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1.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(1)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528913

RESUMO

This study examined whether the oral administration of low-molecular-weight collagen peptide (LMCP) containing 3% Gly-Pro-Hyp with >15% tripeptide (Gly-X-Y) content could ameliorate osteoarthritis (OA) progression using a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model of induced OA and chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA. Oral LMCP administration (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks ameliorated cartilage damage and reduced the loss of proteoglycan compared to the findings in the ACLT control group, resulting in dose-dependent (P < 0.05) improvements of the OARSI score in hematoxylin & eosin and Safranin O staining. In micro-computed tomography analysis, LMCP also significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the deterioration of the microstructure in tibial subchondral bone during OA progression. The elevation of IL-1ß and IL-6 concentrations in synovial fluid following OA induction were dose-dependently (P < 0.05) reduced by LMCP treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry illustrated that LMCP significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated type II collagen and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 in cartilage tissue. Consistent with the in vivo results, LMCP significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of COL2A1 and ACAN in chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA regardless of the conditions for IL-1ß induction. These findings suggest that LMCP has potential as a therapeutic treatment for OA that stimulates cartilage regeneration.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102437, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365721

RESUMO

Recently, there have been numerous studies on utilizing surface treatments or photosensitizing layers to improve photodetectors based on 2D materials. Meanwhile, avalanche breakdown phenomenon has provided an ultimate high-gain route toward photodetection in the form of single-photon detectors. Here, the authors report ultrasensitive avalanche phototransistors based on monolayer MoS2 synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. A lower critical field for the electrical breakdown under illumination shows strong evidence for avalanche breakdown initiated by photogenerated carriers in MoS2 channel. By utilizing the photo-initiated carrier multiplication, their avalanche photodetectors exhibit the maximum responsivity of ≈3.4 × 107 A W-1 and the detectivity of ≈4.3 × 1016 Jones under a low dark current, which are a few orders of magnitudes higher than the highest values reported previously, despite the absence of any additional chemical treatments or photosensitizing layers. The realization of both the ultrahigh photoresponsivity and detectivity is attributed to the interplay between the carrier multiplication by avalanche breakdown and carrier injection across a Schottky barrier between the channel and metal electrodes. This work presents a simple and powerful method to enhance the performance of photodetectors based on carrier multiplication phenomena in 2D materials and provides the underlying physics of atomically thin avalanche photodetectors.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445110

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in lung cancer patients. Despite treatment with various EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer are inevitable. Docetaxel (DTX) is an effective conventional drug that is used to treat various cancers. Several researchers have studied the use of traditional herbal medicine in combination with docetaxel, to improve lung cancer treatment. SH003, a novel herbal mixture, exerts anticancer effects in different cancer cell types. Here, we aimed to investigate the apoptotic and anticancer effects of SH003 in combination with DTX, in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SH003, with DTX, induced apoptotic cell death, with increased expression of cleaved caspases and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in NSCLC cells. Moreover, SH003 and DTX induced the apoptosis of H460 cells via the suppression of the EGFR and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways. In H460 tumor xenograft models, the administration of SH003 or docetaxel alone diminished tumor growth, and their combination effectively killed cancer cells, with increased expression of apoptotic markers and decreased expression of p-EGFR and p-STAT3. Collectively, the combination of SH003 and DTX may be a novel anticancer strategy to overcome the challenges that are associated with conventional lung cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
4.
J Med Chem ; 64(17): 12525-12536, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435786

RESUMO

Distinguishing compounds' agonistic or antagonistic behavior would be of great utility for the rational discovery of selective modulators. We synthesized truncated nucleoside derivatives and discovered 6c (Ki = 2.40 nM) as a potent human A3 adenosine receptor (hA3AR) agonist, and subtle chemical modification induced a shift from antagonist to agonist. We elucidated this shift by developing new hA3AR homology models that consider the pharmacological profiles of the ligands. Taken together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and three-dimensional (3D) structural network analysis of the receptor-ligand complex, the results indicated that the hydrogen bonding with Thr943.36 and His2727.43 could make a stable interaction between the 3'-amino group with TM3 and TM7, and the corresponding induced-fit effects may play important roles in rendering the agonistic effect. Our results provide a more precise understanding of the compounds' actions at the atomic level and a rationale for the design of new drugs with specific pharmacological profiles.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 16(20): 3151-3161, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405545

RESUMO

Despite the exceptional efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), further improvements can be made to bring their power conversion efficiencies (PCE) closer to the Shockley-Queisser limit, while the development of cost-effective strategies to produce high-performance devices are needed for them to reach their potential as a widespread energy source. In this context, there is a need to improve existing charge transport layers (CTLs) or introduce new CTLs. In this contribution, we introduced a new polyelectrolyte (lithium poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS))) (Li:PSS) polyelectrolyte as an HTL in inverted PSCs, where Li+ can act as a counter ion for the PSS backbone. The negative charge on the PSS backbone can stabilize the presence of p-type carriers and p-doping at the anode. Simple Li:PSS performed poorly due to poor surface coverage and voids existence in perovskite film as well as low conductivity. PEDOT:PSS was added to increase the conductivity to the simple Li:PSS solution before its use which also resulted in lower performance. Furthermore, a bilayer of PEDOT:PSS and Li:PSS was employed, which outperformed simple PEDOT:PSS due to high quality of perovskite film with large grain size also the large electron injection barrier (ϕe ) impeded back diffusion of electrons towards anode. As a consequence, devices employing PEDOT:PSS / Li:PSS bilayers gave the highest PCE of 18.64%.

6.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 77(6): 305-308, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158451

RESUMO

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. A 29-year-old male with end-stage renal disease of IgA nephropathy on maintenance hemodialysis was admitted for diffuse alveolar bleeding and pneumonia. He presented with a low-grade fever and watery diarrhea tinged with blood. Initially, a Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea treatment was started with positive findings of Clostridioides difficile toxin and culture. Despite this, there was no improvement in the symptoms even with the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an occlusive mass in the rectum and secondary obstructive changes in the sigmoid colon. The initial suspicion was a malignancy or fungal infection. Sigmoidoscopy with a biopsy identified the mass as a lump of mucous material with the entire lumen covered with exudate. The subsequent histopathology examination revealed a colonic mucosal injury and characteristic "fish scale"-like sevelamer crystals in the exudate. The diagnosis of a sevelamer-induced rectal ulcer was made. We report this case of a sevelamer-associated rectal ulcer of the sigmoid.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065775

RESUMO

Controlling type 2 diabetes (T2DM) requires a comprehensive approach including patient education, self-monitoring of blood glucose, individualized behavioral strategies, and frequent contact with healthcare professionals (HCPs). We aimed to compare the efficacy of a personalized lifestyle intervention based on a mobile phone application with regular care in participants with T2DM. This is an ongoing randomized controlled open-label parallel-group trial with a target accrual of 282 participants, of which 181 have been enrolled to date. Participants are randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) regular care; (2) mobile diabetes management; or (3) mobile diabetes management with HCP feedback. The mobile application is enabled to integrate with both electronic medical records (EMR) and a web-based diabetes management system for HCPs. It can send customized messages based on participants' responses to lifestyle questionnaires administered at the baseline. The intervention period is 26 weeks followed by observation for 26 weeks. We evaluate the intervention's features in order to assess its clinical utility and efficacy and compare outcomes with regular care considering relevant clinical factors, such as age, baseline HbA1c, etc. We expect our study to provide new evidence in support of customized mobile application tools for the management of T2DM.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aplicativos Móveis , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070531

RESUMO

SMAD4, a key regulator of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling, plays a major role in cell growth, migration, and apoptosis. In particular, TGF-ß/SMAD induces growth arrest, and SMAD4 induces the expression of target genes such as p21WAF1 and p15INK4b through its interaction with several cofactors. Thus, inactivating mutations or the homozygous deletion of SMAD4 could be related to tumorigenesis or malignancy progression. However, in some cancer types, SMAD4 is neither mutated nor deleted. In the current study, we demonstrate that TGF-ß signaling with a preserved SMAD4 function can contribute to cancer through associations with negative pathway regulators. We found that nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) is a novel interaction SMAD4 partner that inhibits TGF-ß/SMAD4-induced p15INK4b mRNA expression by binding to SMAD4. Furthermore, we confirmed that NRF1 directly binds to the core region of the SMAD4 promoter, thereby decreasing SMAD4 mRNA expression. On the whole, our data suggest that NRF1 is a negative regulator of SMAD4 and can interfere with TGF-ß/SMAD-induced tumor suppression. Our findings provide a novel perception into the molecular basis of TGF-ß/SMAD4-signaling suppression in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/metabolismo , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Dimerização , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína Smad4/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
9.
Toxics ; 9(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803047

RESUMO

Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are one of the major types of carbon based nanomaterials that have different industrial and biomedical applications. There is a risk of exposure to GNP material in individuals involved in their large-scale production and in individuals who use products containing GNPs. Determining the exact toxicity of GNP nanomaterials is a very important agenda. This research aimed to evaluate the skin sensitization potentials induced by GNPs using two types of alternative to animal testing. We analyzed the physicochemical characteristics of the test material by selecting a graphene nanomaterial with a nano-size on one side. Thereafter, we evaluated the skin sensitization effect using an in vitro and an in vivo alternative test method, respectively. As a result, we found that GNPs do not induce skin sensitization. In addition, it was observed that the administration of GNPs did not induce cytotoxicity and skin toxicity. This is the first report of skin sensitization as a result of GNPs obtained using alternative test methods. These results suggest that GNP materials do not cause skin sensitization, and these assays may be useful in evaluating the skin sensitization of some nanomaterials.

10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 40: 127963, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741464

RESUMO

Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (hIDO1) and tryptophan dioxygenase (hTDO) are rate-limiting enzymes in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) metabolism and are becoming key drug targets in the combination therapy of checkpoint inhibitors in immunoncology. To discover a selective and potent IDO1 inhibitor, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of N-hydroxybenzofuran-5-carboximidamide as a novel scaffold was investigated in a systematic manner. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-3-bromophenyl derivative 19 showed the most potent inhibition, with an IC50 value of 0.44 µM for the enzyme and 1.1 µM in HeLa cells. The molecular modeling of 19 with the X-ray crystal structure of IDO1 indicated that dipole-ionic interactions with heme iron, halogen bonding with Cys129 and the two hydrophobic interactions were important for the high potency of 19.


Assuntos
Amidinas/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oximas/farmacologia , Amidinas/síntese química , Amidinas/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/química , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oximas/síntese química , Oximas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Eletricidade Estática , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125608, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730645

RESUMO

The effective removal of acetaldehyde by humidified air plasma was investigated with a high throughput of contaminated gas in a sandwiched honeycomb catalyst reactor at surrounding ambient temperature. Here, acetaldehyde at the level of a few ppm was successfully oxidized by the honeycomb plasma discharge despite the harsh condition of large water content in the feed gas. The conversion rate of acetaldehyde increased significantly with the presence of catalysts coating on the surface channels. The increased conversion rate was also obtained with a high specific energy input (SEI) and total flow rate. Interestingly, the conversion changed negligibly under the acetaldehyde concentration range from 5 to 20 ppm. However, the conversion rate decreased toward increased water amount in the feed gas. Notably, about 60% of acetaldehyde in the feed was oxidized under SEI of 40 J/L at water amounts ≤ 2.5%, approximately 0.5 g/kWh for acetaldehyde removal. Also, the plasma-catalyst reaction was superior to the thermal reactive catalyst for acetaldehyde removal in airborne pollutants. In comparison with other plasma-catalyst sources for acetaldehyde removal, the energy efficiency under the condition is comparable. Moreover, the honeycomb plasma discharge features high throughput, avoiding pressure drop, and straightforward reactor configuration, suggesting potential practical applications.

12.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721974

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to determine the short-term effectiveness of an internet-based lifestyle modification (LSM) program in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetes patients in community settings. A total of 415 subjects who were diagnosed with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the LSM and standard management (SM) groups. After the 6-month intervention, the LSM group had a statistically significant reduction in body weight, body mass index compared to the SM group participants. In the LSM group, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after intervention and the clinical improvement effect was evident in the group that achieved the target weight loss of 5% or more of the initial weight for 6 months. Internet-based 6-month-intensive LSM programs conducted by public health center personnel are an effective way to provide lifestyle intervention programs and encourage maintenance of healthy behaviors in subjects with a high risk of T2DM in community settings.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6386-6396, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787245

RESUMO

A two-stage plasma catalyst system for high-throughput NOx removal was investigated. Herein, the plasma stage involved the large-volume plasma discharge of humidified gas and was carried out in a sandwich-type honeycomb monolith reactor consisting of a commercial honeycomb catalyst (50 mm high; 93 mm in diameter) located between two parallel perforated disks that formed the electrodes. The results demonstrated that, in the plasma stage, the reduction of NOx did not occur at room temperature; instead, NO was only oxidized to NO2 and n-heptane to oxygenated hydrocarbons. The oxidation of NO and n-heptane in the honeycomb plasma discharge state was largely affected by the humidity of the feed gas. Furthermore, the oxidation of NO to NO2 occurs preferably to that of n-heptane with a tendency of the NO oxidation to decrease with increasing feed gas humidity. The reason is that the generation of O3 decreases as the amount of water vapor in the feed gas increases. Compared to the catalyst alone, the two-stage plasma catalyst system increased NOx removal by 29% at a temperature of 200 °C and an energy density of 25 J/L.


Assuntos
Catálise , Umidade , Oxirredução , Temperatura
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3876, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594192

RESUMO

CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interaction, adhesion, and migration. CD44 is found on colon cancer cells and on immune cells. Previous studies of 89Zr PET imaging of CD44 have relied on an anti-human antibody (Ab), which can influence biodistribution in murine models. In this study, we used an Ab that cross-reacts with both human and mouse origin CD44 of all isoforms to unveil the type of leukocyte responsible for high splenic anti-CD44 uptake and investigate how its regulation can influence tumor immuno-PET. The Ab was site-specifically labeled with 89Zr-deferoxamine on cysteine residues. 89Zr-anti-CD44 demonstrated high-specific binding to HT29 human colon cancer cells and monocytic cells that showed CD44 expression. When 89Zr-anti-CD44 was administered to Balb/C nude mice, there was remarkably high splenic uptake but low SNU-C5 tumor uptake (1.2 ± 0.7%ID/g). Among cells isolated from Balb/C mouse spleen, there was greater CD44 expression on CD11b positive myeloid cells than lymphocytes. In cultured monocytic and macrophage cells, LPS stimulation upregulated CD44 expression and increased 89Zr-anti-CD44 binding. Similarly, normal Balb/C mice that underwent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation showed a significant upregulation of CD44 expression on splenic myeloid cells. Furthermore, LPS treatment stimulated a 2.44-fold increase of 89Zr-anti-CD44 accumulation in the spleen, which was attributable to splenic myeloid cells. Finally, in Balb/C nude mice bearing HT29 tumors, we injected 89Zr-anti-CD44 with greater Ab doses to reduce binding to splenic cells. The results showed lower spleen uptake and improved tumor uptake (2.9 ± 1.3%ID/g) with a total of 300 µg of Ab dose, and further reduction of spleen uptake and greater tumor uptake (5.7 ± 0.0%ID/g) with 700 µg Ab dose. Thus, using an 89Zr labeled Ab that cross-reacts with both human and mouse CD44, we demonstrate that CD44 immuno-PET has the capacity to monitor CD44 regulation on splenic myeloid cells and may also be useful for imaging colon tumors.

15.
J Nucl Med ; 62(5): 656-664, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917780

RESUMO

We developed an 89Zr-labeled anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) immune PET that can monitor chemotherapy-mediated modulation of tumor PD-L1 expression in living subjects. Methods: Anti-PD-L1 underwent sulfohydryl moiety-specific conjugation with maleimide-deferoxamine followed by 89Zr radiolabeling. CT26 colon cancer cells and PD-L1-overexpressing CT26/PD-L1 cells underwent binding assays, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and PET imaging were evaluated in mice. Results: 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 synthesis was straightforward and efficient. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that reduction produced half-antibody fragments, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis estimated 2.18 conjugations per antibody, indicating specific conjugation at the hinge-region disulfide bonds. CT26/PD-L1 cells showed 102.2 ± 6.7-fold greater 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 binding than that of weakly expressing CT26 cells. Excellent target specificity was confirmed by a drastic reduction in binding by excess cold antibody. Intravenous 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 followed biexponential blood clearance. PET/CT image analysis demonstrated decreases in major organ activity over 7 d, whereas high CT26/PD-L1 tumor activity was maintained. Again, this was suppressed by excess cold antibody. Treatment of CT26 cells with gemcitabine for 24 h augmented PD-L1 protein to 592.4% ± 114.2% of the control level and increased 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 binding, accompanied by increased AKT (protein kinase B) activation and reduced phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). In CT26 tumor-bearing mice, gemcitabine treatment substantially increased tumor uptake from 1.56% ± 0.48% to 6.24% ± 0.37% injected dose per gram (tumor-to-blood ratio, 34.7). Immunoblots revealed significant increases in tumor PD-L1 and activated AKT and a decrease in PTEN. Conclusion: 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 showed specific targeting with favorable imaging properties. Gemcitabine treatment upregulated cancer cell and tumor PD-L1 expression and increased 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 uptake. 89Zr-anti-PD-L1 PET may thus be useful for monitoring chemotherapy-mediated tumor PD-L1 modulation in living subjects.

16.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(2): 382-391, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We examined the concordance rate among fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hr PG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes in a population with a high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. METHODS: Among the participants from the Korean Diabetes Prevention Study, individuals with FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23.0 kg/m2, and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively enrolled after a 75 g glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics in subjects with stage 1 (FPG, 100 to 109 mg/dL) and stage 2 (FPG, 110 to 125 mg/dL) impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESULTS: Of 1,637 participants, 27.2% had T2DM and 59.3% had IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The mean age was 55.0 ± 8.1 years and the mean BMI was 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Based on FPG criteria, 515 (31.4%) and 352 (21.5%) subjects were classified as having stage 1 and stage 2 IFG, respectively. The 19.0% of stage 1 and 43.5% of stage 2 subjects showed 2hr PG levels in the diabetic range. Even for those in the normal FPG range, 63 (9.5%) participants showed a 2hr PG level of ≥ 200 mg/dL. Of 446 subjects with newly-diagnosed diabetes, 340 (76.2%) showed FPG levels < 126 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: The oral glucose tolerance test should be actively considered for Korean adults who are overweight or obese with the IFG range (FPG, 100 to 125 mg/ dL) to allow for early detection of diabetes and prompt intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 44: 208-212, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether sedation with ketamine without local anesthesia was sufficient in children undergoing primary repair. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind trial conducted between December 2013 and October 2016 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Korea. Children aged 1 to 10 years requiring sedation for primary repair were randomly assigned to receive local lidocaine anesthesia with ketamine sedation or local saline injection with ketamine sedation. Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores was recorded during the procedures. The pain scales were recorded by nurses who were blinded to the study drugs, before ketamine sedation, after sedation, during the first injection of the study drugs for wound repair, during the first stitch, and after the procedure. RESULTS: Twenty-five were randomized to receive ketamine sedation with local anesthesia and twenty-two to receive ketamine sedation without local anesthesia. There was no significant difference in pain scale before ketamine sedation (difference (mean): -1.11, CI: -2.78-0.55, P value: 0.18), after sedation (difference (mean): -0.60, CI: -2.20-1.01, P = 0.46), during the first injection of the study drugs for wound repair (difference (mean): -0.03, CI: -0.31-0.25, P = 0.84), during the first stitch (difference (mean): -0.15, CI: 6.19-6.79, P = 0.62), during the primary repair (difference (mean): 0.20, CI: -55-0.95, P = 0.59), and after the procedure (difference (mean): 0.17, CI: -0.48-0.82, P = 0.59). CONCLUSION: Sedating with ketamine for primary wound repair, there was no difference in pain and sedation scales between the patients treated with or without lidocaine local anesthesia, and local anesthesia was not needed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Lacerações/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medição da Dor , República da Coreia
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(50): e417, 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma mortality review is the first step in assessing the quality of the trauma treatment system and provides an important basis for establishing a regional inclusive trauma system. This study aimed to obtain a reliable measure of the preventable trauma death rate in a single province in Korea. METHODS: From January to December 2017, a total of 500 sample cases of trauma-related deaths from 64 hospitals in Gyeonggi Province were included. All cases were evaluated for preventability and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. RESULTS: Overall, 337 cases were included in the calculation for the preventable trauma death rate. The preventable trauma death rate was estimated at 17.0%. The odds ratio was 3.97 folds higher for those who arrived within "1-3 hours" than those who arrived within "1 hour." When the final treatment institution was not a regional trauma center, the odds ratio was 2.39 folds higher than that of a regional trauma center. The most significant stage of preventable trauma death was the hospital stage, during which 86.7% of the cases occurred, of which only 10.3% occurred in the regional trauma center, whereas preventable trauma death was more of a problem at emergency medical institutions. CONCLUSION: The preventable trauma death rate was slightly lower in this study than in previous studies, although several problems were noted during inter-hospital transfer; in the hospital stage, more problems were noted at emergency medical care facilities than at regional trauma centers. Further, several opportunities for improvements were discovered regarding bleeding control.

19.
Toxics ; 8(4)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339241

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the major types of nanomaterials that have various industrial and biomedical applications. However, there is a risk of accidental exposure to CNTs in individuals involved in their large-scale production and in individuals who use products containing CNTs. This study aimed to evaluate the skin sensitization induced by CNTs using two alternative tests. We selected single-wall carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for this study. First, the physiochemical properties of the CNTs were measured, including the morphology, size, and zeta potential, under various conditions. Thereafter, we assessed the sensitization potential of the CNTs using the ARE-Nrf2 Luciferase KeratinoSens™ assay, an in vitro alternative test method. In addition, the CNTs were evaluated for their skin sensitization potential using the LLNA: BrdU-FCM in vivo alternative test method. In this study, we report for the first time the sensitization results of CNTs using the KeratinoSens™ and LLNA: BrdU-FCM test methods in this study. This study found that both CNTs do not induce skin sensitization. These results suggest that the KeratinoSens™ and LLNA: BrdU-FCM assay may be useful as alternative assays for evaluating the potential of some nanomaterials that can induce skin sensitization.

20.
Oncol Lett ; 20(6): 374, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154772

RESUMO

The uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) serves a role in tumor aggressiveness and anticancer resistance, which is considered to be associated with its ability to attenuate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that UCP2 may protect cancer cells from elesclomol-induced cytotoxicity, and that this may be overcome by blocking UCP2 function with genipin. In A549 lung cancer cells that exhibited high UCP2 expression, treatment with elesclomol alone induced limited changes in glucose uptake, ROS production and cell survival. By contrast, both UCP2 knockdown and genipin treatment mildly reduced glucose uptake, increased ROS production and decreased cell survival. Combining genipin and elesclomol further reduced glucose uptake and increased cellular and mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, co-treatment with genipin and elesclomol reduced the colony forming capacity to 50.6±7.4% and the cell survival to 42.0±3.4% of that in the control cells (both P<0.001). Suppression of cell survival by treatment with elesclomol and genipin was enhanced in the presence of an exogenous ROS inducer and attenuated by a ROS scavenger. The cytotoxic effects of combining genipin and elesclomol were accompanied by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and occurred through apoptosis as demonstrated by Annexin V assay and increased protein cleavage of PARP and caspase-3. Finally, in an A549 ×enograft mouse model, tumor growth was only modestly retarded by treatment with elesclomol or genipin alone, but was markedly suppressed by combining the two drugs compared with that in the control group (P=0.008). Therefore, high UCP2 expression may limit the antitumor effect of elesclomol by attenuating ROS responses, and this may be overcome by co-treatment with genipin; combining elesclomol and genipin may be an effective strategy for treating cancers with high UCP2.

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