analysis model proved the complementary effects of DCF at the molecular level and thus, could be used as a unique methodology to determine the optimal combination of chemotherapy drugs for patients with gastric cancer.

4.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare, and reports on duodenal GIST bleeding are few. We analyzed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of hemorrhagic duodenal GISTs and compared them with those of gastric GISTs. METHODS: Primary duodenal GISTs surgically diagnosed between January 1998 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Furthermore, patients with duodenal GIST were compared with those with primary gastric GIST histopathologically diagnosed between January 1998 and May 2015 using previously published data. RESULTS: Of the 170 total patients with duodenal GISTs, 48 (28.2%) exhibited tumor bleeding. Endoscopic intervention, embolization, and non-interventional conservative treatment were performed for initial hemostasis in 17, 1, and 30 patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 81.9% in the bleeding group and 89.4% in the non-bleeding group (P = 0.495). Multivariate analysis showed that p53 positivity was a significant risk factor for duodenal GIST bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 2.781, P = 0.012), and age ≥ 60 years (HR 3.163, P = 0.027), a large maximum diameter (comparing four groups: < 2, 2-5, 5-10, and ≥ 10 cm), and mitotic count ≥ 5/high-power field (HPF) (HR 3.265, P = 0.032) were risk factors for overall survival. The incidence of bleeding was significantly higher in duodenal GISTs than in gastric GISTs (28.2% vs. 6.6%, P < 0.001), and the re-bleeding rate after endoscopic hemostasis was also higher in duodenal GISTs than in gastric GISTs (41.2% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.118). CONCLUSION: In patients with duodenal GIST with old age, large tumor diameter, and mitotic count ≥ 5/HPF, a treatment plan should be established in consideration of the poor prognosis, although tumor bleeding does not adversely affect the prognosis. Duodenal GISTs have a higher incidence of tumor bleeding and re-bleeding rate after endoscopic hemostasis than gastric GISTs.

5.
Liver Int ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Since polymerase and surface genes overlap in hepatitis B virus (HBV), an antiviral-induced mutation in the polymerase gene may alter the surface antigenicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but this possibility has not been clearly confirmed. This study aimed to determine the drug susceptibility and surface antigenicity of the patient-derived mutants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Full-length HBV genomes isolated from four entecavir-resistant CHB patients were cloned and sequenced. Around 10 clones of full-length HBV obtained from each patient were analyzed and registered in the NCBI GenBank. Representative clones were further characterized by in vitro drug susceptibility and surface antigenicity assays. RESULTS: The rtL180M+rtM204V mutations were common among all the clones analyzed. Additionally, the ETV-resistance mutations rtT184A/L, rtS202G, and rtM250V were found among three patients. Most of the ETV-resistant mutants had amino acid alterations within the known epitopes recognized by T- and B-cells in the HBV surface and core antigens. The in vitro drug susceptibility assay showed that all tested clones were resistant to ETV treatment. However, they were all susceptible to ADV and TDF. More importantly, the rtI169T mutation in the RT domain, led to the sF161L mutation in the overlapping S gene, which decreased in surface antigenicity. CONCLUSIONS: The ETV-resistance mutations can affect the antigenicity of the HBsAg proteins due to changes in the overlapping sequence of this surface antigen. Thus, the apparent decline or disappearance of HBsAg needs to be interpreted cautiously in patients with previous or current antiviral-resistance mutations.

6.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. DESIGNS: This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47.5%) discontinued NA treatment within 6 months after HBsAg seroclearance (NA discontinuation group) and 145 (52.5%) continued NA treatment (NA continuation group). Primary endpoint was HBsAg reversion and secondary endpoints included serum HBV DNA redetection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RESULTS: During follow-up (median=26.9 months, IQR=12.2-49.2 months), 10 patients (3.6%) experienced HBsAg reversion, 6 (2.2%) showed HBV DNA redetection and 8 (2.9%) developed HCC. Compared with NA continuation, NA discontinuation was not associated with HBsAg reversion in both univariable (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.12 to 1.76, log-rank p=0.24) and multivariable analyses (adjusted HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.16 to 2.59, p=0.54). The cumulative probabilities of HBsAg reversion at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.8%, 2.3% and 5.0% in the NA discontinuation group, and 1.5%, 6.3% and 8.4% in the NA continuation group, respectively. NA discontinuation was not associated with higher risk of either HBV redetection (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.16 to 4.16, log-rank p=0.82) or HCC development (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.12 to 2.23, log-rank p=0.38). CONCLUSION: The discontinuation of NA was not associated with a higher risk of either HBsAg reversion, serum HBV DNA redetection or HCC development compared with NA continuation among patients who achieved HBsAg seroclearance with NA.

7.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(3): e16349, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest is the most serious death-related event in intensive care units (ICUs), but it is not easily predicted because of the complex and time-dependent data characteristics of intensive care patients. Given the complexity and time dependence of ICU data, deep learning-based methods are expected to provide a good foundation for developing risk prediction models based on large clinical records. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to implement a deep learning model that estimates the distribution of cardiac arrest risk probability over time based on clinical data and assesses its potential. METHODS: A retrospective study of 759 ICU patients was conducted between January 2013 and July 2015. A character-level gated recurrent unit with a Weibull distribution algorithm was used to develop a real-time prediction model. Fivefold cross-validation testing (training set: 80% and validation set: 20%) determined the consistency of model accuracy. The time-dependent area under the curve (TAUC) was analyzed based on the aggregation of 5 validation sets. RESULTS: The TAUCs of the implemented model were 0.963, 0.942, 0.917, 0.875, 0.850, 0.842, and 0.761 before cardiac arrest at 1, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 hours, respectively. The sensitivity was between 0.846 and 0.909, and specificity was between 0.923 and 0.946. The distribution of risk between the cardiac arrest group and the non-cardiac arrest group was generally different, and the difference rapidly increased as the time left until cardiac arrest reduced. CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning model for forecasting cardiac arrest was implemented and tested by considering the cumulative and fluctuating effects of time-dependent clinical data gathered from a large medical center. This real-time prediction model is expected to improve patient's care by allowing early intervention in patients at high risk of unexpected cardiac arrests.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate a deep learning model's diagnostic performance in using computed tomography (CT) to diagnose cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) from thyroid cancer in a large clinical cohort and to evaluate the model's clinical utility for resident training. METHODS: The performance of eight deep learning models was validated using 3838 axial CT images from 698 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer who underwent preoperative CT imaging between January and August 2018 (3606 and 232 images from benign and malignant lymph nodes, respectively). Six trainees viewed the same patient images (n = 242), and their diagnostic performance and confidence level (5-point scale) were assessed before and after computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) was included. RESULTS: The overall area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of the eight deep learning algorithms was 0.846 (range 0.784-0.884). The best performing model was Xception, with an AUROC of 0.884. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Xception were 82.8%, 80.2%, 83.0%, 83.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. After introducing the CAD system, underperforming trainees received more help from artificial intelligence than the higher performing trainees (p = 0.046), and overall confidence levels significantly increased from 3.90 to 4.30 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The deep learning-based CAD system used in this study for CT diagnosis of cervical LNM from thyroid cancer was clinically validated with an AUROC of 0.884. This approach may serve as a training tool to help resident physicians to gain confidence in diagnosis. KEY POINTS: • A deep learning-based CAD system for CT diagnosis of cervical LNM from thyroid cancer was validated using data from a clinical cohort. The AUROC for the eight tested algorithms ranged from 0.784 to 0.884. • Of the eight models, the Xception algorithm was the best performing model for the external validation dataset with 0.884 AUROC. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 82.8%, 80.2%, 83.0%, 83.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. • The CAD system exhibited potential to improve diagnostic specificity and accuracy in underperforming trainees (3 of 6 trainees, 50.0%). This approach may have clinical utility as a training tool to help trainees to gain confidence in diagnoses.

9.
Liver Int ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A recent study showed that serum tumour marker-based MoRAL score (11×√protein induced by vitamin K absence-II [PIVKA] +2×√alpha-foetoprotein [AFP]) can reflect both tumour burden and aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate whether baseline MoRAL score could predict tumour recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for very-early/early-stage HCC. METHODS: A total of 576 HCC patients who underwent RFA as initial treatment were enrolled from two tertiary referral hospitals (256 in development cohort and 320 in validation cohort). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the secondary endpoints included cumulative risks of intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR) and extrahepatic metastasis (EM). RESULTS: In the development cohort, MoRAL score was an independent prognostic factor of RFS (P = .02). The optimal cutoff MoRAL score for predicting RFS was 68. Patients with high MoRAL score (>68) showed significantly shorter RFS than did those with low MoRAL score (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.04, P < .001). The 5-year RFS rates were 32.3% and 53.2% in high- and low-MoRAL groups respectively. Risks of both IDR (HR = 1.76, P = .003) and EM (HR = 8.25, P = .006) were also significantly higher in high MoRAL group. These results were reproduced in the validation cohort: RFS (HR = 1.81, P < .001; 5-year RFS rates = 27.7% vs 53.6%) was significantly shorter and risks of IDR (HR = 1.59, P = .003) and EM (HR = 6.19, P = .004) were significantly higher in high MoRAL group. CONCLUSION: A high MoRAL score of >68 was significant a predictive factor of tumour recurrence after RFA for very-early/early-stage HCC. Moreover, it might be warranted to evaluate EM in patients with high baseline MoRAL scores.

10.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(3): 378-385, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma can develop after hepatitis C virus eradication. We developed a new hepatocellular carcinoma risk score (HCC-SVR score) based on independent predictors for chronic hepatitis C after sustained virological response. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2016, a total of 1193 patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved sustained virological response through antiviral therapy were included (669 for training cohort and 524 for validation cohort). The HCC-SVR score was developed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. RESULTS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 19) occurred more frequently in older, male patients and was associated with liver cirrhosis; hypertension; diabetes; lower platelet count; higher alpha-fetoprotein, aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase; lower total cholesterol; and higher fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) (all P < 0.05). FIB-4 (hazard ratio = 1.080), male gender (hazard ratio = 8.189), and higher alpha-fetoprotein (hazard ratio = 1.060) independently predicted hepatocellular carcinoma (all P < 0.05). HCC-SVR score successfully predicted hepatocellular carcinoma development risk [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.771, 0.857, and 0.911 at 2, 4, and 6 years, respectively]. The cumulative incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma differed significantly among groups stratified by HCC-SVR risk score (0-2 points, low; 3-7 points, intermediate; 8-9 points, high risk) (all P < 0.05 by log-rank test). HCC-SVR score was maintained in a validation cohort (n = 524) (AUC = 0.728 at 2 years, 0.737 at 4 years, and 0.809 at 6 years). CONCLUSION: The HCC-SVR score enables risk stratification for hepatocellular carcinoma development at sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

11.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 91(3): 527-536, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic resection (ER) compared with surgical resection (SR) of gastric GI stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: This study included 51 and 403 patients who underwent ER and SR, respectively, for ≤5 cm GISTs in the stomach between June 2005 and August 2017. After propensity score matching (1:1) using age, sex, tumor size, mitotic count, and comorbidities, the oncologic outcomes were compared with 48 patients each from ER and SR groups. RESULTS: The ER group had significantly shorter hospital stay (4.4 ± 2.9 vs 6.6 ± 3.6 days, P < .001) and procedure time (38.3 ± 24.2 vs 66 ± 33.3 min, P < .001). The R0 resection rate was 62.7% in the ER group and 98.5% in the SR group. In the ER group, macroperforation occurred in 6 patients (11.8%) with a tumor located in the fundus (4/6, 66.7%) or body (2/6, 33.3%). All cases of perforation were cured with conservative treatment. In the SR group, postoperative adverse events such as stricture and leakage occurred in 7 patients (1.7%) with a tumor located in the antrum (4/7, 57.1%) or cardia (3/7, 42.9%). After matching, the overall mean follow-up period was 47.9 ± 37.8 months in the ER group and 41.3 ± 22.6 months in the SR group. No recurrence or distant metastasis occurred in either group during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: ER is an effective and safe therapeutic method that might be comparable with SR for treating small-sized (≤5 cm) gastric GISTs. Selecting the resection method according to the tumor location seems appropriate.

12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(2): 583-590, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cases of subepithelial tumors (SETs) located in the cardiac area, a preoperative histologic diagnosis might be helpful in determining the requirement of surgery. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) in gastric SETs located in the cardia. METHODS: The data of 107 patients who underwent EUS-FNB, from 2012 to 2017, for tissue sampling of gastric SETs located in the cardia were collected. The clinicopathological data, EUS-related parameters, and surgical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The EUS-FNB results were diagnostic in 86.9% (93/107) and nondiagnostic in 13.1% (14/107) of the patients. Immunostaining of the FNB specimens led to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in 25 SETs (23.4%), leiomyoma in 62 SETs (57.9%), heterotopic pancreas in 3 SETs (2.8%), and schwannoma in 2 SETs (1.9%). In the multivariate analysis, patients with GISTs showed significantly more inhomogeneous echogenicity [odds ratio (OR), 8.867], more cystic foci (OR, 26.98), and older age (OR, 1.087). In 26 patients who underwent surgical resection, the agreement between EUS-FNB and surgical pathological findings was 100% with respect to the diagnosis of GISTs (n = 20) and leiomyoma (n = 7). Among these cases, the proportion of high-risk GISTs was 20.0% (4/20), and no leiomyosarcoma was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Although a majority of the subepithelial lesions in the cardia of the stomach are benign, 20% of the cases diagnosed with GIST have a high malignant potential. Preoperative EUS-FNB might be a useful tool for decision-making regarding the ultimate management and outcomes of these lesions.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(1): 225-231, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous retrograde migration of nasoenteral feeding tubes is common in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nasoenteral feeding tube tip fixation with hemoclips to prevent tube dislodgement. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent insertion of an endoscopic nasoenteral feeding tube with or without tube tip fixation with hemoclips at the Asan Medical Center in Korea from January 2016 to December 2017. We compared the incidence of tube dislodgment and procedure-related complications between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the total 225 procedures, 72 were performed using the clip-assisted method, while 153 were performed using the standard non-clip-assisted method. Tube dislodgement occurred in two (2.8%) cases in the clipping group and in 26 (17.0%) in the non-clipping group (p = 0.003). Non-clipping group had a sevenfold higher risk of tube dislodgement compared to clipping group after adjustments in multivariable logistic regression (adjusted OR 7.97, 95% CI 1.82-35.00). The procedure time was not significantly different between the two groups (17.6 ± 8.5 min in the clipping group vs. 17.8 ± 9.4 min in the non-clipping group, p = 0.872). In addition, procedure-related complications, such as bleeding, aspiration pneumonia, Mallory-Weiss tear, ileus, and tube obstruction, were not different between the two groups. Achieving target calorie intake took 10.4 ± 10.5 days in the clipping group and 7.9 ± 7.9 days in the non-clipping group (p = 0.293). CONCLUSION: Clip-assisted fixation of nasoenteral feeding tube was effective in preventing tube dislodgement.

14.
Surg Endosc ; 34(2): 696-706, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the major manifestations of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach. Several studies have reported that GIST bleeding is associated with poor prognosis. However, only case reports have reported hemostasis modalities for treating hemorrhagic gastric GIST. To identify clinical outcome of gastric GIST bleeding, we analyzed risk factors and prognosis of hemorrhagic GIST evaluating hemostasis methods. METHODS: Total 697 patients histopathologically diagnosed with primary gastric GIST between January 1998 and May 2015 were enrolled to the study, retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 697 total patients, 46 (6.6%) patients had UGIB. Endoscopic intervention, transarterial embolization, or surgical intervention was performed for initial hemostasis in 15, 2, and 1, respectively. Over a median of 68 months of follow-up, 16 patients in bleeding group and 88 patients in non-bleeding group died; the 5-year survival rate was 79.4% in bleeding group and 91.8% in non-bleeding group (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that significant risk factors for gastric GIST bleeding included the maximal tumor diameter > 5 cm and Ki-67 positivity. Age ≥ 60 [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.124, p = 0.048], necrosis (HR = 5.093, p = 0.027), and bleeding (HR 5.743, p = 0.034) were significant factors for overall survival of gastric GIST patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding risk of gastric GIST was higher when tumor had diameter > 5 cm or Ki-67 positivity. In addition, tumor bleeding, necrosis, and age ≥ 60 years were associated with poor overall survival. Endoscopic intervention can be considered as an effective method for initial hemostasis of hemorrhagic gastric GIST.

15.
Gut Liver ; 14(1): 108-116, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974929

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The National Liver Cancer Surveillance Program (NLCSP) was established in 2003 to reduce the socioeconomic burden imposed by liver cancer (LC). We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the NLCSP in South Korea with respect to survival benefits and cost, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Methods: We used the National Health Insurance Service claims data linked with the NLCSP from 2004 to 2015. The Cox proportional hazard model and generalized linear model were used to determine the effects of the NLCSP on the early detection of LC, survival, and medical costs. Results: From 2006 to 2010, 66,632 patients (surveillance group: 10,527 and no surveillance group: 56,105) newly diagnosed with LC were included in the study. The odds of the early detection of LC was 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 1.93) times higher among patients who participated in the NLCSP once within the 2-year period prior to the diagnosis of LC than among those who did not participate in the surveillance program. The mortality rate of patients who participated in the NLCSP was 22.0% lower (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.80) than that of those who did not participate. When compared with the group who did not participate in surveillance, the group who participated in the NLCSP had higher total medical costs; however, their cost per day was lower after adjustment during the follow-up period. Conclusions: This study highlights the survival benefit in patients who participated in the NLCSP and the need for continuous improvements of the NLCSP in South Korea.

16.
Gut Liver ; 14(1): 57-66, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974930

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Although acid suppressants are widely used for the prevention or treatment of drug-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), evidence regarding the prevention of anticoagulant-related GIB is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of studies that evaluated the protective effect of acid suppressants against anticoagulant-related GIB found in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, and KoreaMed from the date of database inception to April 2018. Random effect model meta-analyses with sensitivity analyses were conducted. The methodological quality of each included publication was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Publication bias was assessed. Results: In total, six nested case-control or cohort studies were identified and analyzed. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) had a protective effect against upper GIB in patients on dicumarinics (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.83; I2, 0%); however, the histamine-2 receptor antagonist did not have the same effect (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.81; I2, 0%). Acid suppressants did not have a protective effect against GIB in patients on dabigatran (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.37; I2, 81.8%). Conclusions: The protective effect of PPIs against dicumarinics-related upper GIB was clear, while there was no evidence supporting the protective effect of acid suppressants against dabigatran-related GIB. However, in the absence of randomized trials demonstrating a lack of bias, solid conclusions cannot be drawn.

17.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(Suppl 5): 240, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracting useful information from biomedical literature plays an important role in the development of modern medicine. In natural language processing, there have been rigorous attempts to find meaningful relationships between entities automatically by co-occurrence-based methods. It has been increasingly important to understand whether relationships exist, and if so how strong, between any two entities extracted from a large number of texts. One of the defining methods is to measure semantic similarity and relatedness between two entities. METHODS: We propose a hybrid ranking method that combines a co-occurrence approach considering both direct and indirect entity pair relationship with specialized word embeddings for measuring the relatedness of two entities. RESULTS: We evaluate the proposed ranking method comparatively with other well-known methods such as co-occurrence, Word2Vec, COALS (Correlated Occurrence Analog to Lexical Semantics), and random indexing by calculating top-ranked entities related to Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we analyze gene, pathway, and gene-phenotype relationships. Overall, the proposed method tends to find more hidden relationships than the other methods. CONCLUSION: Our proposed method is able to select more useful related entities that not only highly co-occur but also have more indirect relations for the target entity. In pathway analysis, our proposed method shows superior performance at identifying (functional) cross clustering and higher-level pathways. Our proposed method, resulting from phenotype analysis, has an advantage in identifying the common genotype relating to phenotypes from biological literature.

18.
Gut Liver ; 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816672

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The risk for colonoscopic postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) remains unclear. We determined the incidence and risk factors for colonoscopic PPB in patients with CLD, especially those with liver cirrhosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CLD who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Seoul National University Hospital between 2011 and 2014. The study endpoints were immediate and delayed PPB. Results: A total of 1,267 consecutive patients with CLD were included in the study. Immediate PPB occurred significantly more often in the Child-Pugh (CP) B or C cirrhosis group (17.5%) than in the CP-A (6.3%) and chronic hepatitis (4.6%) groups (p<0.001). Moreover, the incidence of delayed PPB in the CP-B or C cirrhosis group (4.4%) was significantly higher than that in the CP-A (0.7%) and chronic hepatitis (0.2%) groups (p<0.001). The independent risk factors for immediate PPB were CP-B or C cirrhosis (p=0.011), a platelet count <50,000/µL (p<0.001), 3 or more polyps (p=0.017), endoscopic mucosal resection or submucosal dissection (p<0.001), and polypectomy performed by trainees (p<0.001). The independent risk factors for delayed PPB were CP-B or C cirrhosis (p=0.009), and polyps >10 mm in size (p=0.010). Conclusions: Patients with CP-B or C cirrhosis had an increased risk for bleeding following colonoscopic polypectomy.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682638

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and incident metabolic syndrome in metabolically healthy subjects is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a predictor of future metabolic syndrome in metabolically healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects who underwent health evaluation at least twice between 2009 and 2015 from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in South Korea were included. Patients without obesity who had no metabolic syndrome components were finally analyzed (n = 28,880). The definition of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was based on both the hepatic steatosis and fatty liver indices. The incidence of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was compared between the subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with a higher risk of incident metabolic syndrome, prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in the entire cohort (metabolic syndrome: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.71; prediabetes/type 2 diabetes: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.90; hypertension: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.12; dyslipidemia: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.06). A similar finding was observed in the age-, sex-, smoking status-, and body mass index-based 1:5 propensity score-matched cohort of 1,092 subjects (metabolic syndrome: adjusted hazard ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-7.07; prediabetes/type 2 diabetes: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.73; hypertension: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.88; dyslipidemia: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an early predictor of metabolic dysfunction even in metabolically healthy populations.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the definition of refractoriness to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), which might make them a candidate for systemic therapy, is still controversial. We aimed to derive and validate a tumor marker-based algorithm to define the refractoriness to TACE in patients with intermediate-stage HCC. METHODS: This multi-cohort study was comprised of patients who underwent TACE for treatment-naïve intermediate-stage HCC. We derived a prediction model for overall survival (OS) using the pre- and post-TACE model to predict tumor recurrence after living donor liver transplantation (MoRAL) (i.e., MoRAL score = 11×√protein induced by vitamin K absence-II + 2×√alpha-fetoprotein), which was proven to reflect both tumor burden and biologic aggressiveness of HCC in the explant liver, from a training cohort (n = 193). These results were externally validated in both an independent hospital cohort (from two large-volume centers, n = 140) and a Korean National Cancer Registry sample cohort (n = 149). RESULTS: The changes in MoRAL score (ΔMoRAL) after initial TACE was an independent predictor of OS (MoRAL-increase vs. MoRAL-non-increase: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-3.46, p = 0.001; median OS = 18.8 vs. 37.8 months). In a subgroup of patients with a high baseline MoRAL score (≥89.5, 25th percentile and higher), the prognostic impact of ΔMoRAL was more pronounced (MoRAL-increase vs. MoRAL-non-increase: HR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.54-8.76, p < 0.001; median OS = 9.9 vs. 37.4 months). These results were reproduced in the external validation cohorts. CONCLUSION: The ΔMoRAL after the first TACE, a simple and objective index, provides refined prognostication for patients with intermediate-stage HCC. Proceeding to a second TACE may not provide additional survival benefits in cases of a MoRAL-increase after the first TACE in patients with a high baseline MoRAL score (≥89.5), who might be candidates for systemic therapy.

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