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1.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209258

RESUMO

Tripalmitin-(PPP, 81.2%), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol-(POP, 64.4%), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoylglycerol-(PPO, 86.5%), and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol-(OPO, 50.2%)-rich lipids with different regiospecific positions of palmitic acid (P) were synthesized via acetone fractionation and lipase-catalyzed acidolysis, and their physicochemical and hydrolytic characteristics were compared. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) with higher content of P, wherein P was at the sn-1 (or 3) position, had higher melting points, crystallization temperatures, and packing densities of fat crystals compared to those with a lower content of P, and with P at the sn-2 position. The in vitro digestion degree calculated as released fatty acid (FA) (%) at 30, 60, and 120 min was in the following order: OPO-rich > PPO-rich > POP-rich lipids. At 120 min, in vitro digestion of the OPO-rich lipid released 92.6% of fatty acids, resulting in the highest digestibility, while 89.7% and 87.2% of fatty acids were released from the OPO-rich and PPO-rich lipids, respectively. Over the digestion period, the TAG and monoacylglycerol (MAG) contents decreased, while the diacylglycerol (DAG) content initially increased and then decreased, and the 1,2-DAG content exceeded the 1,3-DAG content. Therefore, the content and stereospecific position of P attached to a specific TAG affected the physicochemical and in vitro digestion characteristics of the lipids.


Assuntos
Lipase/química , Ácido Palmítico/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Digestão , Monoglicerídeos/química , Monoglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Foods ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068968

RESUMO

When cassava is used for the production of distilled spirits through fermentation and distillation, toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is released from linamarin and carcinogenic ethyl carbamate is produced. Herein, cyanide and ethyl carbamate contents were monitored during the fermentation and lab-scale continuous distillation processes. Thereafter, mass balance and the influence of copper chips were evaluated. Results showed that 81.5% of cyanide was removed after fermentation. Use of copper chips completely prevented the migration of cyanide into the distilled spirits, while 88.3% of cyanide migrated from the fermented liquid in the absence of copper chips. Formation of ethyl carbamate was significantly promoted during distillation. Most of the produced ethyl carbamate (73.2%) was transferred into the distilled spirits in the absence of copper chips, only 9.6% of the ethyl carbamate was transferred when copper chips were used. Thus, copper chips effectively prevented the migration of cyanide and ethyl carbamate into the distilled spirts during continuous distillation.

3.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 30(5): 663-673, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123463

RESUMO

Immature citrus with peel was enzymatically treated for production of a hydrolysate with enriched bioactive components and higher antioxidant activity. The effects of reaction factors, including enzyme concentration, reaction time, and temperature on hesperetin and naringenin contents, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were investigated using response surface methodology. The models were adequate, and the enzyme concentration, temperature, and time positively affected hesperetin and naringenin contents and TPC, but negatively affected DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The reaction conditions for maximizing hesperetin, naringenin, and total phenol production and ferric reducing antioxidant power were optimized with the combination of enzyme concentration at 4%, 51 °C and 18 h. The hydrolysate at the optimized conditions contained higher hesperetin and naringenin contents and TPC compared with those before hydrolysis, by 251.7-, 45.5-, and 2.6-fold, respectively. This hydrolysate can be utilized in the production of functional beverages with high added values.

4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805759

RESUMO

Fat globule size and phospholipid (PL) content in human milk (HM) were investigated. HM was classified into three groups depending on fat content (A < B < C). PL content (mg/100 g HM) was significantly higher in the C group (p < 0.05), indicating its positive relationship with HM fat content. When the PL content was normalized (mg/g fat), that of group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and fat droplet size in group C was slightly larger, suggesting that HM fat content is affected by fat droplet numbers to a larger extent than by fat droplet size. A correlation between PC and SM content in HM was observed regardless of fat content, while correlation between PE and either PC or SM increased in the order of C > B > A, hence the composition and content of PL species in HM varied according to its fat content.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/ultraestrutura , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Leite/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/análise , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212752

RESUMO

The digestion rates of microalgal (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 56.8%; palmitic acid, 22.4%), fish (DHA, 10.8%; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 16.2%), and soybean oils (oleic, 21.7%; linoleic acid, 54.6%) were compared by coupling the in vitro multi-step and in vivo apparent digestion models using mice. The in vitro digestion rate estimated based on the released free fatty acids content was remarkably higher in soybean and fish oils than in microalgal oil in 30 min; however, microalgal and fish oils had similar digestion rates at longer digestion. The in vivo digestibility of microalgal oil (91.49%) was lower than those of soybean (96.50%) and fish oils (96.99%). Among the constituent fatty acids of the diet oils, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) exhibited the highest digestibility, followed by EPA, DHA, palmitoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid, demonstrating increased digestibility with reduced chain length and increased unsaturation degree of fatty acid. The diet oils affected the deposition of fatty acids in mouse tissues, and DHA concentrations were high in epididymal fat, liver, and brain of mice fed microalgal oil. In the present study, microalgal oil showed lower in vitro and in vivo digestibility, despite adequate DHA incorporation into major mouse organs, such as the brain and liver.


Assuntos
Digestão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Óleos/metabolismo , Soja/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(10): 1413-1423, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999749

RESUMO

Nine medicinal plants and their stick-type medicinal concentrated beverages (SMCB-I and SMCB-II) with different combination ratio were evaluated on antioxidant, nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory, and antibacterial effects against pathogenic bacteria involved in respiratory system illnesses. Antioxidant activity was high in Syzygium aromaticum, Pueraria lobata, Plantago asiatica, and Kalopanax pictus which have higher contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids. The NO inhibitory activity was high in Syzygium aromaticum, Plantago asiatica, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Syzygium aromaticum, Plantago asiatica, Kalopanax pictus and Glycyrrhiza uralensis showed higher antibacterial activity than the other five medicinal plants against Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Mycobacterium sp. SMCB-II exhibited higher antioxidant, NO inhibitory, and antibacterial effects than SMCB-I, since Syzygium aromaticum, Pueraria lobata, and Kalopanax pictus were only used for the production of SMCB-II. The SMCBs would be expected to contribute to an easy-to-carry, easy-to-consume, and high value-added health beverage for the modern people.

7.
Foods ; 9(2)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075217

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics and textural properties of yellow croaker treated by hot air drying (HAD), low temperature vacuum drying (LVD), and freeze drying (FD) methods were studied. The dried fish by LVD had the lowest moisture content and highest protein. The volatile basic nitrogen values of dried fish by HAD, LVD, and FD were 66.27, 34.38, and 33.03 mg/100 g sample, respectively. The predominant amino acids of dried fish treated by LVD and FD were lysine, taurine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and the predominant ones by HAD were the remaining amino acids analyzed in this study, except lysine, taurine, alanine, and glutamic acid. By using the color parameters, the L* and b* values by LVD showed light brown and yellow colors of the fish. The textural properties of dried fish by LVD were softer and more chewable than those of HAD and FD. In the stereo-micrographs, the flesh of dried fish by LVD compared to others showed minimization of texture damage, resilient tissues, much fish oil, and were light brown in color. Taken together, these results suggest that LVD rather than HAD and FD provide good qualities of dried fish in terms of physicochemical characteristics and textural properties.

8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 287-294, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol (DAG) reduces body weight, suppresses body fat accumulation, and lowers the blood lipid concentration, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the risk of occurrence of coronary artery diseases. RESULTS: DAG-rich algae oil with a high DHA content (55.9%) was synthesized via the lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of algae oil, which consisted of triacylglycerol (43.9 mol%), DAG (40.9 mol%), and monoacylglycerol (15.2 mol%). The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using three emulsifiers [whey protein concentrate (WPC), Tween80, and Tween80 + Span80]. The WPC-emulsion formed a thicker serum layer (6.67% at day 51) and larger oil droplets (d32 , 0.37 µm at day 28) than the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions (3.33-4.17%; 0.26 µm), and an upper cream layer with excess oil droplets was observed in only the WPC-emulsion, indicating that WPC-emulsion possesses the lowest emulsification stability. The hydroperoxide value and reduction rate of the DHA content were higher in the WPC-emulsions than in the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions during storage, which suggested that the WPC-emulsion had the lowest oxidation stability. CONCLUSION: The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsion prepared with suitable emulsifiers, such as non-ionic emulsifiers, would have excellent emulsification and oxidative stabilities and provides a health benefit for special purposes in the food processing industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Biocatálise , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Lipase/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química , Água/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
9.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 28(4): 1027-1036, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275702

RESUMO

The quality characteristics of commercial alcoholic beverages (yakju, diluted soju, and fruit wines) were evaluated by assessing pH, total acidity, acetaldehyde, SO2, and flavonoid content. pH level was the highest in diluted soju, and total acidity and flavonoid content were higher in fruit wines compared to others. SO2 was detected only in fruit wines, and the total SO2 content was higher in the order of white wine > red wine > plum wine. Acetaldehyde contents were different according to the type of alcoholic beverage and analytic method of titration, enzymatic, headspace-GC and OIV methods. In fruit wines, acetaldehyde contents were significantly different according to analytic method (p < 0.05), and acetaldehyde bound to SO2 affected its quantification, resulting in lower acetaldehyde contents assessed by titration and headspace-GC than enzymatic and OIV methods. Therefore, selection of an appropriate analytic method is important for quantification of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

10.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311184

RESUMO

Herein, contaminants remaining in distillate and distillers' stillage were quantitatively measured after distillation. After rice bran powder was contaminated with 10 ppm of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) or 0.02-1.27 ppm of five pesticides (terbufos, fenthion, iprobenfos, flutolanil, and ethoprophos) followed by fermentation, single-stage distillation was performed. In the obtained distillate, no Pb or Cd was found, as expected. However, when the pesticides were added as contaminants, trace-0.05 ppm of some pesticides were detected in the distillate, possibly due to the high vapor pressure (e.g., that of ethoprophos) and contamination amount (e.g., that of flutolanil, terbufos, and fenthion). In contrast, none of the contaminating pesticides were observed in the distilled spirits when a fermented liquefaction contaminated with 0.04-4 ppm of six pesticides (fenthion, terbufos, ethoprophos, iprobenfos, oxadiazon, and flutolanil) was distilled using a pilot-plant scale distillation column, indicating that the pesticides hardly migrate to the distilled spirits.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Anilidas/análise , Cádmio/análise , Destilação , Fention/análise , Fermentação , Chumbo/análise , Compostos Organotiofosforados/análise , Projetos Piloto
11.
J Food Sci ; 82(12): 2847-2856, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135028

RESUMO

Combined fractions (H2 O and 30% and 50% ethanol) of crude rapeseed cake extracts with 80% ethanol were hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. The hydrolyzed extract showed significantly higher contents of total phenolics (41.8 mg SAE/g) and sinapic acid (425.8 mg/g), as well as higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity (91.98 RSC%) than the crude extract (P < 0.05). Antimicrobial activity of the hydrolyzed extract was remarkably higher than that of the crude extract against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast, as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Hydrolyzed extract (100, 250, or 500 ppm) was added to mayonnaise dressing, and several quality characteristics of the dressing were investigated by assessments of microbial, physical, and oxidative stabilities during 8 wk of storage. Microbial stability was higher in the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added (4.3 to 4.6 Log CFU/g) than the control (4.9 Log CFU/g). Physical characteristics of the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added were better than those of the control, based on increased viscosity and reduced emulsion separation. Hydrolyzed extract increased oxidative stability in a concentration-dependent manner, and the dressing with added 500 ppm of hydrolyzed extract resulted in a lower free fatty acid content (4.8% at week 8), peroxide value (13.5 meq/kg at week 6), and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (66.2 µg/100 g at week 8) than the control. Therefore, it is expected that hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract containing high sinapic acid content can be used in emulsion system as a value-added ingredient. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Crude extract of rapeseed cake was fractionated and alkaline-hydrolyzed to convert sinapine into sinapic acid, and the produced hydrolyzed extract showed higher antimicrobial and antioxidative activities than the crude extract. When the hydrolyzed extract was added to mayonnaise dressing, microbial stability increased along with physical characteristics and oxidative stability, thereby supporting the potential of hydrolyzed rapeseed extract as a food additive for quality management of mayonnaise dressing during storage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Análise de Alimentos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química
12.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 26(2): 349-355, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263549

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the organic acid content in liquors (red wine, white wine, and beer) using three different high-performance liquid chromatography analysis methods. Post-column reaction methods (method 2 and 3) were found to be more promising than UV-detection method (method 1). Using method 2 (two columns), the analyzed red wine was found to contain 2,652.4 mg/L tartaric acid and 1,392.9 mg/L lactic acid but relatively lower amounts of malic acid (271.0 mg/L). Furthermore, tartaric acid (1,160.8-2,749.1 mg/L) and malic acid (470.2-3,107.9 mg/L) were the major components in white wine. Beers were analyzed using method 3 (one column). In the analyzed foreign beers, lactic acid (95.9-226.4 mg/L), malic acid (62.2-110.5 mg/L), acetic acid (93.5-183.8 mg/L), and succinic acid (37.0-56.2 mg/L) were detected. Similar to the foreign beers, the contents of succinic acid in the domestic beers were the lowest. The proposed methods could be useful for quantitative analysis of organic acids in wine and beer.

13.
J Food Sci ; 80(3): C510-4, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25678328

RESUMO

To compare the oxidative stability between diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and conventional triacylglycerol (TAG) oil (that is, soybean oil), the prepared stripped diacylglycerol oil (SDO) and soybean oil (SSBO) were stored at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h. During storage peroxide values (POVs), contents of aldehydes, unsaturated fatty acids were measured to evaluate the oxidative stabilities of the 2 oils. The results showed the content of C18:2, C18:3, and total unsaturated fatty acid decreased faster in DAG oil than in soybean oil, whereas the decreased rate of C18:1 was similar in 2 oils. Also, both rate constants (K1 and K2) obtained from POV (K1 ) and total aldehydes (K2 ) indicated that DAG oil (K1 = 3.22 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.023 h(-1)) was oxidized more rapidly than soybean oil (K1 = 2.56 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.021 h(-1)), which was mainly due to the difference of acylglycerol composition of the 2 oils along with higher C18:3 (9.6%) in SDO than SSBO (5.7%). It is concluded that DAG was more easily oxidized than soybean oil at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Óleos/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Dieta , Glicerídeos/análise , Humanos , Oxirredução
14.
J Food Sci ; 78(1): C43-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23278764

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The desired mix of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched structured lipid (SL) and physically blended lipid (PB) was prepared from grape seed oil and perilla oil at a weight ratio of 3:1. The major triacylglycerol species (LnLnL) in PB was drastically increased after interesterification (SL), from 0.5% to 16.8%. After the reaction, the total unsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position was decreased from 98.83% in PB to 91.36% in SL. The reduction of vitamin E compounds was also observed. Compared with a PB-based emulsion, SL-based emulsions showed oxidative instability, as assessed by lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, which was mainly due to the SL which contained less LA, ALA, and ΣUSFA at the sn-2 position and less γ-tocopherol than did PB. PB-, and SL-based emulsions with Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) which showed significantly lower values of LOOH and TBARS compared to a blank control. GBE was effective in retarding the oxidation of the emulsion by quenching the free radicals in the water phase of the emulsion and inhibiting the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. These results indicate that GBE could be used as an antioxidant additive for stabilizing ALA-enriched emulsions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results suggest the possibility to supplement Ginkgo biloba extract in alpha linolenic acid-enriched structured lipid-based emulsions which would increase the therapeutic value and enhance the antioxidant potential of the emulsions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Emulsões , Gorduras/química , Peróxidos Lipídicos/análise , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química , gama-Tocoferol/análise
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 96(4): 993-1005, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22644524

RESUMO

Lipase (lip) and lipase-specific foldase (lif) genes of a biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans NRRL B-2649 were cloned using primers based on consensus sequences, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based genome walking. Sequence analyses showed a putative Lip gene product (314 amino acids, a.a.) with its catalytic active site (Ser(111), Asp(258), and His(280)) identified. The foldase lif gene that is located 55 bp downstream of lip codes for a putative Lif (345 a.a.). To verify the biological function of the cloned lip gene for lipase expression in P. resinovorans, we constructed a lip knock-out mutant (lip::Tn5) by transposon insertion. Complementation of the lip knock-out P. resinovorans mutant with a lipase expression plasmid (pBS29-P2-lip) was performed, and its effect on lipase expression was investigated. The wild-type P. resinovorans and the lip::Tn5[pBS29-P2-lip] recombinant (but not the lip::Tn5 mutant) showed fluorescence on rhodamine B plates indicative of lipase activity. The wild type exhibited extracellular lipase activity when grown on medium containing triacylglycerol substrates (tallow, olive oil, and tributyrin) as sole carbon sources, but the lip::Tn5 mutant did not show such activity. Lipase activity of various strains was also confirmed by TLC analysis of the composition of acylglycerols and free fatty acid in the extracts of the spent culture medium. We further found that tributyrin was more effective than olive oil in inducing lipase expression in P. resinovorans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Lipase/química , Lipase/genética , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Pseudomonas/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Lipase/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pseudomonas/química , Pseudomonas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Food Sci ; 77(1): C39-45, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22122200

RESUMO

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) enriched structured lipid (SL) was produced by lipase-catalyzed interesterification from perilla oil (PO) and corn oil (CO). The effects of different reaction conditions (substrate molar ratio [PO/CO 1:1 to 1:3], reaction time [0 to 24 h], and reaction temperature [55 to 65 °C]) were studied. Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. We obtained 32.39% of ALA in SL obtained under the optimized conditions (molar ratio-1:1 [PO:CO], temperature-60 °C, reaction time-15 h). In SL, the major triacylglycerol (TAG) species (linolenoyl-linolenoyl-linolenoyl glycerol [LnLnLn], linolenoyl-linolenoyl-linoleoyl glycerol [LnLnL]) mainly from PO and linoleoyl-linoleoyl-oleoyl glycerol (LLO), linoleoyl-oleoyl-oleoyl glycerol (LOO), palmitoyl-linoleoyl-oleoyl glycerol (PLO) from CO decreased while linolenoyl-linolenoyl-oleoyl glycerol (LnLnO) (18.41%), trilinolein (LLL) (9.06%), LLO (16.66%), palmitoyl-linoleoyl-linoleoyl glycerol (PLL) (9.69%) were increased compared to that of physical blend. Total tocopherol content (28.01 mg/100 g), saponification value (SV) (192.2), and iodine value (IV) (161.9) were obtained. Furthermore, oxidative stability of the SL was also investigated by addition of 3 different antioxidants (each 200 ppm of rosemary extract [SL-ROS], BHT [SL-BHT], catechin [SL-CAT]) was added into SL and stored in 60 °C oven for 30 d. 2-Thiobabituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value was 0.16 mg/kg in SL-CAT and 0.18 mg/kg in SL-ROS as compared with 0.22 mg/kg in control (SL) after oxidation. The lowest peroxide value (POV, 200.9 meq/kg) and longest induction time (29.88 h) was also observed in SL-CAT.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Óleo de Milho/química , Esterificação , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Concentração Osmolar , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rhizomucor/enzimologia , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(1): 467-75, 2012 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22117614

RESUMO

The effects of the purple-fleshed sweet potato extract (PFSPE) on oxidation stabilities of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized fish oil-soybean oil structured lipid (SL) versus physically blended lipid (PBL) without modification were evaluated. The anthocyanins in PFSPE were analyzed and identified by HPLC-MS. The fatty acid composition of SL was similar to that of PBL, except palmitic acid (1.48 in PBL and 9.61% in SL) and linoleic acid (62.47 in PBL and 49.58% in SL). Peonidin 3-caffeoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-(6',6'-caffeoylferuloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, peonidin-dicaffeoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-(6',6"-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside were identified as the major anthocyanin compounds in PFSPE. Different levels (200, 500, 1000 ppm) of PFSPE were added into both SL- and PBL-based emulsions, with 200 ppm catechin as comparison. Oxidation was monitored by measuring the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The antioxidant activity of PFSPE increased with an increased concentration, the concentration of 1000 ppm showed high antioxidant ability similar to that of catechin in both PBL- and SL-based oil-in-water emulsions. It is notable that the SL-based emulsion appeared to have better oxidative stability than the PBL-based emulsion.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Lipídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Emulsões/química , Oxirredução
18.
J Med Food ; 14(7-8): 732-8, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21663494

RESUMO

The hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic (ABG) against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: a saline (WT) group, an ethanol (ET) group (15 mL/kg of body weight 20% [wt/vol] ethanol), and an ethanol + ABG (ET+ABG) group (ethanol + 100 mg/kg of body weight ABG). ABG administration led to decreased epididymal and total fat pad (P<.05) and liver weights, ameliorated prominent fatty changes around the portal triad, and reduced fat accumulation in liver. ABG caused a significant decrease of the alcohol-induced increases in hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Cytochrome P450 2E1 activity was reduced by 55%, whereas the activities of glutathione S-transferase and quinine reductase were increased by 1.5-fold (P<.05) and fourfold (P<.05), respectively, in the ET+ABG group compared with the ET group. ABG treatment significantly decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level in liver, heart, and plasma. Glutathione content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in liver were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, the oxidative damage to blood lymphocyte DNA caused by chronic alcohol ingestion was significantly decreased in the ET+ABG group. In conclusion, ABG has strong antioxidative properties and may be a promising agent for protecting against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/enzimologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
N Biotechnol ; 28(2): 190-5, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20951847

RESUMO

The ability of free and immobilized lipase on the production of diacylglycerols (DAG) by transesterification of glycerol monooleate (GMO) and ethyl oleate was investigated. Among three free lipases such as lipase G (Penicillium cyclopium), lipase AK (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia), lipase PS exhibited the highest DAG productivity, and the DAG content gradually increased up to 24 hours reaction and then remained steady. The comparative result for DAG productivity between free lipase PS and immobilized lipases (lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM) during nine times of 24 hours reaction indicated that total DAG production was higher in immobilized lipase PS-D (183.5mM) and Lipozyme RM IM (309.5mM) than free lipase PS (122.0mM) at the first reaction, and that the DAG production rate was reduced by consecutive reactions, in which more sn-1,3-DAG was synthesized than sn-1,2-DAG. During the consecutive reactions, the activity of lipase PS was relatively steady by showing similar DAG content, whereas DAG production of lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM was gradually decreased to 69.9 and 167.1mM at 9th reaction, respectively, resulting in 62% and 46% reduced production when compared with 1st reaction. Interestingly, from 7th reaction lipase PS produced more DAG than immobilized lipase PS-D, and exhibited a stable activity for DAG production. Therefore, the present study suggested that DAG productivity between GMO and ethyl oleate was higher in immobilized lipases than free lipases, but the activity was reduced with repeated uses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/biossíntese , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Burkholderia cepacia/enzimologia , Humanos , Penicillium/enzimologia , Pseudomonas fluorescens/enzimologia
20.
J Med Food ; 13(5): 1216-23, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20828319

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of the butanol fraction from the methanol extract of butterbur (Petasites japonicus Max.) (BMP) on the plasma lipid profiles and oxidative damage of liver in mice challenged with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG). ICR mice (6-8 weeks old, male) were fed BMP (0.1% or 0.3%) for 1 week, and on day 7, MSG (4 mg/g) was administered intraperitoneally to the mice. Administration of MSG resulted in a significant decrease of antioxidant biomarkers such as total glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and quinone reductase (NQO1), whereas the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value was increased in liver tissue. However, BMP supplementation markedly enhanced the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, including GPx, GR, GST, and NQO1, whereas it lowered TBARS, compared to the MSG-treated group. Moreover, BMP supplementation decreased total cholesterol, atherogenic index, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, compared to the MSG-treated group. Based on these results, it was proposed that BMP improve the plasma lipid profiles and decrease the oxidative stress by up-regulating the hepatic antioxidant enzymes in mice challenged with MSG.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Petasites/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Redutase/análise , Glutationa Transferase/análise , Fígado/química , Fígado/enzimologia , Hepatopatias , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/análise , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
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