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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 110: 88-95, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879329

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the moderating effects of the frequently used cognitive reserve (CR) proxies [i.e., education, premorbid intelligence quotient (pIQ), occupational complexity (OC), and lifetime cognitive activity (LCA)] on the relationships between various in vivo Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies and cognition. In total, 351 [268 cognitively unimpaired (CU), 83 cognitive impaired (CI)] older adults underwent multi-modal brain imaging to measure AD pathologies and cognitive assessments, and information on CR proxies was obtained. For overall participants, only education moderated the relationship between Aß deposition and cognition. Education, pIQ, and LCA, but not OC, showed moderating effect on the relationship between AD-signature cerebral hypometabolism and cognition. In contrast, only OC had a moderating effect on the relationship between cortical atrophy of the AD-signature regions and cognition. Such moderation effects of the CR proxies were similarly observed in CI individuals, but most of them were not in CU individuals. The findings suggest that the proposed CR proxies have different moderating effects on the relationships between specific AD pathologies and cognition.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886577

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships among mood states, perfectionism, and choking, and to identify a mediating effect of perfectionism on the relationship between mood states and choking experienced by Asian university baseball players in extremely stressful situations during a game. Data collected from a total of 209 male university baseball players were analyzed using SPSS 21 and AMOS 21 statistical software. The mean age of study subjects was 20.25 years. Results are as follows. First, mood states had a positive influence on perfectionism. Second, mood states had no significant influence on choking. Third, perfectionism had a positive influence on choking. Lastly, perfectionism had a complete mediating effect on the relationship between mood states and choking. The study findings will provide basic data to relieve athletes' psychological burdens, and prevent manifestations of extreme perfectionism and choking, which can ultimately help athletes maintain high self-control of their mood states and perfectionism for better performance.

3.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 69(3): 299-304, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857993

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and anemia, by gender, in Korean adults. The data of 16,060 adults were analyzed (men, 6,840; premenopausal women, 4,916; postmenopausal women, 4,340) from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) (2010-2012). There were several key findings. First, after adjusting for related variables, the odds ratio (OR) of anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) <13 g/dl in men or Hb <12 g/dl in women] using the vitamin D normal group {25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] ≥15.0 ng/ml} as reference, was significant for the vitamin D deficient group [25(OH)D <15.0 ng/ml] in the overall population [OR, 1.310; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.168-1.470]. Second, the OR of anemia, using the vitamin D normal group as reference, was significant for the vitamin D deficient group in premenopausal women (OR, 1.293; 95% CI, 1.105-1.513). However, vitamin D deficiency in the vitamin D normal group in men (OR, 1.093; 95% CI, 0.806-1.484) and postmenopausal women (OR, 1.130; 95% CI, 0.906-1.409) was not significant. In conclusion, Vitamin D deficiency is positively associated with anemia in premenopausal women, but not in men and postmenopausal women.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7287, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911952

RESUMO

Atomic spin centers in 2D materials are a highly anticipated building block for quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate the creation of an effective spin-1/2 system via the atomically controlled generation of magnetic carbon radical ions (CRIs) in synthetic two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Hydrogenated carbon impurities located at chalcogen sites introduced by chemical doping are activated with atomic precision by hydrogen depassivation using a scanning probe tip. In its anionic state, the carbon impurity is computed to have a magnetic moment of 1 µB resulting from an unpaired electron populating a spin-polarized in-gap orbital. We show that the CRI defect states couple to a small number of local vibrational modes. The vibronic coupling strength critically depends on the spin state and differs for monolayer and bilayer WS2. The carbon radical ion is a surface-bound atomic defect that can be selectively introduced, features a well-understood vibronic spectrum, and is charge state controlled.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total score (TS) of semantic verbal fluency test (SVFT) is generally used to interpret results, but it is ambiguous as to specific neural functions it reflects. Different SVFT strategy scores reflecting qualitative aspects are proposed to identify specific cognitive functions to overcome limitations of using the TS. OBJECTIVE: Functional neural correlates of the TS as well as the other strategy scores in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia using Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). METHODS: Correlations between various SVFT scores (i.e., TS, mean cluster size, switching (SW), hard switching, cluster switching (CSW)) and cerebral glucose metabolism were explored using voxelwise whole-brain approach. Subgroup analyses were also performed based on the diagnosis and investigated the effects of disease severity on the associations. RESULTS: Significant positive correlation between TS and cerebral glucose metabolism was found in prefrontal, parietal, cingulate, temporal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significantly increased glucose metabolism associated with the SW were found in similar but smaller regions, mainly in the fronto-parieto-temporal regions. CSW was only correlated with the caudate. In the subgroup analysis conducted to assess different contribution of clinical severity, differential associations between the strategy scores and regional glucose metabolism were found. CONCLUSION: SW and CSW may reflect specific language and executive functions better than the TS. The SVFT is influenced by brain dysfunction due to the progression of AD, as demonstrated by the SW with larger involvement of temporal lobe for the AD, and CSW with significant association only for the MCI.

6.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options for congenital aural atresia (CAA) include canaloplasty and implantation of an osseointegrated bone conduction device (OBCD). Few studies have compared hearing outcomes in these two treatment methods. OBJECTIVES: Hearing outcomes and revision surgery rates were compared in CAA patients managed by canaloplasty and surgically implanted OBCD. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 36 patients with CAA at a single institution. The same surgeon performed canaloplasty on 23 patients. Hearing outcomes before surgery as well as 3 and 6 months after surgery were compared to those of 13 patients with OBCD implantation. RESULTS: Postoperative hearing outcomes were better in the OBCD group, but the difference was not statistically significant. At 6-month follow-up, the hearing thresholds in the canaloplasty and OBCD group were 38.6 ± 21.4 and 31.9 ± 6.4 dB, respectively. The success rates 6 months after surgery were 75.0% in the canaloplasty group and 100% in the OBCD group. Two out of 23 patients in the canaloplasty group and 7 out of 13 patients in the OBCD group underwent revision surgery. CONCLUSION: In terms of hearing, the outcome was better with the OBCD compared to canaloplasty. Canaloplasty may be an alternative option in patients who refuse OBCD implantation.

7.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829956

RESUMO

Enpp2 is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which exhibits a wide variety of biological functions. Here, we examined the biological effects of Enpp2 on dendritic cells (DCs), which are specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) characterized by their ability to migrate into secondary lymphoid organs and activate naïve T-cells. DCs were generated from bone marrow progenitors obtained from C57BL/6 mice. Enpp2 levels in DCs were regulated using small interfering (si)RNA or recombinant Enpp2. Expression of Enpp2 in LPS-stimulated mature (m)DCs was high, however, knocking down Enpp2 inhibited mDC function. In addition, the migratory capacity of mDCs increased after treatment with rmEnpp2; this phenomenon was mediated via the RhoA-mediated signaling pathway. Enpp2-treated mDCs showed a markedly increased capacity to migrate to lymph nodes in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that Enpp2 is necessary for mDC migration capacity, thereby increasing our understanding of DC biology. We postulate that regulating Enpp2 improves DC migration to lymph nodes, thus improving the effectiveness of cancer vaccines based on DC.

8.
Ann Occup Environ Med ; 33: e22, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754483

RESUMO

Background: Recently, lung cancer screenings based on age and smoking history using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) have begun in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of lung imaging reporting and data system (Lung-RADS) categories in shipyard workers exposed to lung carcinogens such as nickel, chromium, and welding fumes according to job type, to provide basic data regarding indications for LDCT in shipyard workers. Methods: This study included 6,326 workers from a single shipyard, who underwent health examinations with LDCT between January 2010 and December 2018. Data on age, smoking status and history, medical history, and job type were investigated. The participants were categorized into high-exposure, low-exposure, and non-exposure job groups based on the estimated exposure level of nickel, chromium, and welding fumes according to job type. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine the difference between exposure groups in Lung-RADS category ≥ 3 (3, 4A, and 4B). Results: Out of all participants, 97 (1.5%) participants were classified into Lung-RADS category ≥ 3 and 7 (0.1%) participants were confirmed as lung cancer. The positive predictive value (ratio of diagnosed lung cancer cases to Lung-RADS category ≥ 3) was 7.2%. The hazard ratio (HR) of Lung-RADS category ≥ 3 was 1.451 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.911-2.309) in low-exposure and 1.692 (95% CI: 1.007-2.843) in high-exposure job group. Adjusting for age and pack-years, the HR was statistically significant only in the high-exposure job group (HR: 1.689; 95% CI: 1.004-2.841). Conclusions: Based on LDCT and Lung-RADS, among male shipyard workers, Lung-RADS category ≥ 3 were significantly higher in the high-exposure job group. Their HR tended to be > 1.0 and was statistically significant in the high-exposure job group. Additional studies should be conducted to establish more elaborate LDCT indications for occupational health examination.

9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 190, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the known associations between zinc levels and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and related cognitive impairment, the underlying neuropathological links remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that serum zinc level is associated with cerebral beta-amyloid protein (Aß) deposition. Additionally, we explored associations between serum zinc levels and other AD pathologies [i.e., tau deposition and AD-signature cerebral glucose metabolism (AD-CM)] and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), which are measures of cerebrovascular injury. METHODS: A total of 241 cognitively normal older adults between 55 and 90 years of age were enrolled. All the participants underwent comprehensive clinical assessments, serum zinc level measurement, and multimodal brain imaging, including Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), AV-1451 PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and magnetic resonance imaging. Zinc levels were stratified into three categories: < 80 µg/dL (low), 80 to 90 µg/dL (medium), and > 90 µg/dL (high). RESULTS: A low serum zinc level was significantly associated with increased Aß retention. In addition, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) status moderated the association: the relationship between low zinc level and Aß retention was significant only in APOE4 carriers. Although a low zinc level appeared to reduce AD-CM, the relationship became insignificant on sensitivity analysis including only individuals with no nutritional deficiency. The serum zinc level was associated with neither tau deposition nor the WMH volume. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that decreased serum zinc levels are associated with elevation of brain amyloid deposition. In terms of AD prevention, more attention needs to be paid to the role of zinc.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769165

RESUMO

Our recent study demonstrated that the CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) present in primary afferent fibers (PAFs) plays an important role in the microglia-dependent neuronal activation associated with zymosan-induced inflammatory pain. The present study was aimed to evaluate whether BD1047 (a prototypical sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) antagonist) is capable of modifying elevated levels of inflammation-evoked CCL2 as a peripheral antinociceptive mechanism. In DRG primary culture, zymosan dose-dependently increased CCL2 release from isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive DRG neurons, a process that was inhibited by co-culture with BD1047. Single treatment of BD1047 before intraplantar injection of zymosan in rats significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as CCL2 expression in DRG neurons and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal horn. In the Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation model, repeated administration of BD1047 dramatically attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia, and significantly diminished CCL2 immunoreactivity and microglia activation. Notably, CFA-induced inflammation significantly increased Sig-1R immunoreactivity in DRG neurons, which was co-localized with CCL2 and IB4, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that BD1047's anti-nociceptive property was substantially mediated by the inhibition of CCL2 release in unmyelinated PAFs and that this may, in turn, have attenuated the spinal microglia activation that is associated with inflammatory pain.

11.
Zootaxa ; 5052(1): 61-77, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810888

RESUMO

Although the high level of species diversity within the Pholcus phungiformes-group (Araneae: Pholcidae) in the Korean Peninsula has been recognized recently, taxonomic studies, including new species discovery, have not been conducted in western regions of South Korea. In this study, five additional species belonging to the Pholcus phungiformes-group discovered from Seoul and surrounding areas are described as new, viz., Pholcus seoulensis Lee Lee, sp. nov. Pholcus suraksanensis Lee Lee, sp. nov., Pholcus incheonensis Lee Lee, sp. nov., Pholcus seokmodoensis Lee Lee, sp. nov. and Pholcus chilgapsanensis Lee Lee, sp. nov. Detailed descriptions and geographic distributions are provided with accompanying photographs.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , República da Coreia
13.
J Int Adv Otol ; 17(5): 380-386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prediction of cochlear implantation (CI) outcome is often difficult because outcomes vary among patients. Though the brain plasticity across modalities during deafness is associated with individual CI outcomes, longitudinal observations in multiple patients are scarce. Therefore, we sought a prediction system based on cross-modal plasticity in a longitudinal study with multiple patients. METHODS: Classification of CI outcomes between excellent or poor was tested based on the features of brain cross-modal plasticity, measured using event-related responses and their corresponding electromagnetic sources. A machine learning estimation model was applied to 13 datasets from 3 patients based on linear supervised training. Classification efficiency was evaluated comparing prediction accuracy, sensitivity/specificity, total mis-classification cost, and training time among feature set conditions. RESULTS: Combined feature sets with the sensor and source levels dramatically improved classification accuracy between excellent and poor outcomes. Specifically, the tactile feature set best explained CI outcome (accuracy, 98.83 ± 2.57%; sensitivity, 98.00 ± 0.01%; specificity, 98.15 ± 4.26%; total misclassification cost, 0.17 ± 0.38; training time, 0.51 ± 0.09 sec), followed by the visual feature (accuracy, 93.50 ± 4.89%; sensitivity, 89.17 ± 8.16%; specificity, 98.00 ± 0.01%; total misclassification cost, 0.65 ± 0.49; training time, 0.38 ± 0.50 sec). CONCLUSION: Individual tactile and visual processing in the brain best classified the current status when classified by combined sensor-source level features. Our results suggest that cross-modal brain plasticity due to deafness may provide a basis for classifying the status. We expect this novel method to contribute to the evaluation and prediction of CI outcomes.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Adulto , Encéfalo , Surdez/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 27508-27520, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615165

RESUMO

We propose a new method of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) without a reference database, i.e., a model-less TSOM method. Building a TSOM reference database is time-consuming or even impractical in some TSOM applications that involve complex structures, such as 3D NAND, or irregular shapes such as defects. The proposed model-less TSOM method was used to determine just the height of defect particles, for the first time as far as we are aware. Defect height is the only relevant dimension for the display panel application. Specifically, we analyzed 40 organic light-emitting diode (OLED) surface defects using a lab-developed motion-free TSOM tool consisting of a 50× objective lens (numerical aperture (NA) 0.55), a 532-nm light source, an imaging detector with a 7.5-µm pitch, and a deformable mirror. The tool is in-line and capable of achieving high throughput non-destructively, both relevant features for industrial applications. We investigated linear regression relations between newly defined TSOM parameters (TSOM height, TSOM area and TSOM volume) and the defect heights, which were first measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following defect classification based on in-focus images, we successfully found that the AFM height has a linear correlation with 50% TSOM height (H50%) within ± 20.3 nm (1σ) error over the range of 140 to 950 nm. The one-sigma error, i.e., 20.3 nm, was approximately λ/26 or 1/43 of the depth of focus (DOF) of the applied microscope.

16.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc ; 64(5): 837-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503315

RESUMO

An atlantoaxial subluxation from the unstable Os odontoideum by the failure of proper integrations between the embryological somites might be a commonly reported pathology. However, its suspicious origin or paralleled occurrence with other congenital anomalies of vertebral body might be a relatively rare phenomenon. The authors present two cases, who simply presented with clinical signs of prolonged, intractable cervicalgia without any neurological deficits, revealed this rare feature of C1-2 subluxation from the unstable, orthotropic type of Os odontoideum that coincide with congenitally fused cervical vertebral bodies between C2-3. Surprisingly, in one case, when traced from the lower cervical down to the thoracic-lumbar levels during the preoperative work-up process, was also compromised with multi-level butterfly vertebrae formations. Presented cases highlight the association of various congenital vertebrae anomalies and the rationale to fuse only affected joints.

17.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512204

RESUMO

Collagen is a major component in the tumor microenvironment. This study reveals a novel biomarker candidate, type VII collagen (COL7A1), in patients with gastric cancer. To identify genes differentially expressed in gastric cancer tissue, we analyzed cancerous (n = 20) and noncancerous tissues (n = 13) using a DNA microarray. To perform immunohistochemistry and validate the upregulation of COL7A1 expression, we collected 200 more gastric cancer tissues and 100 normal gastric tissues from 200 randomly selected patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer between January 2010 and December 2013. The correlations between COL7A1 expression and clinicopathological parameters and patients' overall survival (OS) were analyzed. In the microarray, COL7A1 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissue compared with normal tissue. In the immunohistochemistry study, COL7A1 was more highly expressed in cancer tissue than in normal tissue (p = 0.001). Patients with intracellular COL7A1 expression had significantly poorer five-year OS than those with only extracellular expression (41.5 versus 69.7%, p = 0.001), and the site of expression was an independent prognostic factor of OS (hazard ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.26-3.16, p = 0.003). Also, we found a significant association between the COL7A1 immunohistochemistry score and distant metastasis (high versus low, odds ratio 4.45, 95% CI 1.40-14.16, p = 0.011). The site and total immunohistochemistry score of COL7A1 expression in gastric cancer showed prognostic significance for OS and distant metastasis, respectively. COL7A1 could be a novel biomarker with diagnostic and therapeutic value.

18.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 53(11): 2261-2266, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the relationship between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) using propensity score matching. METHODS: Data from 8727 middle-aged men who had undergone health checkups were analyzed. The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptoms Index (NIH-CPSI), the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF), the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), testosterone measurement, basic blood chemistry, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) assessment were performed in this study. Of the 8727 men considered, 7181 formed the cohort for propensity score matching, including 597 men with moderate to severe prostatitis-like symptoms (case) and 6584 men with no prostatitis-like symptoms (control); ultimately, however, members of the case and control groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio by propensity score. RESULTS: After matching, the variables of age, testosterone, PEDT and MetS were evenly distributed between the groups. After matching, the mean IIEF score of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group (17.2 ± 5.5 vs. 14.7 ± 5.3; P < 0.001). Additionally, the severity of ED was significantly greater in the case group (no, mild, mild to moderate, moderate, and severe, respectively: 27.5%, 30.2%, 24.6%, 13.1%, and 4.7% in the control group; 10.7%, 27.0%, 33.0%, 18.9%, and 10.4% in the case group; P < 0.001). Finally, the rate of moderate to severe ED was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (17.8% vs. 29.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Moderate to severe prostatitis-like symptoms were significantly and independently correlated with ED in middle-aged men.

19.
Pain Physician ; 24(6): E839-E847, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity in the literature directly comparing the clinical results between the paramedian and the midline interlaminar cervical epidural injections. OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportion of ventral epidural spread of injectate and consequent clinical outcome between the paramedian and midline approach during interlaminar epidural injection in patients with axial neck and/or interscapular pain triggered from the underlying cervical spine pathologic condition. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Primary pain clinic and spine hospital. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-three patients with axial neck and/or interscapular pain due to cervical problem underwent interlaminar epidural injection through either a paramedian approach (PM group, n = 93) or a midline approach (ML group, n = 130). We compared the portion of ventral epidural filling, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and McNab criteria between both groups. The NRS and McNab criteria were also separately compared between the ventrally spread (VS) group and non-ventral spread (non-VS) group inside each PM and ML group, respectively, at 2 weeks and 10 weeks post-injection. RESULTS: The PM group showed a significantly higher proportion of ventral spread, successful NRS reduction, and satisfactory McNab criteria than the ML group at 10 weeks. In the PM group, the VS group showed the same results as above compared to the non-VS group. LIMITATIONS: A retrospective analysis based on the relatively short-term follow-up period clinical results. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedian approach showed the better direct injectate transfer over the ventral epidural space and subsequently superior clinical efficacy for the patients suffering from axial neck and/or interscapular pain secondary to cervical spine problems.


Assuntos
Espaço Epidural , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Vértebras Cervicais , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 19(10): 567-574, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516935

RESUMO

Background: This study was conducted to assess the association of pulse pressure (PP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) by gender in Korean adults. Methods: This study used the data of 4960 adults at age ≥20 years, from the 2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: In the overall population (n = 4960), after adjustment for related variables and with quartile 1 of VAI as a reference, the odds ratios of high PP (PP >60 mmHg) was significantly higher in quartile 3 [1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.71)] and quartile 4 of VAI [1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.83)]. In women (n = 2784), the OR of high PP, with quartile 1 of VAI as a reference, was significantly higher in quartile 3 [2.36 (95% CI, 1.55-3.61)] and quartile 4 of VAI [2.70 (95% CI, 1.77-4.12)]. In men (n = 2176), high PP was not associated with the quartiles of VAI. In addition, after adjustment for related variables, the PP level was positively associated with the quartiles of VAI in the overall population (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.001), but not in men (P = 0.316). Conclusions: VAI was positively associated with PP in Korean women, but not in Korean men.

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