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1.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder associated with stroke. Increased risk of stroke is the same regardless of whether the AF is permanent or paroxysmal. However, detecting paroxysmal AF is challenging and resource intensive. We aimed to develop a predictive model for AF in patients with acute ischemic stroke, which could improve the detection rate of paroxysmal AF. METHODS: We analyzed 10,034 adult patients with acute ischemic stroke. Differences in clinical characteristics between the patients with and without AF were analyzed in order to develop a predictive model of AF. The associated factors for AF were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. We used another dataset, which enrolled 860 acute ischemic stroke patients without AF at baseline, to test whether the developed model could improve the detection rate of paroxysmal AF. Among the study population, 1,658 patients (16.5%) had AF. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression revealed that sex, age, body weight, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, pulse rate at admission, respiratory rate at admission, systolic blood pressure at admission, diastolic blood pressure at admission, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, aspartate transaminase level, and sodium level were major factors associated with AF. CART analysis identified NIHSS score at admission, age, triglyceride level, and aspartate transaminase level as important factors for AF to classify the patients into subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: When selecting the high-risk group of patients (with an NIHSS score > 12 and age > 64.5 years, or with an NIHSS score ≤ 12, age > 71.5 years, and triglyceride level ≤ 61.5 mg/dL) according to the CART model, the detection rate of paroxysmal AF was approximately double in the acute ischemic stroke patients without AF at baseline.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963654

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, and early interventional treatment is associated with favorable outcomes. In the guidelines, thrombolytic therapy using recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is recommended for eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, the risk of hemorrhagic complications limits the use of rt-PA, and the risk factors for poor treatment outcomes need to be identified. To identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital poor outcomes in patients treated with rt-PA, we analyzed the electronic medical records of patients who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke and treated for rt-PA at Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals from 2006 to 2016. In-hospital death, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or prolonged hospitalization were defined as unfavorable treatment outcomes. Medical history variables and laboratory test results were considered variables of interest to determine risk factors. Among 643 eligible patients, 537 (83.5%) and 106 (16.5%) patients had favorable and poor outcomes, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors associated with poor outcomes were female gender, higher stroke severity index (SSI), higher serum glucose levels, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lower platelet counts, and anemia. The risk factors found in this research could help us study the treatment strategy for ischemic stroke.

3.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; : 1474515119889770, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke pneumonia (PSP) has been implicated in the morbidity, mortality, and increased medical costs after acute ischemic stroke. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model for PSP in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A retrospective, case-control, secondary analysis study was conducted using data for 10,034 patients with ischemic stroke who presented to the hospital within 24 hours of onset of stroke symptoms. The predictive factors for PSP were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 546 patients (5.4%) had PSP. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, atrial fibrillation, smoking habit, body temperature at admission, pulse rate at admission, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score upon admission, white blood cell count, and blood urea nitrogen level were major predictive factors of PSP. CART analysis identified NIHSS score at admission, pulse rate at admission, and percentage of lymphocyte as important factors for PSP to stratify the patients into subgroups. The subgroup of patients with an NIHSS score >14 at admission and pulse rate >111 beats per minute at admission and those with an NIHSS score >14, pulse rate ⩽111 beats per minute at admission, and percentage of lymphocyte ⩽9.2% had a relatively high risk of PSP (39.6% and 35.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CART analysis has a similar predictive value of PSP as compared with a logistic regression model. In addition, decision rules generated by CART can easily be interpreted and applied in clinical practice.

4.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 16(4): 348-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing hospital readmissions for stroke remains a significant challenge to improve outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. METHODS: We analyzed 10,034 adult patients with ischemic stroke, presented within 24 hours of onset from a hospital-based stroke registry. The risk factors for early return to hospital after discharge were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 277 (2.8%) had 3-day Emergency Department (ED) reattendance, 534 (5.3%) had 14-day readmission, and 932 (9.3%) had 30-day readmission. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, nasogastric tube feeding, indwelling urinary catheter, healthcare utilization behaviour, and stroke severity were major and common risk factors for an early return to the hospital after discharge. CART analysis identified nasogastric tube feeding and length of stay for 72-hour ED reattendance, Barthel Index (BI) score, total length of stay in the Year Preceding the index admission (YLOS), indwelling urinary catheter, and age for 14-day readmission, and nasogastric tube feeding, BI score, YLOS, and number of inpatient visits in the year preceding the index admission for 30-day readmission as important factors to classify the patients into subgroups. CONCLUSION: Although CART analysis did not improve the prediction of an early return to the hospital after stroke compared with logistic regression models, decision rules generated by CART can easily be interpreted and applied in clinical practice.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443237

RESUMO

By the standard of today's image-guided surgery (IGS) technology, in order to check and verify the progress of the surgery, the surgeons still require divert their attention from the patients occasionally to check against the display. In this paper, a mixed-reality system for medical use is proposed that combines an Intel RealSense sensor with Microsoft's Hololens head-mounted display system, for superimposing medical data onto the physical surface of a patient, so the surgeons do not need to divert their attention from their patients. The main idea of our proposed system is to display the 3D medical images of the patients on the actual patients themselves by placing the medical images and the patients in the same coordinate space. However, the virtual medical data may contain noises and outliers, so the transformation mapping function must be able to handle these problems. The transform function in our system is performed by the use of our proposed Denoised-Resampled-Weighted-and-Perturbed-Iterative Closest Points (DRWP-ICP) algorithm, which performs denoising and removal of outliers before aligning the pre-operative medical image data points to the patient's physical surface position before displaying the result using the Microsoft HoloLens display system. The experimental results shows that our proposed mixed-reality system using DRWP-ICP is capable of performing accurate and robust mapping despite the presence of noise and outliers.

6.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 16(3): 250-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic strokes increase the risk of disability and mortality. The role of conventional risk factors in recurrent strokes may change due to increased awareness of prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential risk factors besides conventional ones which may help to affect the advances in future preventive concepts associated with one-year stroke recurrence (OSR). METHODS: We analyzed 6,632 adult patients with ischemic stroke. Differences in clinical characteristics between patients with and without OSR were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 525 patients (7.9%) had OSR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex (OR 1.243, 95% CI 1.025 - 1.506), age (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.007 - 1.023), and a prior history of ischemic stroke (OR 1.331, 95% CI 1.096 - 1.615) were major factors associated with OSR. CART analysis further identified age and a prior history of ischemic stroke were important factors for OSR when classified the patients into three subgroups (with risks of OSR of 8.8%, 3.8%, and 12.5% for patients aged > 57.5 years, ≤ 57.5 years/with no prior history of ischemic stroke, and ≤ 57.5 years/with a prior history of ischemic stroke, respectively). CONCLUSION: Male sex, age, and a prior history of ischemic stroke could increase the risk of OSR by multivariate logistic regression analysis, and CART analysis further demonstrated that patients with a younger age (≤ 57.5 years) and a prior history of ischemic stroke had the highest risk of OSR.

7.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1794-1800, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300722

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to clarify whether short-acting antihypertensives are associated with the occurrence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This was a retrospective case-crossover study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified all adult patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke or ICH between January 2005 and December 2013. For each case, short-term and long-term exposure to short-acting antihypertensives, including nifedipine, labetalol and captopril, during the case vs. control periods were compared, and odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ischemic stroke or ICH were calculated with adjustment for confounders. Among 272785 ischemic stroke and 77798 ICH patients, the mean age was 77.8 ± 14.3 years and 70.8 ± 16.6 years, respectively. The short-term use of the three short-acting antihypertensives were all associated with an increase in the incidence of ischemic stroke (nifedipine: OR 4.51, 95% CIs 3.99-5.11; labetalol: OR 2.07; 95% CIs 1.71-2.51; captopril: OR 1.98, 95% CIs 1.72-2.29) and ICH (nifedipine: OR 2.98, 95% CIs 2.30-3.84; labetalol: OR 2.37; 95% CIs 1.66-3.39; captopril: OR 2.48; 95% CIs 1.69-3.63). The long-term use of short-acting nifedipine for 30 days was associated with a modest increase in the risk for ischemic stroke (OR 1.86; 95% CIs 1.42-2.45). Overall, the short-term use of short-acting antihypertensives is associated with a modest increase in the incidence of stroke, and short-acting nifedipine is linked to a substantial rise in the incidence of ischemic stroke. The long-term use of short-acting nifedipine was also related to an increased incidence of ischemic stroke. Physicians should be cautious of prescribing these short-acting antihypertensives.

8.
Int J Stroke ; 14(7): 670-677, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of the low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase using real-world acute stroke registry data from Asian countries. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from nine acute stroke registries from China, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan between 2005 and 2018. Inverse probability of treatment weight was used to remove baseline imbalances between those receiving low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase. The primary outcome was death or disability defined by modified Rankin Scale scores of 2 to 6 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and death. Generalized linear mixed models with the individual registry as a random intercept were performed to determine associations of treatment with low-dose alteplase and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 6250 patients (mean age 66 years, 36% women) included in these analyses, 1610 (24%) were treated with low-dose intravenous alteplase. Clinical outcomes for low-dose alteplase were not significantly different to those for standard-dose alteplase, adjusted odds ratios for death or disability: 1.00 (0.85-1.19) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage 0.87 (0.63-1.19), except for lower death with borderline significance, 0.77 (0.59-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present analyses of real-world Asian acute stroke registry data suggest that low-dose intravenous alteplase has overall comparable efficacy for functional recovery and greater potential safety in terms of reduced mortality, to standard-dose alteplase for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137497

RESUMO

An efficient and geometric-distortion-free approach, namely the fast binary robust local feature (FBRLF), is proposed. The FBRLF searches the stable features from an image with the proposed multiscale adaptive and generic corner detection based on the accelerated segment test (MAGAST) to yield an optimum threshold value based on adaptive and generic corner detection based on the accelerated segment test (AGAST). To overcome the problem of image noise, the Gaussian template is applied, which is efficiently boosted by the adoption of an integral image. The feature matching is conducted by incorporating the voting mechanism and lookup table method to achieve a high accuracy with low computational complexity. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared with the former schemes regarding local stable feature performance and processing efficiency.

10.
J Stroke ; 21(2): 190-194, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991797

RESUMO

Background and PURPOSE: Preceding episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) among stroke patients can be easily overlooked in routine clinical practice. We aim to determine whether an unrecognized history of paroxysmal AF is associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all adult patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke who had no AF diagnosis on their discharge records, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between January 2001 and December 2012. Patients were categorized into two groups: unrecognized AF history and no AF. Patients with unrecognized AF history were defined as having documented AF preceding the index ischemic stroke hospitalization, but not recording at the index ischemic stroke. Primary endpoint was recurrent stroke within 1 year after the index stroke. RESULTS: Among 203,489 hospitalized ischemic stroke patients without AF diagnosed at discharge, 6,731 patients (3.3%) had an unrecognized history of prior transient AF. Patients with an unrecognized AF history, comparing to those without AF, had higher adjusted risk of all recurrent stroke ([original cohort: hazard ratio (HR), 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 1.53], [matched cohort: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.37 to 1.68]) and recurrent ischemic stroke ([original cohort: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.55], [matched cohort: HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.40 to 1.74]) during the 1-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Unrecognized history of AF among patients discharged after an index ischemic stroke hospitalization is associated with higher recurrent stroke risk. Careful history review to uncover a paroxysmal AF history is important for ischemic stroke patients.

11.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 11: 1756286418802688, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283500

RESUMO

Background: To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of different antihypertensive drugs in stable patients after acute hemorrhagic stroke (HS). Methods: From January 2001 to December 2013, patients with first-ever primary HS were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan. Patients with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and secondary HS were excluded. Those with first-ever HS were recruited and classified into three groups: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB); (2) calcium channel blocker (CCB); and (3) other antihypertensive drugs (comparison) groups. Propensity score matching was used to balance the distribution of baseline characteristics, stroke severity, and medications between any two of the three groups. A validation study was performed using the databank of the Stroke Registry in Chang-Gung Healthcare System to reduce the bias. Primary outcomes were recurrent HS, ischemic stroke, any stroke, and all-cause mortality. Results: Compared to the comparison group, the ACEI/ARB group [35.4% versus 39.3%; hazard ratio (HR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.95] and CCB group (33.0% versus 41.9%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.81) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality during long-term follow up. The CCB group had a similar risk of all-cause mortality to the ACEI/ARB group. Risks of recurrent HS, ischemic stroke, or any stroke were not different between the study groups. Conclusions: Antihypertensive drug class could be important to long-term outcomes in HS patients in addition to the target control of blood pressure. Both ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs are associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality. Our results may be applied to inform future research on hypertensive control in HS patients.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(8)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071645

RESUMO

In many surgery assistance systems, cumbersome equipment or complicated algorithms are often introduced to build the whole system. To build a system without cumbersome equipment or complicated algorithms, and to provide physicians the ability to observe the location of the lesion in the course of surgery, an augmented reality approach using an improved alignment method to image-guided surgery (IGS) is proposed. The system uses RGB-Depth sensor in conjunction with the Point Cloud Library (PCL) to build and establish the patient's head surface information, and, through the use of the improved alignment algorithm proposed in this study, the preoperative medical imaging information obtained can be placed in the same world-coordinates system as the patient's head surface information. The traditional alignment method, Iterative Closest Point (ICP), has the disadvantage that an ill-chosen starting position will result only in a locally optimal solution. The proposed improved para-alignment algorithm, named improved-ICP (I-ICP), uses a stochastic perturbation technique to escape from locally optimal solutions and reach the globally optimal solution. After the alignment, the results will be merged and displayed using Microsoft's HoloLens Head-Mounted Display (HMD), and allows the surgeon to view the patient's head at the same time as the patient's medical images. In this study, experiments were performed using spatial reference points with known positions. The experimental results show that the proposed improved alignment algorithm has errors bounded within 3 mm, which is highly accurate.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cabeça , Humanos
13.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 15(2): 129-137, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In acute ischemic stroke, early neurological deterioration (END) may occur in up to one-third of patients. However, there is still no satisfying or comprehensive predictive model for all the stroke subtypes. We propose a practical model to predict END using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHOD: Patients with anterior circulation infarct were recruited and they underwent an MRI within 24 hours of stroke onset. END was defined as an elevation of ≥2 points on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) within 72 hours of stroke onset. We examined the relationships of END to individual END models, including: A, infarct swelling; B, small subcortical infarct; C, mismatch; and D, recurrence. RESULTS: There were 163 patients recruited and 43 (26.4%) of them had END. The END models A, B and C significantly predicted END respectively after adjusting for confounding factors (p=0.022, p=0.007 and p<0.001 respectively). In END model D, we examined all imaging predictors of Recurrence Risk Estimator (RRE) individually and only the "multiple acute infarcts" pattern was significantly associated with END (p=0.032). When applying END models A, B, C and D, they successfully predicted END (p<0.001; odds ratio: 17.5[95% confidence interval: 5.1- 60.8]), with 93.0% sensitivity, 60.0% specificity, 45.5% positive predictive value and 96.0% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the proposed model could predict END in all stroke subtypes of anterior circulation infarction. It provides a practical model for clinical physicians to select high-risk patients for more aggressive treatment to prevent END.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
14.
J Stroke ; 20(1): 99-109, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Additional folic acid (FA) treatment appears to have a neutral effect on reducing vascular risk in countries that mandate FA fortification of food (e.g., USA and Canada). However, it is uncertain whether FA therapy reduces stroke risk in countries without FA food fortification. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of FA therapy on stroke prevention in countries without FA food fortification. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov from January 1966 to August 2016 were searched to identify relevant studies. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of the association between FA supplementation and risk of stroke, after pooling data across trials in a random-effects model. RESULTS: The search identified 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving treatment with FA that had enrolled 65,812 participants, all of which stroke was reported as an outcome measure. After all 13 RCTs were pooled, FA therapy versus control was associated with a lower risk of any future stroke (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.95). FA alone or combination of FA and minimal cyanocobalamin (≤0.05 mg/day) was associated with a lower risk of future stroke (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86) whereas combination of FA and cyanocobalamin (≥0.4 mg/day) was not associated with a lower risk of future stroke (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: FA supplement reduced stroke in countries without mandatory FA food fortification. The benefit was found mostly in patients receiving FA alone or combination of FA and minimal cyanocobalamin.

15.
Radiology ; 286(2): 512-523, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980887

RESUMO

Purpose To compare functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for language mapping (hereafter, language functional MR imaging) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in patients with brain tumors and to assess factors associated with its accuracy. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE and related databases were searched for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2016. Findings were pooled by using bivariate random-effects and hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic curve models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate whether publication year, functional MR imaging paradigm, magnetic field strength, statistical threshold, and analysis software affected classification accuracy. Results Ten articles with a total of 214 patients were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of functional MR imaging was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 78%) and 80% (95% CI: 54%, 93%), respectively. On a per-tag basis (ie, each DCS stimulation site or "tag" was considered a separate data point across all patients), the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 67% (95% CI: 51%, 80%) and 55% (95% CI: 25%, 82%), respectively. The per-tag analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity for studies with shorter functional MR imaging session times (P = .03) and relaxed statistical threshold (P = .05). Significantly higher specificity was found when expressive language task (P = .02), longer functional MR imaging session times (P < .01), visual presentation of stimuli (P = .04), and stringent statistical threshold (P = .01) were used. Conclusion Results of this study showed moderate accuracy of language functional MR imaging when compared with intraoperative DCS, and the included studies displayed significant methodologic heterogeneity. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico/normas , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Viés de Publicação , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 30(2): 130-138, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061091

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) include periventricular WMH (pvWMH) and deep WMH. When hyperintensities in the basal ganglia or brainstem are included, the collective term is subcortical hyperintensities. Both WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are risk factors for cognitive decline. This prospective study enrolled participants aged 50-85 years and followed their neuropsychological assessments annually for 2 years to explore the interactive effects of WMH and MTA on longitudinal clinical decline. Brain MRI was performed at the beginning of enrollment. Of the 200 participants, 57 were "normal" individuals, 40 had dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment, 53 had amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 50 had Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overall, MTA significantly correlated with pvWMH (p=0.0004) but not with deep WMH, as defined by criteria using the Scheltens' Scale. Total Scheltens' score was specifically associated with the domain of semantic fluency (beta=-0.4, 95% CI=-0.7 to -0.2, p=0.002), which remained significant when adjusting for MTA (beta=-0.3, 95% CI=-0.5 to -0.1, p=0.017). The pvWMH was significantly higher in AD subjects than in normal control subjects (beta=0.3, 95% CI=0.1 to 0.4, p=0.001), especially the periventricular occipital caps (beta=0.2, 95% CI=0.1 to 0.3, p=0.0003). Cox proportional hazards model showed that the periventricular bands (PVB) predicted 1-year clinical decline (hazard ratio [HR]=5.3, 95% CI=1.8 to 15.7, p=0.002), which remained significant when further adjusting for MTA (HR=4.0, 95% CI=1.3 to 12.1, p=0.013). In summary, pvWMH, especially the occipital caps, was correlated with MTA and the AD subgroup. Assessment of semantic fluency may be useful for the clinical evaluation of the degree of subcortical hyperintensity burden. Visual rating of PVB could be an independent predictor for 1-year clinical decline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Lobo Temporal/patologia
17.
Angiology ; 69(7): 582-590, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105494

RESUMO

Causes of death in both ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) subtypes are not comprehensively studied. Between 2008 and 2011, we enrolled 11 215 first-ever stroke patients from the Stroke Registry of Chang-Gung Healthcare System and linked these data to the national death registry. The main causes of death in each stroke subtype were assessed. Patients with HS had higher overall mortality than IS (32.0% vs 18.1%, P < .001). In IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis plus cardioembolism had the worst mortality (40.7%, P < .001). Stroke was the leading cause of death in both IS and HS within the first year. Stroke remained the major cause of death in HS, but cancer was the leading cause of death in IS after the first year. After excluding the patients with previous cancer history, cancer was still an important cause of death in IS and HS, particularly in the IS subtypes of small vessel occlusion, stroke of undetermined etiology, and transient ischemic attack.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15229, 2017 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123153

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can serve as strong evidence in correlating biological pathways with human diseases. Although ischemic stroke has been found to be associated with many biological pathways, the genetic mechanism of ischemic stroke is still unclear. Here, we performed GWAS for a major subtype of stroke-small-vessel occlusion (SVO)-to identify potential genetic factors contributing to ischemic stroke. GWAS were conducted on 342 individuals with SVO stroke and 1,731 controls from a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan. The study was replicated in an independent Han Chinese population comprising an additional 188 SVO stroke cases and 1,265 controls. Three SNPs (rs2594966, rs2594973, rs4684776) clustered at 3p25.3 in ATG7 (encoding Autophagy Related 7), with P values between 2.52 × 10-6 and 3.59 × 10-6, were identified. Imputation analysis also supported the association between ATG7 and SVO stroke. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS to link stroke and autophagy. ATG7, which has been implicated in autophagy, could provide novel insights into the genetic basis of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Autofagia , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Taiwan
19.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 6: 127-130, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing detection of undiagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) in hospitalized patients with a recent ischemic stroke is important because of the treatment implications; especially since presence of paroxysmal AF may not be picked up in a single 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) test. While several trials have shown improved detection of AF with prolonged ECG monitoring, this strategy is associated with relatively high cost, labor intensity, and patient inconvenience, thereby making it challenging to routinely implement in all hospitals. Fortunately, conventional 24-h Holter monitoring and repeated 12-lead ECGs are readily available to detect paroxysmal AF in all hospitals, but is unclear which is the better strategy for evaluating undiagnosed AF. The objective of his study is to conduct a randomized trial of serial 12-lead ECGs vs. 24-hour Holter monitoring in the detection of AF in ischemic stroke patients without known AF. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to enroll 1200 participants from six hospitals in Taiwan. Patients will be eligible for enrollment if they are admitted for an acute ischemic stroke within 2 days, are ≥65 years of age, and have no known AF by history or on baseline ECG at admission. We will randomly assign participants in a 1:1 ratio to undergo daily 12-lead ECG once daily for 5 days (intervention group) or 24-h Holter monitoring (control group). Primary outcome is newly detected AF on a 12-lead ECG or AF lasting ≥30 s on Holter monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578979.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(10)2017 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946643

RESUMO

The risks involved in nighttime driving include drowsy drivers and dangerous vehicles. Prominent among the more dangerous vehicles around at night are the larger vehicles which are usually moving faster at night on a highway. In addition, the risk level of driving around larger vehicles rises significantly when the driver's attention becomes distracted, even for a short period of time. For the purpose of alerting the driver and elevating his or her safety, in this paper we propose two components for any modern vision-based Advanced Drivers Assistance System (ADAS). These two components work separately for the single purpose of alerting the driver in dangerous situations. The purpose of the first component is to ascertain that the driver would be in a sufficiently wakeful state to receive and process warnings; this is the driver drowsiness detection component. The driver drowsiness detection component uses infrared images of the driver to analyze his eyes' movements using a MSR plus a simple heuristic. This component issues alerts to the driver when the driver's eyes show distraction and are closed for a longer than usual duration. Experimental results show that this component can detect closed eyes with an accuracy of 94.26% on average, which is comparable to previous results using more sophisticated methods. The purpose of the second component is to alert the driver when the driver's vehicle is moving around larger vehicles at dusk or night time. The large vehicle detection component accepts images from a regular video driving recorder as input. A bi-level system of classifiers, which included a novel MSR-enhanced KAZE-base Bag-of-Features classifier, is proposed to avoid false negatives. In both components, we propose an improved version of the Multi-Scale Retinex (MSR) algorithm to augment the contrast of the input. Several experiments were performed to test the effects of the MSR and each classifier, and the results are presented in experimental results section of this paper.

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