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1.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 710: 109004, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364885

RESUMO

Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) is involved in nonalcoholic steatosis and further aggravation of liver disease. However, its mechanism for regulating FA accumulation is unknown. We investigated how TM4SF5 in hepatocytes affected FA accumulation during acute FA supply. TM4SF5-expressing hepatocytes and mouse livers accumulated less FAs, compared with those of TM4SF5 deficiency or inactivation. Binding of TM4SF5 to SLC27A2 increased gradually upon acute FA treatment, whereas TM4SF5 constitutively bound SLC27A5. Suppression of either SLC27A2 or SLC27A5 in hepatocytes expressing TM4SF5 differentially modulated initial and maximal FA uptake levels for a fast turnover of fatty acid. Altogether, TM4SF5 negatively modulates FA accumulation into hepatocytes via association with the transporters for an energy homeostasis, when FA are supplied acutely.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Biológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
2.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8092-8111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335982

RESUMO

Active c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase localizes to the plasma membrane via N-terminal lipid modification. Membranous c-Src causes cancer initiation and progression. Even though transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5), a tetraspan(in), can be involved in this mechanism, the molecular and structural influence of TM4SF5 on c-Src remains unknown. Methods: Here, we investigated molecular and structural details by which TM4SF5 regulated c-Src devoid of its N-terminus and how cell-penetrating peptides were able to interrupt c-Src activation via interference of c-Src-TM4SF5 interaction in hepatocellular carcinoma models. Results: The TM4SF5 C-terminus efficiently bound the c-Src SH1 kinase domain, efficiently to the inactively-closed form. The complex involved protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B able to dephosphorylate Tyr530. The c-Src SH1 domain alone, even in a closed form, bound TM4SF5 to cause c-Src Tyr419 and FAK Y861 phosphorylation. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies predicted the directly interfacing residues, which were further validated by mutational studies. Cell penetration of TM4SF5 C-terminal peptides blocked the interaction of TM4SF5 with c-Src and prevented c-Src-dependent tumor initiation and progression in vivo. Conclusions: Collectively, these data demonstrate that binding of the TM4SF5 C-terminus to the kinase domain of inactive c-Src leads to its activation. Because this binding can be abolished by cell-penetrating peptides containing the TM4SF5 C-terminus, targeting this direct interaction may be an effective strategy for developing therapeutics that block the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Genes src/genética , Genes src/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
3.
Diabetes ; 70(9): 2000-2013, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187836

RESUMO

Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) functions as a sensor for lysosomal arginine levels and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). While the mTORC1 signaling pathway plays a key role in adipose tissue metabolism, the regulatory function of TM4SF5 in adipocytes remains unclear. In this study we aimed to establish a TM4SF5 knockout (KO) mouse model and investigated the effects of TM4SF5 KO on mTORC1 signaling-mediated autophagy and mitochondrial metabolism in adipose tissue. TM4SF5 expression was higher in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) than in brown adipose tissue and significantly upregulated by a high-fat diet (HFD). TM4SF5 KO reduced mTORC1 activation and enhanced autophagy and lipolysis in adipocytes. RNA sequencing analysis of TM4SF5 KO mouse iWAT showed that the expression of genes involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α signaling pathways and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was upregulated. Consequently, TM4SF5 KO reduced adiposity and increased energy expenditure and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. TM4SF5 KO prevented HFD-induced glucose intolerance and inflammation in adipose tissue. Collectively, the results of our study demonstrate that TM4SF5 regulates autophagy and lipid catabolism in adipose tissue and suggest that TM4SF5 could be therapeutically targeted for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21369, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554392

RESUMO

Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) translocates intracellularly and promotes cell migration, but how subcellular TM4SF5 traffic is regulated to guide cellular migration is unknown. We investigated the influences of the extracellular environment and intracellular signaling on the TM4SF5 traffic with regard to migration directionality. Cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) but not poly-l-lysine enhanced the traffic velocity and straightness of the TM4SF5WT (but not palmitoylation-deficient mutant TM4SF5 Pal - ) toward the leading edges, depending on tubulin acetylation. Acetylated-microtubules in SLAC2B-positive cells reached mostly the juxtanuclear regions, but reached-out toward the leading edges upon SLAC2B suppression. TM4SF5 expression caused SLAC2B not to be localized at the leading edges. TM4SF5 colocalization with HDAC6 depended on paxillin expression. The trimeric complex consisting of TM4SF5, HDAC6, and SLAC2B might, thus, be enriched at the perinuclear cytosols toward the leading edges. More TM4SF5WT translocation to the leading edges was possible when acetylated-microtubules reached the frontal edges following HDAC6 inhibition by paxillin presumably at new cell-FN adhesions, leading to persistent cell migration. Collectively, this study revealed that cell-FN adhesion and microtubule acetylation could control intracellular traffic of TM4SF5 vesicles to the leading edges via coordinated actions of paxillin, SLAC2B, and HDAC6, leading to TM4SF5-dependent cell migration.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Acetilação , Adesão Celular , Movimento Celular , Fibronectinas/fisiologia , Células Hep G2 , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/fisiologia , Humanos , Paxilina/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico
5.
J Pathol ; 253(1): 55-67, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918742

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a chronic condition involving steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis, and its progression remains unclear. Although the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) is involved in hepatic fibrosis and cancer, its role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression is unknown. We investigated the contribution of TM4SF5 to liver pathology using transgenic and KO mice, diet- or drug-treated mice, in vitro primary cells, and in human tissue. TM4SF5-overexpressing mice exhibited nonalcoholic steatosis and NASH in an age-dependent manner. Initially, TM4SF5-positive hepatocytes and liver tissue exhibited lipid accumulation, decreased Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), increased sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and inactive STAT3 via suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1/3 upregulation. In older mice, TM4SF5 promoted inflammatory factor induction, SIRT1 expression and STAT3 activity, but did not change SOCS or SREBP levels, leading to active STAT3-mediated ECM production for NASH progression. A TM4SF5-associated increase in chemokines promoted SIRT1 expression and progression to NASH with fibrosis. Suppression of the chemokine CCL20 reduced immune cell infiltration and ECM production. Liver tissue from high-fat diet- or CCl4 -treated mice and human patients exhibited TM4SF5-dependent steatotic or steatohepatitic livers with links between TM4SF5-mediated SIRT1 modulation and SREBP or SOCS/STAT3 signaling axes. TM4SF5-mediated STAT3 activation in fibrotic NASH livers increased collagen I and laminin γ2. Both collagen I α1 and laminin γ2 suppression resulted in reduced SIRT1 and active STAT3, but no change in SREBP1 or SOCS, and abolished CCl4 -mediated mouse liver damage. TM4SF5-mediated signaling pathways that involve SIRT1, SREBPs and SOCS/STAT3 promoted progression to NASH. Therefore, TM4SF5 and its downstream effectors may be promising therapeutic targets to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Matriz Extracelular/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Arch Pharm Res ; 43(11): 1162-1172, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222072

RESUMO

Cancer metastasis involves diverse cellular functions via bidirectional communications between intracellular and extracellular spaces. To achieve development of the anti-metastatic drugs, one needs to consider the efficacy and mode of action (MOA) of the drug candidates to block the metastatic potentials of cancerous cells. Rather than under two-dimensional environment, investigation of the metastatic potentials under three-dimensional environment would be much pharmaceutically beneficent, since it can mimic the in vivo tumor lesions in cancer patients, leading to allowance of drug candidates analyzed in the 3D culture systems to lower failure rates during the anti-metastatic drug development. Here we have reviewed on the analyses of metastatic potentials of certain cancer models in 3D culture systems surrounded with extracellular matrix proteins, which could be supported by TM4SF5- and/or EMT-mediated actions. We particularly focused the initial events of the cancer metastasis, such as invasive outgrowth and dissemination from the cancer cell masses, spheroids, embedded in the 3D gel culture systems. This review summarizes the significance of tetraspanin TM4SF5 and Snail1 that are related to EMT in the metastatic potentials explored in the 3D gel systems.

7.
Nature ; 580(7803): 376-380, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296182

RESUMO

Mechanosensory feedback from the digestive tract to the brain is critical for limiting excessive food and water intake, but the underlying gut-brain communication pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood1-12. Here we show that, in mice, neurons in the parabrachial nucleus that express the prodynorphin gene (hereafter, PBPdyn neurons) monitor the intake of both fluids and solids, using mechanosensory signals that arise from the upper digestive tract. Most individual PBPdyn neurons are activated by ingestion as well as the stimulation of the mouth and stomach, which indicates the representation of integrated sensory signals across distinct parts of the digestive tract. PBPdyn neurons are anatomically connected to the digestive periphery via cranial and spinal pathways; we show that, among these pathways, the vagus nerve conveys stomach-distension signals to PBPdyn neurons. Upon receipt of these signals, these neurons produce aversive and sustained appetite-suppressing signals, which discourages the initiation of feeding and drinking (fully recapitulating the symptoms of gastric distension) in part via signalling to the paraventricular hypothalamus. By contrast, inhibiting the same population of PBPdyn neurons induces overconsumption only if a drive for ingestion exists, which confirms that these neurons mediate negative feedback signalling. Our findings reveal a neural mechanism that underlies the mechanosensory monitoring of ingestion and negative feedback control of intake behaviours upon distension of the digestive tract.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Retroalimentação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Encefalinas/genética , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/fisiologia
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 109, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034134

RESUMO

By comparing imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivative TMQ0153 triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis at low concentrations accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ levels. Interestingly, at higher concentrations, TMQ0153 induced necroptotic cell death with accumulation of ROS, both preventable by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. At necroptosis-inducing concentrations, we observed increased ROS and decreased ATP and GSH levels, concomitant with protective autophagy induction. Inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 (baf-A1) and siRNA against beclin 1 abrogated autophagy, sensitized CML cells against TMQ0153 and enhanced necroptotic cell death. Importantly, TMQ153-induced necrosis led to cell surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT) and ERp57 as well as the release of extracellular ATP and high mobility group box (HMGB1) demonstrating the capacity of this compound to release immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers. We validated the anti-cancer potential of TMQ0153 by in vivo inhibition of K562 microtumor formation in zebrafish. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that cellular stress and redox modulation by TMQ0153 concentration-dependently leads to different cell death modalities including controlled necrosis in CML cell models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Exp Mol Med ; 52(1): 7-14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956272

RESUMO

Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5) is a tetraspanin that has four transmembrane domains and can be N-glycosylated and palmitoylated. These posttranslational modifications of TM4SF5 enable homophilic or heterophilic binding to diverse membrane proteins and receptors, including growth factor receptors, integrins, and tetraspanins. As a member of the tetraspanin family, TM4SF5 promotes protein-protein complexes for the spatiotemporal regulation of the expression, stability, binding, and signaling activity of its binding partners. Chronic diseases such as liver diseases involve bidirectional communication between extracellular and intracellular spaces, resulting in immune-related metabolic effects during the development of pathological phenotypes. It has recently been shown that, during the development of fibrosis and cancer, TM4SF5 forms protein-protein complexes with amino acid transporters, which can lead to the regulation of cystine uptake from the extracellular space to the cytosol and arginine export from the lysosomal lumen to the cytosol. Furthermore, using proteomic analyses, we found that diverse amino acid transporters were precipitated with TM4SF5, although these binding partners need to be confirmed by other approaches and in functionally relevant studies. This review discusses the scope of the pathological relevance of TM4SF5 and its binding to certain amino acid transporters.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(513)2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597753

RESUMO

The impact of liver disease on whole-body glucose homeostasis is largely attributed to dysregulated release of secretory proteins in response to metabolic stress. The molecular cues linking liver to whole-body glucose metabolism remain elusive. We found that expression of G protein α-13 (Gα13) was decreased in the liver of mice and humans with diabetes. Liver-specific deletion of the Gna13 gene in mice resulted in systemic glucose intolerance. Comparative secretome analysis identified inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 1 (ITIH1) as a protein secreted by liver that was responsible for systemic insulin resistance in Gna13-deficient mice. Liver expression of ITIH1 positively correlated with surrogate markers for diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes. Mechanistically, a decrease in hepatic Gα13 caused ITIH1 oversecretion by liver through induction of O-GlcNAc transferase expression, facilitating ITIH1 deposition on the hyaluronan surrounding mouse adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Neutralization of secreted ITIH1 ameliorated glucose intolerance in obese mice. Our findings demonstrate systemic insulin resistance in mice resulting from liver-secreted ITIH1 downstream of Gα13 and its reversal by ITIH1 neutralization.


Assuntos
alfa-Globulinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , alfa-Globulinas/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 645, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501417

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate cell fate, although signaling molecules that regulate ROS hormesis remain unclear. Here we show that transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) in lung epithelial cells induced the alternatively spliced CD44v8-10 variant via an inverse ZEB2/epithelial splicing regulatory proteins (ESRPs) linkage. TM4SF5 formed complexes with the cystine/glutamate antiporter system via TM4SF5- and CD44v8-10-dependent CD98hc plasma-membrane enrichment. Dynamic TM4SF5 binding to CD98hc required CD44v8-10 under ROS-generating inflammatory conditions. TM4SF5 and CD44v8-10 upregulated cystine/glutamate antiporter activity and intracellular glutathione levels, leading to ROS modulation for cell survival. Tm4sf5-null mice exhibited attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis with lower CD44v8-10 and ESRPs levels than wild-type mice. Primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) revealed type II AECs (AECII), but not type I, to adapt the TM4SF5-mediated characteristics, suggesting TM4SF5-mediated AECII survival following AECI injury during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thus, the TM4SF5-mediated CD44v8-10 splice variant could be targeted against IPF.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Splicing de RNA , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 7442-7462, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180642

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a breakthrough in cancer therapy, a monotherapy approach is not sufficient. Here, we report an immune checkpoint inhibitor-modified nanoparticle for an in situ-assembled tumor vaccine that can activate immune systems in the tumor microenvironment and prevent the long-term recurrence of tumors. Adjuvant-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by entrapping imiquimod (IQ) in photoresponsive polydopamine nanoparticles (IQ/PNs). The surfaces of IQ/PNs were then modified with anti-PDL1 antibody (PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs) for in situ assembly with inactivated tumor cells and immune checkpoint blocking of PDL1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1). The presence of anti-PDL1 antibodies on IQ/PNs increased the binding of nanoparticles to CT26 cancer cells overexpressing PDL1. Subsequent near-infrared (NIR) irradiation induced a greater photothermal anticancer effect against cells treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs than cells treated with plain PNs or unmodified IQ/PNs. To mimic the tumor microenvironment, we cocultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with CT26 cells treated with various nanoparticle formulations and NIR irradiated. This coculture study revealed that NIR-inactivated, PDL1Ab-IQ/PN-bound CT26 cells induced maturation of dendritic cells to the greatest extent. Following a single intravenous administration of different nanoparticle formulations in CT26 tumor-bearing mice, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs showed greater tumor tissue accumulation than unmodified nanoparticles. Subsequent NIR irradiation of mice treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs resulted in tumor ablation. In addition to primary tumor ablation, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs completely prevented the growth of a secondarily challenged CT26 tumor at a distant site, producing 100% survival for up to 150 days. A long-term protection study revealed that treatment with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs followed by NIR irradiation inhibited the growth of distant, secondarily challenged CT26 tumors 150 days after the first tumor inoculation. Moreover, increased infiltration of T cells was observed in tumor tissues treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs and NIR-irradiated, and T cells isolated from splenocytes of mice in which tumor recurrence was prevented showed active killing of CT26 cells. These results suggest that PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs in conjunction with NIR irradiation induce a potent, in situ-assembled, all-in-one tumor vaccine with adjuvant-containing nanoparticle-bound, inactivated tumor cells. Such in situ nanoadjuvant-assembled tumor vaccines can be further developed for long-term prevention of tumor recurrence without the need for chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/química , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Cell Metab ; 29(6): 1306-1319.e7, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956113

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) is a signaling hub on the lysosome surface, responding to lysosomal amino acids. Although arginine is metabolically important, the physiological arginine sensor that activates mTOR remains unclear. Here, we show that transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) translocates from plasma membrane to lysosome upon arginine sufficiency and senses arginine, culminating in mTORC1/S6K1 activation. TM4SF5 bound active mTOR upon arginine sufficiency and constitutively bound amino acid transporter SLC38A9. TM4SF5 binding to the cytosolic arginine sensor Castor1 decreased upon arginine sufficiency, thus allowing TM4SF5-mediated sensing of metabolic amino acids. TM4SF5 directly bound free L-arginine via its extracellular loop possibly for the efflux, being supported by mutant study and homology and molecular docking modeling. Therefore, we propose that lysosomal TM4SF5 senses and enables arginine efflux for mTORC1/S6K1 activation, and arginine-auxotroph in hepatocellular carcinoma may be targeted by blocking the arginine sensing using anti-TM4SF5 reagents.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Arginina/química , Transporte Biológico , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
FASEB J ; 33(3): 4341-4354, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592630

RESUMO

Fibrosis is characterized by the increased accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), which drives abnormal cell proliferation and progressive organ dysfunction in many inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Studies have shown that halofuginone, a racemic halogenated derivative, inhibits glutamyl-prolyl-transfer RNA-synthetase (EPRS)-mediated fibrosis. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We explored the mechanistic aspects of how EPRS could develop liver fibrotic phenotypes in cells and animal models. Treatment with TGF-ß1 up-regulated fibronectin and collagen I levels in LX2 hepatic stellate cells. This effect was inhibited in prolyl-transfer RNA synthetase (PRS)-suppressed LX2 cells. Using the promoter luciferase assay, TGF-ß1-mediated collagen I, α1 chain transcription and γ2 basal laminin transcription in LX2 cells were down-regulated by EPRS suppression, suggesting that EPRS may play roles in ECM production at transcriptional levels. Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling activation was involved in the effects of TGF-ß1 on ECM expression in a PRS-dependent manner. This was mediated via a protein-protein complex formation consisting of TGF-ß1 receptor, EPRS, Janus kinases, and STAT6. Additionally, ECM expression in fibrotic livers overlapped with EPRS expression along fibrotic septa regions and was positively correlated with STAT6 activation in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. This was less obvious in livers of Eprs-/+ mice. These findings suggest that, during fibrosis development, EPRS plays roles in nontranslational processes of ECM expression via intracellular signaling regulation upon TGF-ß1 stimulation.-Song, D.-G., Kim, D., Jung, J. W., Nam, S. H., Kim, J. E., Kim, H.-J., Kim, J. H., Lee, S.-J., Pan, C.-H., Kim, S., Lee, J. W. Glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase induces fibrotic extracellular matrix via both transcriptional and translational mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1337, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524284

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic disease of unknown cause, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in fibrotic foci in the lung. Previous studies have shown that the transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways play roles in IPF pathogenesis. Glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA-synthetase (EPRS) has been identified as a target for anti-fibrosis therapy, but the link between EPRS and TGFß1-mediated IPF pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we studied the role of EPRS in the development of fibrotic phenotypes in A549 alveolar epithelial cells and bleomycin-treated animal models. We found that EPRS knockdown inhibited the TGFß1-mediated upregulation of fibronectin and collagen I and the mesenchymal proteins α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and snail 1. TGFß1-mediated transcription of collagen I-α1 and laminin γ2 in A549 cells was also down-regulated by EPRS suppression, indicating that EPRS is required for ECM protein transcriptions. Activation of STAT signaling in TGFß1-induced ECM expression was dependent on EPRS. TGFß1 treatment resulted in EPRS-dependent in vitro formation of a multi-protein complex consisting of the TGFß1 receptor, EPRS, Janus tyrosine kinases (JAKs), and STATs. In vivo lung tissue from bleomycin-treated mice showed EPRS-dependent STAT6 phosphorylation and ECM production. Our results suggest that epithelial EPRS regulates the expression of mesenchymal markers and ECM proteins via the TGFß1/STAT signaling pathway. Therefore, epithelial EPRS can be used as a potential target to develop anti-IPF treatments.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 128(11): 5034-5055, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188867

RESUMO

Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) functions canonically in cytosolic translational processes. However, KRS is highly expressed in colon cancer, and localizes to distinct cellular compartments upon phosphorylations (i.e., the plasma membranes after T52 phosphorylation and the nucleus after S207 phosphorylation), leading to probably alternative noncanonical functions. It is unknown how other subcellular KRSs crosstalk with environmental cues during cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that the KRS-dependent metastatic behavior of colon cancer spheroids within 3D gels requires communication between cellular molecules and extracellular soluble factors and neighboring cells. Membranous KRS and nuclear KRS were found to participate in invasive cell dissemination of colon cancer spheroids in 3D gels. Cancer spheroids secreted GAS6 via a KRS-dependent mechanism and caused the M2 polarization of macrophages, which activated the neighboring cells via secretion of FGF2/GROα/M-CSF to promote cancer dissemination under environmental remodeling via fibroblast-mediated laminin production. Analyses of tissues from clinical colon cancer patients and Krs-/+ animal models for cancer metastasis supported the roles of KRS, GAS6, and M2 macrophages in KRS-dependent positive feedback between tumors and environmental factors. Altogether, KRS in colon cancer cells remodels the microenvironment to promote metastasis, which can thus be therapeutically targeted at these bidirectional KRS-dependent communications of cancer spheroids with environmental cues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Lisina-tRNA Ligase/biossíntese , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Esferoides Celulares/enzimologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lisina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
17.
Cancer Lett ; 438: 219-231, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217560

RESUMO

CD133 is a surface marker of liver cancer stem cells. Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) promotes sphere growth and circulation. However, it is unknown how CD133 and TM4SF5 cross-talk with each other for cancer stem cell properties. Here, we investigated the significance of inter-relationships between CD133, TM4SF5, CD44, and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F (PTPRF) in a three-dimensional (3D) sphere growth system. We found that CD133 upregulated TM4SF5 and CD44, whereas TM4SF5 and CD44 did not affect CD133 expression. Signaling activity following CD133 phosphorylation caused TM4SF5 expression and sphere growth. TM4SF5 bound to CD133 and promoted c-Src activity for CD133 phosphorylation as a positive feedback loop, leading to CD133-mediated sphere growth that was inhibited by TM4SF5 inhibition or suppression. TM4SF5 also bound PTPRF and promoted paxillin phosphorylation. Decreased sphere growth upon CD133 suppression was recovered by TM4SF5 expression and partially by PTPRF suppression. TM4SF5 inhibition enhanced PTPRF levels and abolished PTPRF suppression-mediated sphere growth. Altogether, CD133-induced TM4SF5 expression and function were important for liver cancer sphere growth and may be a promising target to block metastasis.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosforilação , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Cancer Lett ; 416: 94-108, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247826

RESUMO

Coumarins are natural compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential known to modulate inflammatory pathways. Here, non-toxic biscoumarin OT52 strongly inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells with KRAS mutations, inhibited stem-like characteristics by reducing aldehyde dehydrogenase expression and abrogated spheroid formation capacity. This cytostatic effect was characterized by cell cycle arrest and onset of senescence concomitant with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stress, leading to metabolic alterations. Mechanistically, this cellular response was associated with the novel capacity of biscoumarin OT52 to inhibit STAT3 transactivation and expression of its target genes linked to proliferation. These results were validated by computational docking of OT52 to the STAT3 DNA-binding domain. Combination treatments of OT52 with subtoxic concentrations of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1-targeting BH3 protein inhibitors triggered synergistic immunogenic cell death validated in colony formation assays as well as in vivo by zebrafish xenografts.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/administração & dosagem , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/química , Células A549 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citostáticos/administração & dosagem , Citostáticos/química , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Peptidomiméticos/administração & dosagem , Peptidomiméticos/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16041, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167529

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a key role in the progression of steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the molecular mechanism that controls the structure and function of mitochondria in NASH is not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrated that RORα is a regulator of expression of Bnip3 and PGC-1α, and thereby enhances mitochondrial quality. First, we observed that liver-specific RORα knockout mice (RORα-LKO) were more susceptible to high-fat diet-induced NASH compared with control, probably due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Concordantly, mitochondrial fission in response to nutrient stimuli was abolished with downregulation of Bnip3 and phospho-Drp1 in the hepatocytes of RORα-LKO. RORα enhanced oxygen consumption rate and expression of genes associated with mitochondrial quality control. Finally, we observed the positive correlation of the expression levels of Bnip3 and PGC-1α with those of RORα in patients with steatohepatitis. Together, we demonstrated that RORα mediates mitochondrial quality under nutrient-overloaded conditions and propose RORα as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of NASH.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(48): 83480-83494, 2017 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137358

RESUMO

Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and enhances migration in two-dimensional environments. Here, we investigated how TM4SF5 is involved in diverse pro-metastatic phenotypes in in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix gels. TM4SF5-positive cells aggressively formed invasive foci in 3D Matrigel, depending on TM4SF5-mediated signaling activity, cytoskeletal organization, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2-mediated extracellular remodeling, whereas TM4SF5-null cells did not. The TM4SF5-null cells did, however, form invasive foci in 3D Matrigel following inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase or addition of collagen I, suggesting that collagen I compensated for TM4SF5 expression. Similarly, TM4SF5-positive cells expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin formed network-like vasculogenic mimicry in 3D Matrigel and collagen I mixture gels, whereas TM4SF5-negative cells in the mixture gels displayed the network structures only upon further treatment with epidermal growth factor. The foci formation also required MMP2-mediated remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Co-cultures exhibited TM4SF5-positive or cancer-associated fibroblasts at the outward edges of TM4SF5-null cell clusters. Compared with TM4SF5-null cells, TM4SF5-positive cells in 3D collagen gels showed a more invasive outgrowth with dramatic invadopodia. These observations suggest that TM4SF5 plays roles in the promotion of diverse metastatic properties with fewer environmental requirements than TM4SF5-negative cells.

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