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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2819, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499482

RESUMO

Increased grain yield will be critical to meet the growing demand for food, and could be achieved by delaying crop senescence. Here, via quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we uncover the genetic basis underlying distinct life cycles and senescence patterns of two rice subspecies, indica and japonica. Promoter variations in the Stay-Green (OsSGR) gene encoding the chlorophyll-degrading Mg++-dechelatase were found to trigger higher and earlier induction of OsSGR in indica, which accelerated senescence of indica rice cultivars. The indica-type promoter is present in a progenitor subspecies O. nivara and thus was acquired early during the evolution of rapid cycling trait in rice subspecies. Japonica OsSGR alleles introgressed into indica-type cultivars in Korean rice fields lead to delayed senescence, with increased grain yield and enhanced photosynthetic competence. Taken together, these data establish that naturally occurring OsSGR promoter and related lifespan variations can be exploited in breeding programs to augment rice yield.

2.
Addict Behav ; 110: 106485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559608

RESUMO

Adolescent Internet addiction is an important social issue entailing extensive use of Internet and smartphones and its side effects. This study identified relevant psychological factors that affect excessive Internet use (EIU) and excessive smartphone use (ESU) in adolescents using structural equation modeling (SEM). A sample of 714 individuals drawn from lists of middle school students in South Korea completed self-administered questionnaires, including Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), and various clinical and psychological scales measuring depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, expression of anger, and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)/activation system (BAS). The final model, fitted using SEM, showed that both clinical characteristics, including ADHD symptoms, aggression, expression of anger, depression, and anxiety, and personality characteristics, represented by BIS/BAS, played important roles in the severity of EIU or ESU. In particular, affective components such as depression and anxiety were significantly associated with both EIU and ESU, whereas aggression, the expression of anger, and ADHD symptoms affected only EIU. Furthermore, the association between ESU and EIU was significant. Although personality characteristics measured by the BIS and BAS scores did not have direct effects on addiction, they were associated with clinical features and might be risk factors for addiction. The model revealed significant pathways from personality and clinical features to EIU and ESU in adolescents and informed our basic understanding of the meaningful predictors of these addictions and their direct and indirect influences.

3.
Stem Cell Reports ; 15(1): 171-184, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502464

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) may be an important source for regenerative medicine. The low derivation efficiency of stem cells and the accessibility of human oocytes are the main obstacles to their application. We previously reported that the efficiency of SCNT was increased by overexpression of H3K9me3 demethylase. Here, we applied a modified derivation method to the PSC line and first obtained human SCNT-PSC lines derived from both donated cryopreserved oocytes and cord blood cells with a homozygous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. The SCNT-PSCs have very similar characteristics with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and additionally have shown immunocompatibility in an in vitro and in vivo humanized mouse with a matching HLA type. Our study demonstrates that SCNT technology using donated cryopreserved oocytes and cord blood cells with a known HLA type provides a promising method for establishing a human HLA-matched SCNT-PSC bank for regenerative medicine.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396545

RESUMO

Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative and is cheaper than Y-27632. It increased hPSC growth following thawing and passaging, like Y-27632, and did not affect pluripotency, differentiation ability, and chromosome integrity. Furthermore, fasudil promoted retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells (NCCs) during differentiation. It was also useful for single-cell passaging of hPSCs and during aggregation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem research.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(18): 8183-8193, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233474

RESUMO

Multiple pathogenic elements, including reactive oxygen species, amyloidogenic proteins, and metal ions, are associated with the development of neurodegenerative disorders. We report minimalistic redox-based principles for preparing compact aromatic compounds by derivatizing the phenylene moiety with various functional groups. These molecular agents display enhanced reactivities against multiple targets such as free radicals, metal-free amyloid-ß (Aß), and metal-bound Aß that are implicated in the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanistic studies reveal that the redox properties of these reagents are essential for their function. Specifically, they engage in oxidative reactions with metal-free and metal-bound Aß, leading to chemical modifications of the Aß peptides to form covalent adducts that alter the aggregation of Aß. Moreover, the administration of the most promising candidate significantly attenuates the amyloid pathology in the brains of AD transgenic mice and improves their cognitive defects. Our studies demonstrate an efficient and effective redox-based strategy for incorporating multiple functions into simple molecular reagents.

6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(9): e51, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a new neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. Recently, it has been used in patients under general anesthesia. However, sugammadex could be toxic to fetuses and pediatric patients under 3 years of age. In this study, we demonstrated the safety of sugammadex in fetuses, using zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, its neurotoxicity was evaluated using neuronal cell lines. METHODS: We used SH-SY5Y cells to determine the viability of neuronal cells treated with sugammadex. Zebrafish larvae were used to determine the teratogenic effects of sugammadex. RESULTS: Sugammadex showed no adverse effects on neuronal cells and zebrafish larvae. The survival rates of neuronal cells were not different in all concentrations. In addition, the heart formation of zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to various concentrations of sugammadex, were not different. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using sugammadex during pregnancy. However, further clinical studies will be required to extrapolate these results to humans.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild neurocognitive disorder (mNCD) is one of the degenerative diseases that results in memory deficit, and can progress to dementia. The effectiveness of drug therapy for mNCD is still debatable, but treatment of this disease has important implications for postponing or preventing dementia. Jujadokseo-hwan (JDH) is a traditional herbal medicine formulation that exhibits improvement in cognitive abilities and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we will evaluate the safety and efficacy of JDH compared to placebo in mNCD patients. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter clinical trial. After obtaining informed consent from all participants and performing the screening process, the participants will be equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. Each participant will visit the trial center 7 times during the 12 weeks of intervention. The follow up study will be conducted 12 weeks after the intervention ends. The primary outcome is the variance in Seoul verbal learning test-elderly's version (SVLT-E) score from baseline to 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include scores/values for the following variables: SVLT-E, Rey complex figure test, Digit span test, Korean-Boston naming test, calculation ability, controlled oral word association test, Korean-color word stroop test, digit symbol coding, Korean-trail making test-elderly's version, Korean version of mini mental state examination for dementia screening, euro-qol-5 dimension, pattern identifications tool for cognitive disorders, Korean version of Montreal cognitive assessment, Korean quality of life-Alzheimer disease, computerized tongue image analysis system, blood pressure pulse analyzer, bioelectrical impedance analyzer, wearable electroencephalogram device, functional near-infrared spectroscopy system, and cost analysis. DISCUSSION: This is the first trial evaluating the efficacy of JDH for mNCD. We expect this trial will provide strong support for wide use of JDH for mNCD and lead to further research on herbal medicine treatments for mNCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: KCT0003570 (Registered in Clinical Research Information Service of the Republic of Korea, https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01.jsp?seq=12669).


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 393-399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893436

RESUMO

Although the existence of the primo vasculature system has been shown in many species, including mice, rats, rabbits and humans, the biological role of this system, including expression of genes and proteins, has not yet been investigated. Especially the transcriptional action by mRNA, which is required for biological action, needs to be studied in primo vasculature biology. Differentially expressed genes in both isolated primo vessels and lymphatic vessels of rabbits were analyzed by RNA sequencing experiments. Primer efficiency and RNA purity of the primo vessels under lipopolysaccharides were confirmed prior to performing real-time qRT-PCR analysis following RNA extraction. We demonstrated that FLT4 was enriched in primo vessels and that several genes, including HSPH1 and EPHB2, were highly expressed in primo vessels compared with lymphatic vessels. Our data show that almost all genes, except HSPA4, were increased or sustained in isolated primo vessels compared with lymphatic vessels (FLT4 2.58 fold, HSPH1 1.83 fold, EPHB2 1.52 fold; whereas HSPA4 decreased 0.50 fold), suggesting primo vessels as a central regulator in diverse physiology. This implies that FLT4, HSPH1, and EPHB2 in high amounts may be involved in the functional activity of primo vessels. Our experimental data show that several genes are highly enriched in primo vessels in the lymphatic vessels of the rabbit.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vasos Linfáticos , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Animais , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/genética , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Coelhos , Receptor EphB2/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 415-420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893439

RESUMO

Murine models have become powerful tools in leukemia research for investigating interactions between blast cells niche factors. In the tumor microenvironment, immune cells are one of the most important niche factors, capable of mounting dynamic innate or adoptive responses against leukemic cells. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a systemic cancer accompanied by immune disruption. In order to exploit the enhanced activity of immune cells in AML treatment, the use of syngeneic mouse models is necessary. Studies of crosstalk between cancer blast cells and immune cells in syngeneic mouse models are beneficial, as the absence of immune functions in syngeneic models enables focus on cancer-associated immune reactions. Once AML is induced, innate and adoptive immune cells respond differently, ultimately resulting in suppression of the immune cells. Murine AML models are commonly induced by intravenous or subcutaneous injection of C1498 cells. Despite the popularity of murine models, they have not yet resulted in the elucidation of distinct differences in immune cells by the injection method. Here, we investigated the frequency of immune cells and survival rate of mice with AML induced using both injection methods.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
10.
Cornea ; 39(4): 508-513, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the protective effects of cyclosporine A emulsion (Restasis: 0.05% cyclosporine A) (CsAE) and cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (Ikervis: 0.1% cyclosporine A) (CsACE) on cellular inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, and survival in an in vitro dry eye model. METHODS: The concentration of CsA in CsAE and CsACE was verified using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system. Human corneal epithelial cells were subjected to desiccation stress. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without 3 groups of cyclosporine A medium (CsAE 1:50, CsACE 1:50, and CsACE 1:100). p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα, Bax, Bcl-xL, p-Erk1/2, and p-Akt levels were determined using Western blots, and TNF-α levels were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The CsA concentration of CsACE 1:100 was nearly the same as that of CsAE 1:50. Compared with CsAE 1:50 (0.78 ± 0.19 fold), the p-NF-κB p65 level was further reduced in CsACE 1:50 (0.38 ± 1.20 fold) and 1:100 (0.29 ± 0.11 fold) as well as p-IκBα. Levels of TNF-α were also lower in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50. Induction of the apoptotic protein Bax was significantly decreased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 compared with CsAE 1:50, whereas that of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL was increased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels were higher in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50. CONCLUSIONS: CsACE had more potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects than CsAE in a transwell desiccation stress model. CsACE also enhanced proliferation and survival factors under desiccation stress compared with CsAE in this in vitro dry eye model.

11.
Metabolism ; 102: 154000, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Supplementation with serine attenuates alcoholic fatty liver by regulating homocysteine metabolism and lipogenesis. However, little is known about serine metabolism in fatty liver disease (FLD). We aimed to investigate the changes in serine biosynthetic pathways in humans and animal models of fatty liver and their contribution to the development of FLD. METHODS: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and methionine-choline-deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis animal models were employed. Human serum samples were obtained from patients with FLD whose proton density fat fraction was estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh)-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and transgenic mice overexpressing Phgdh (Tg-phgdh) were used to evaluate the role of serine metabolism in the development of FLD. RESULTS: Expression of Phgdh was markedly reduced in the animal models. There were significant negative correlations of the serum serine with the liver fat fraction, serum alanine transaminase, and triglyceride levels among patients with FLD. Increased lipid accumulation and reduced NAD+ and SIRT1 activity were observed in Phgdh-knockout MEF and primary hepatocytes incubated with free fatty acids; these effects were reversed by overexpression of Phgdh. Tg-Phgdh mice showed significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with wild-type littermates fed a HFD, which was accompanied by increased SIRT1 activity and reduced expression of lipogenic genes and proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Human and experimental data suggest that reduced Phgdh expression and serine levels are closely associated with the development of FLD.


Assuntos
Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/química , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Serina/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225974, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800632

RESUMO

The development of new improved varieties is one of the major goals of plant breeding. Concomitantly, the demand for stable, eco-friendly, and high-quality rice production is constantly increasing. However, most farmers prefer to cultivate familiar rice varieties developed more than 10 years ago to minimize economic risk. A strategy is needed to develop rice varieties without the limitations of the preferred old varieties. Here, we tested the rapid development of near isogenic lines (NILs) using a rapid generation advance system together with marker-assisted backcrossing to overcome the shortcomings of parental materials. For this purpose, we chose rice stripe virus (RSV) susceptible variety Unkwang and RSV resistant variety Haedamssal as experimental materials. First, we backcrossed and screened BC1F1 and BC2F1 plants having similar agronomic traits as Unkwang and the heterozygous genotype for RSV resistant specific marker InDel7 from Haedamssal. Secondly, the genetic background of 11 BC2F1 plants was identified with 73 KASP markers; plants of line YR32548-8 showed 84.5% of recovery of the recurrent parent genome. Among 28 BC2F2 plants, YR32548-8-16 was the line that showed maximum recovery of the recurrent parent genome (96.2%) while effectively introgressed with RSV-resistance loci on chromosome 11. Finally, we selected line YR32548-8-16 as an NIL showing an RSV resistant phenotype and similar agronomic traits to Unkwang. This fast breeding approach will be useful in rice breeding programs for the improvement of varieties preferred by farmers for their stress tolerance, yield, or quality.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Int J Stem Cells ; 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887851

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are regarded as one of essential cell sources for treating regenerative diseases. Among many stem cells, the feasibility of using adult-derived hematopoietic stem cells in therapeutic approaches is very diverse, and is unarguably regarded as an important cell source in stem cell biology. So far, many investigators are exploring HSCs and modified HSCs for use in clinical and basic science. Methods: In the present review, we briefly summarized HSCs and their application in pathophysiologic conditions, including non-hematopoietic tissue regeneration as well as blood disorders. Results: HSCs and HSCs-derived progenitors are promising cell sources in regenerative medicine and their contributions can be properly applied to treat pathophysiologic conditions. Conclusions: Among many adult stem cells, HSCs are a powerful tool to treat patients with diseases such as hematologic malignancies and liver disease. Since HSCs can be differentiated into diverse progenitors including endothelial progenitors, they may be useful for constructing strategies for effective therapy.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 835, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685805

RESUMO

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although myocardial cell death plays a significant role in myocardial infarction (MI), its underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. To understand the progression of MI and identify potential therapeutic targets, we performed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomic analysis using an MI mouse model. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that the glutathione metabolic pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway were significantly downregulated during MI. In particular, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which protects cells from ferroptosis (an iron-dependent programme of regulated necrosis), was downregulated in the early and middle stages of MI. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses suggested that GPX4 downregulation occurred at the transcriptional level. Depletion or inhibition of GPX4 using specific siRNA or the chemical inhibitor RSL3, respectively, resulted in the accumulation of lipid peroxide, leading to cell death by ferroptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Although neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were less sensitive to GPX4 inhibition than H9c2 cells, NRVMs rapidly underwent ferroptosis in response to GPX4 inhibition under cysteine deprivation. Our study suggests that downregulation of GPX4 during MI contributes to ferroptotic cell death in cardiomyocytes upon metabolic stress such as cysteine deprivation.

15.
J Periodontal Implant Sci ; 49(5): 319-329, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681489

RESUMO

Purpose: Direct application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) has been established as an effective method of microbial decontamination. This study aimed to investigate the bactericidal effect of direct application of an APPJ using helium gas (He-APPJ) on Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium discs. Methods: On the SLA discs covered by P. gingivalis biofilms, an APPJ with helium (He) as a discharge gas was applied at 3 different time intervals (0, 3, and 5 minutes). To evaluate the effect of the plasma itself, the He gas-only group was used as the control group. The bactericidal effect of the He-APPJ was determined by the number of colony-forming units. Bacterial viability was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and bacterial morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: As the plasma treatment time increased, the amount of P. gingivalis decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. In the SEM images, compared to the control group, the bacterial biofilm structure on SLA discs treated by the He-APPJ for more than 3 minutes was destroyed. In addition, the CLSM images showed consistent results. Even in sites distant from the area of direct He-APPJ exposure, decontamination effects were observed in both SEM and CLSM images. Conclusions: He-APPJ application was effective in removing P. gingivalis biofilm on SLA titanium discs in an in vitro experiment.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3496, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375680

RESUMO

The timely mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is essential for maintaining hematopoietic and tissue leukocyte homeostasis. Understanding how HSPCs migrate between bone marrow (BM) and peripheral tissues is of great significance in the clinical setting, where therapeutic strategies for modulating their migration capacity determine the clinical outcome. Here, we identify an epigenetic regulator, Phc2, as a critical modulator of HSPC trafficking. The genetic ablation of Phc2 in mice causes a severe defect in HSPC mobilization through the derepression of Vcam1 in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), ultimately leading to a systemic immunodeficiency. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of VCAM-1 in Phc2-deficient mice reverses the symptoms. We further determine that Phc2-dependent Vcam1 repression in BMSCs is mediated by the epigenetic regulation of H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub. Together, our data demonstrate a cell-extrinsic role for Phc2 in controlling the mobilization of HSPCs by finely tuning their bone marrow niche.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Repressão Epigenética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16854, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition worldwide, and leads to degradation in quality of life and large socioeconomic costs. There has been increasing demand for new therapies with fewer side effects. SOCG (SOCG tablet) is a modified prescription of So-ochim-tang, which is widely used in Traditional Korean Medicine to treat MDD. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of SOCG in treating MDD, and identify the optimum dose. DESIGN: The protocol we are following is that of a Phase II clinical trial with a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, and parallel design. One hundred forty-eight participants will be randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 8 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome will be the score in the Korean Version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Scores in the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II Korean Symptom Check List-95 (KSCL-95), State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Korean version, State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory- Korean version (STAXI-K), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) will be considered as secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Demonstration of human safety and efficacy of SOCG in the present trial and identification of the appropriate dose will justify a New Drug Application and a phase III clinical trial. Further, we expect that this new antidepressant will be able to increase cure rates, and alleviate the burden of medical expenses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea (KCT0002763).


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255649

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become the subject of growing concern as an addictive behavior and has been compared with substance/non-substance-related addiction. Although IGD show clinical impairments and social dysfunction, neurobiological alterations in IGD have not been clearly elucidated. We used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET to investigate differences in glucose metabolism and metabolic connectivity in young men [thirty-six patients with IGD, twenty-six patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and thirty-nine healthy controls (HC)]. Compared with the HC, IGD showed hypometabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), temporal, frontal, parietal and striatum and AUD exhibited hypometabolism in the occipital, temporal and parietal lobule. Furthermore, IGD showed negative correlations between the ACC and game duration and between the orbitofrontal cortex and impulsivity. Also, IGD had lower metabolic connectivity between temporal and limbic regions and between the motor area and occipital region. And AUD showed greater metabolic connectivity between the orbitofrontal and parietal regions, and between the somatosensory or parietal and temporal regions, but lower metabolic connectivity in the fronto-striatal or fronto-limbic regions. Our results provide evidences that hypometabolism and altered metabolic connectivity in IGD might be related to the abnormal sensory function by longtime gaming and dysfunction of impulsive/motivational states.

19.
Dev Reprod ; 23(2): 79-92, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321348

RESUMO

Humanized mice, containing engrafted human cells and tissues, are emerging as an important in vivo platform for studying human diseases. Since the development of Nod scid gamma (NSG) mice bearing mutations in the IL-2 receptor gamma chain, many investigators have used NSG mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate functional human immune systems in vivo, results in high efficacy of human cell engraftment. The development of NSG mice has allowed significant advances to be made in studies on several human diseases, including cancer and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), and in regenerative medicine. Based on the human HSC transplantation, organ transplantation including thymus and liver in the renal capsule has been performed. Also, immune reconstruction of cells, of the lymphoid as well as myeloid lineages, has been partly accomplished. However, crosstalk between pluripotent stem cell derived therapeutic cells with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mis/matched types and immune CD3 T cells have not been fully addressed. To overcome this hurdle, human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, not mouse MHC molecules, are required to generate functional T cells in a humanized mouse model. Here, we briefly summarize characteristics of the humanized mouse model, focusing on development of CD3 T cells with MHC molecules. We also highlight the necessity of the humanized mouse model for the treatment of various human diseases.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered an addictive disorder, evidence of the neurobiological underpinnings of IGD as an addictive disorder is currently lacking. We investigated whether attentional bias toward game-related stimuli was altered in IGD patients using an eye-tracking method during an anti-saccade task. METHODS: Twenty-three IGD patients and 27 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in the anti-saccade task with game-related, neutral, and scrambled images during eye tracking. Participants rated subjective scores of valence, arousal, and craving for each image stimulus after finishing eye tracking. Mixed design analysis of variance was performed to compare the differences between eye movement latency and error rate in the pro-saccade and anti-saccade conditions according to image type across the IGD and HC groups. RESULTS: In the anti-saccade task, the IGD group exhibited higher error rates in the case of game-related images than in neutral or scrambled images. However, ratings on valence, arousal, and craving did not vary among image types. The error rates of the HCs did not vary across image types, but higher arousal/craving and lower valence were reported with respect to the game-related images. CONCLUSIONS: Increased error rate during anti-saccade tasks with game-related stimuli in IGD may be due to disabilities in goal-directed behavior or inhibitory control, as observed in other addictive disorders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward game-related stimuli can be a sensitive biological marker of IGD as an addictive disorder.

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