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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of specific macronutrients on kidney function independent of total calorie intake have rarely been studied, although the composition of macronutrient intake has been reported to affect health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of macronutrient intake ratios on the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: The study was an observational cohort study mainly based on the UK Biobank and including MR analysis. First, we evaluated the relative baseline macronutrient composition-that is, the number of calories from each macronutrient divided by total calorie intake-of the diets of UK Biobank participants, and we used Cox regression to assess the incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in 65,164 participants with normal kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2]. We implemented a genetic instrument for relative fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake developed by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and performed MR analysis. Two-sample MR was performed with the summary statistics from independent CKDGen GWAS for kidney function traits (n = 567,460), including CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and log-transformed eGFR. RESULTS: The median relative macronutrient intake composition at baseline was 35% fats, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrates. Higher relative protein intake in subjects with normal kidney function was significantly associated with a lower risk of incident ESKD (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.95) in the observational investigation. Two-sample MR indicated that increased relative fat intake causally increased the risk of kidney function impairment [CKD (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.71); log eGFR (ß: -0.036; 95% CI: -0.048, -0.024)] and that higher relative protein intake was causally linked to a lower CKD risk [CKD (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.72); log eGFR (ß: 0.044; 95% CI: 0.030, 0.058)]. CONCLUSIONS: A desirable macronutrient composition, including high relative protein intake and low relative fat intake, may causally reduce the risk of CKD in the general population.

2.
Heart ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and all-cause death of patients with controlled hypertension and suggest the benefits of physical activity in their prognosis. METHODS: People aged 40-69 years from the prospective UK Biobank cohort (UKB, n=220 026) and the retrospective Korean National Health Insurance Service cohort (KNHIS, n=3 593 202) were included in this observational cohort study, excluding those with previous cerebrocardiovascular diseases or hypertension without treatment. The study groups were stratified into normotension, controlled hypertension (patients with hypertension with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) and uncontrolled hypertension groups. The outcomes were MACCEs and all-cause mortality, analysed by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We included 161 405/18 844/39 777 and 3 122 890/383 828/86 484 individuals with normotension/controlled hypertension/uncontrolled hypertension state from the UKB and KNHIS cohorts, respectively. The controlled hypertension group showed significantly higher risk of MACCEs (UKB: adjusted HR 1.73 (95% CI 1.55 to 1.92); KNHIS: 1.46 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.49)) and all-cause mortality (UKB: adjusted HR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.39); KNHIS: 1.29 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.32)) than individuals with normotension. The controlled hypertension group not involved in any moderate or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed high risk of adverse outcomes, which was comparable with or even higher than the risk of patients with uncontrolled hypertension who were engaged in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Controlled hypertension is associated with residual risks of adverse outcomes. Clinicians may encourage physical activity for patients with controlled hypertension, not being reassured by their achieved target blood pressure values.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1711, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462380

RESUMO

Large-scale studies have not been conducted to assess whether serum hypobicarbonatemia increases the risk for kidney function deterioration and mortality among East-Asians. We aimed to determine the association between serum total CO2 (TCO2) concentrations measured at the first outpatient visit and clinical outcomes. In this multicenter cohort study, a total of 42,231 adult nephrology outpatients from 2001 to 2016 were included. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis within 3 months of the first visit were excluded. Instrumental variable (IV) was used to define regions based on the proportion of patients with serum TCO2 < 22 mEq/L. The crude mortality rate was 12.2% during a median 77.0-month follow-up period. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model adjusted for initial kidney function, alkali supplementation, and the use of diuretics demonstrated that low TCO2 concentration was not associated with progression to ESRD, but significantly increased the risk of death. The IV analysis also confirmed a significant association between initial TCO2 concentration and mortality (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.49-0.64). This result was consistently significant regardless of the underlying renal function. In conclusion, low TCO2 levels are significantly associated with mortality but not with progression to ESRD in patients with ambulatory care.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0241623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434198

RESUMO

Smoking, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) are important global health problems. We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alteration in MetS status, and the consequent risk of MACE. We performed a nationwide observational cohort study based on the claims database of Korea. We included people with ≥ 3 national health screenings from 2009 to 2013. Total 6,099,717 people, including 3,576,236 nonsmokers, 862,210 ex-smokers, 949,586 light-to-moderate smokers, and 711,685 heavy smokers, at the first health screening, were investigated. First, we performed a logistic regression analysis using smoking status at the first screening as the exposure variable and MetS development or recovery as the outcome variable. Second, we performed a Poisson regression using smoking status at the third screening as the exposure variable and the outcome was risk of incident MACEs. Among those previously free from MetS (N = 4,889,493), 347,678 people developed MetS, and among those who had previous MetS (N = 1,210,224), 347,627 people recovered from MetS. Smoking was related to a higher risk of MetS development [for heavy smokers: adjusted OR 1.71 (1.69 to 1.73)] and a lower probability of MetS recovery [for heavy smokers: adjusted OR 0.68 (0.67 to 0.69)]. Elevated triglycerides was the MetS component with the most prominent association with smoking. The risk for incident MACEs (78,640 events during a median follow-up of 4.28 years) was the highest for heavy smokers, followed in order by light-to-moderate, ex-smokers and nonsmokers, for every MetS status. Therefore, smoking may promote MetS or even hinder recovery from MetS. Smoking cessation should be emphasized to reduce MACE risk even for those without MetS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318340

RESUMO

Background: The effect of each health-related quality of life (HRQOL) component on hemodialysis prognosis has not been well studied. We aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with HRQOL and the effect of HRQOL after dialysis initiation on long-term survival in an Asian population. Methods: A total of 568 hemodialysis patients were included from a nationwide prospective cohort study. HRQOL was evaluated using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) Short FormTM 1.3 at 3 months after dialysis initiation. The effect of each KDQOL item score on mortality was analyzed. Multivariable Cox analysis was performed after adjusting for age, sex, modified Charlson comorbidity index, and causes of primary kidney disease. Results: Old age, diabetes mellitus, high comorbidities, and low serum albumin levels were associated with poor physical health status. Decreased urine output was associated with both poor physical and mental health status. The scores of 3 indices in the kidney disease domain (effect of kidney disease, social support, and dialysis staff encouragement) showed significant associations with mortality, as did the 3 indices (physical function, physical role limitation, and body pain) in the physical health domain. Neither the 4 indices in the mental health domain nor the mental composite score showed a significant association with mortality. However, a high physical composite score was associated with decreased overall patient mortality (P = 0.003). The effect of physical composite score on survival was prominent among young or middle-aged groups. Conclusion: Poor physical health status 3 months after hemodialysis start correlates significantly with overall mortality.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318341

RESUMO

Background: The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. Methods: A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. Results: The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72 hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P <0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. Conclusion: A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), commonly estimated using the serum creatinine value, often fluctuates throughout the serial measurement. The clinical significance of GFR variation among the general population with normal renal function has not yet been demonstrated. Thus, we explored the impact of GFR variability on adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance System database was performed. National health screening examinees who underwent creatinine measurement ≥3 times between 2012 and 2016 were considered. Those with eGFR under 60 mL/min/m2 were excluded. The fluctuation of eGFR was represented with variability independent of the mean (VIM) index; which was calculated by the standard deviation divided by the exponent of the regression coefficient of the mean. Then, the risks of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and death were assessed according to the quartiles of the VIM. RESULTS: Of total 3,538,500 participants, 0.29% of myocardial infarction (MI), 0.14% of stroke, 0.36% of deaths were observed during the median follow up of 3.27 years. Participants with the highest VIM index, which represents the highest eGFR variability, were significantly associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]; 1.04-1.16), stroke (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and death (HR: 1.18; 95% CI 1.12-1.24). The elevated risk of adverse events was consistent after the multivariate adjustment with potential confounding factors, except the risk of MI (HR 1.06; 95% 1.00-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Increased eGFR variability exhibited an association with major clinical outcomes, indicating that monitoring eGFR variability might be a useful parameter for predicting the adverse outcomes.

8.
Environ Res ; : 110473, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189745

RESUMO

Due to dilution status of the urine, chemical concentrations measured in spot urine are frequently adjusted using correction factors, such as creatinine, specific gravity (SG), or osmolarity of the urine. Urinary correction factors, however, can be influenced dramatically by physiological changes such as pregnancy. Details about the variation of urine dilution over the course of pregnancy are not well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the variation of urine correction factors over time among the pregnant women of Korea (n = 69) and Thailand (n = 102). Creatinine, SG, and osmolality were determined in the urine samples obtained in each trimester of the participating women, and were compared by sampling time and by nationality. Implication of the variation in these correction factors was studied using phthalate metabolites measured in the urine samples as model chemicals. Urinary correction factors significantly varied across the trimesters especially in Korean pregnant women: urinary creatinine and osmolality were significantly lower in the third trimester (T3) urine than the first trimester (T1) urine. Urinary creatinine and SG of the T3 urine of Korean pregnant women were also significantly lower than those reported from the non-pregnant women who participated in Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015-2017. Among Thai women, however, these correction factors were rather stable across the pregnancy. Differences in ethnicity, or in behavior such as water consumption amount may partly explain the differences. Temporal changes in these urine correction factors influenced the urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations adjusted for dilution, in both Korean and Thai pregnant women. The present observations show that the variations of urinary correction factors should be considered in exposure assessment of urinary chemicals for pregnant women, in order to circumvent potential bias due to physiological changes occurring during pregnancy, and to reduce errors in exposure classification and association.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e016806, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153387

RESUMO

Background A population-scale evidence for the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) and risks of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) or all-cause mortality in people with various metabolic syndrome (MetS) status is warranted. Methods and Results We performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on the claims database of South Korea. We included people who received ≥3 national health screenings from 2009 to 2013 without a previous MACE history. We determined the MetS status of 6 108 077 people: MetS-chronic (N=864 063), MetS-developed (N=348 163), MetS-recovery (N=348 313), and MetS-free (N=4 547 538). The exposure was self-reported MV-PA frequencies. The outcome was incident MACEs or all-cause mortality. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated with adjustments for clinical/demographic characteristics. During the median follow-up of 4.28 years, 78 770 and 51 840 people experienced MACEs or died, respectively. Those who engaged in MV-PA had a significantly lower risk of MACEs or all-cause mortality than those not engaged in MV-PA in every spectrum of MetS. Even among those who were free from MetS (for MACEs, IRR 0.94 [0.92-0.97], for all-cause mortality, IRR 0.85 [0.82-0.87]) or who had already recovered from MetS (for MACEs, IRR 0.89 [0.84-0.95], for all-cause mortality, IRR 0.74 [0.68-0.81]), 1 to 2 days per week of MV-PA were significantly associated with lower risk of the adverse outcomes when compared with not being engaged in MV-PA. Those who were engaged in MV-PA more frequently also had significantly lower risks of MACEs or all-cause mortality. Conclusions This nationwide study suggests that MV-PA may be recommended to the general population regardless of recent MetS status.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18881, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144672

RESUMO

Graft outcomes of unrelated donor kidney transplant are comparable with those of related donor kidney transplant despite their genetic distance. This study aimed to identify whether the similarity of donor-recipient gut microbiota composition affects early transplant outcomes. Stool samples from 67 pairs of kidney transplant recipients and donors were collected. Gut microbiota differences between donors and recipients were determined using weighted UniFrac distance. Among the donor-recipient pairs, 30 (44.8%) pairs were related, while 37 (55.2%) were unrelated. The unrelated pairs, especially spousal pairs, had similar microbial composition, and they more frequently shared their meals than related pairs did. The weighted UniFrac distance showed an inverse correlation with the 6-month allograft function (p = 0.034); the correlation was significant in the unrelated pairs (p = 0.003). In the unrelated pairs, the microbial distance showed an excellent accuracy in predicting the estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 6-months post-transplantation and was better than human leukocyte antigen incompatibility and rejection. The incidence of infection within 6 months post-transplantation increased in the recipients having dissimilar microbiota with donors compared to the other recipients. Thus, pre-transplantation microbial similarity in unrelated donors and recipients may be associated with 6-month allograft function.

11.
Circ J ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little data as to whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with target organ damage (TOD), so we evaluated the association in patients at high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods and Results:A total of 349 patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for suspected CAD were prospectively recruited. During the index admission, 6 TOD parameters were collected: extent of CAD, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), E/e', brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Serum OPG levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The OPG level was significantly higher in patients with ≥1 TOD parameter than in those without (314±186 vs. 202±74 pg/mL, P<0.001). For each TOD parameter, the serum OPG level was significantly higher in patients with TOD than in those without (P<0.05 for each) except for ABI. In correlation analysis, OPG was significantly associated with GFR, LVMI, E/e', baPWV and ABI (P<0.05 for each). The OPG concentration increased proportionally with increasing TOD (P<0.001). Higher OPG concentrations (≥198 pg/mL) was significantly associated with the presence of TOD (odds ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 1.51-6.85; P=0.002) even after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Serum OPG level was significantly associated with a variety of TOD in patients undergoing ICA. OPG may be a useful marker for TOD and in the risk stratification of patients at high risk of CAD.

12.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(5): 803-812, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125004

RESUMO

Background: End-stage renal disease yields susceptibility to both ischemia and bleeding. The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is not established in dialysis patients, who are usually excluded from randomized studies. Since recent studies implied the benefits of prolonged DAPT >12 months in chronic kidney disease, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of prolonged DAPT in dialysis patients with higher cardiovascular risks. Methods: In this nationwide population-based study, we analyzed dialysis patients who underwent DES implantation from 2008 to 2015. Continued DAPT was compared with discontinued DAPT using landmark analyses, including free-of-event participants at 12 (n = 2246), 15 (n = 1925) and 18 months (n = 1692) after DES implantation. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs): a composite of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and stroke. Major bleeding was a safety outcome. Inverse probability of treatment weighting Cox regression was performed. Results: Mean follow-up periods were 278.3-292.4 days, depending on landmarks. Overall, incidences of major bleeding were far lower than those of MACE. Continued DAPT groups showed lower incidences of MACE and higher incidences of major bleeding, compared with discontinued DAPT groups. In Cox analyses, continued DAPT reduced the hazards of MACE at the 12- [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.90; P = 0.003], 15- (HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96; P = 0.019) and 18-month landmarks (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99; P = 0.041), but without a significant increase in major bleeding at 12 (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.90-2.16; P = 0.14), 15 (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.75-1.70; P = 0.55) or 18 months (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.83-1.95; P = 0.27). Conclusions: Prolonged DAPT reduced MACE without significantly increasing major bleeding in patients who were event-free at 12 months after DES implantation. In deciding on DAPT duration, prolonged DAPT should be considered in dialysis patients.

14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(12): 2937-2947, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have found sleeping behaviors, such as sleep duration, to be associated with kidney function and cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether short or long sleep duration is a causative factor for kidney function impairment has been rarely studied. METHODS: We studied data from participants aged 40-69 years in the UK Biobank prospective cohort, including 25,605 self-reporting short-duration sleep (<6 hours per 24 hours), 404,550 reporting intermediate-duration sleep (6-8 hours), and 35,659 reporting long-duration sleep (≥9 hours) in the clinical analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, we investigated the observational association between the sleep duration group and prevalent CKD stages 3-5, analyzed by logistic regression analysis. We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis involving 321,260 White British individuals using genetic instruments (genetic variants linked with short- or long-duration sleep behavior as instrumental variables). We performed genetic risk score analysis as a one-sample MR and extended the finding with a two-sample MR analysis with CKD outcome information from the independent CKDGen Consortium genome-wide association study meta-analysis. RESULTS: Short or long sleep duration clinically associated with higher prevalence of CKD compared with intermediate duration. The genetic risk score for short (but not long) sleep was significantly related to CKD (per unit reflecting a two-fold increase in the odds of the phenotype; adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.60). Two-sample MR analysis demonstrated causal effects of short sleep duration on CKD by the inverse variance weighted method, supported by causal estimates from MR-Egger regression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an adverse effect of a short sleep duration on kidney function. Clinicians may encourage patients to avoid short-duration sleeping behavior to reduce CKD risk.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16206, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004860

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) involves repeated events of gross haematuria with concurrent upper airway infections. The mucosal immune system, especially the tonsil, is considered the initial site of inflammation, although the role of the tonsillar microbiota has not been established in IgAN. In this study, we compared the tonsillar microbiota of patients with IgAN (n = 21) and other glomerular diseases (n = 36) as well as, healthy controls (n = 23) from three medical centres in Korea. The microbiota was analysed from tonsil swabs using the Illumina MiSeq system based on 16S rRNA gene. Tonsillar bacterial diversity was higher in IgAN than in other glomerular diseases, although it did not differ from that of healthy controls. Principal coordinates analysis revealed differences between the tonsillar microbiota of IgAN and both healthy and disease controls. The proportions of Rahnella, Ruminococcus_g2, and Clostridium_g21 were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls (corrected p < 0.05). The relative abundances of several taxa were correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen, haemoglobin, and serum albumin levels. Based on our findings, tonsillar microbiota may be associated with clinical features and possible immunologic pathogenesis of IgAN.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12920, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737361

RESUMO

Predicting the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) progression facilitates appropriate nephrology care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previously, the kidney failure risk equations (KFREs) were developed and validated in several cohorts. The purpose of this study is to validate the KFREs in a Korean population and to recalibrate the equations. A total of 38,905 adult patients, including 13,244 patients with CKD stages G3-G5, who were referred to nephrology were recruited. Using the original KFREs (4-, 6- and 8-variable equations) and recalibration equations, we predicted the risk of 2- and 5-year ESRD progression. All analyses were conducted in CKD stages G3-G5 patients as well as the total population. In CKD stages G3-G5 patients, All the original 4-, 6- and 8-variable equations showed excellent areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 and 0.83 for the 2- and 5-year risk of ESRD, respectively. The results of net reclassification improvement, integrated discrimination index and Brier score showed that recalibration improved the prediction models in some cases. The original KFREs showed high discrimination in both CKD stages G3-G5 patients and the total population referred to nephrology in this large Korean cohort. KFREs can be implemented in Korean health systems and can guide nephrology referrals and other CKD-related treatment decisions.

17.
Kidney Med ; 2(2): 189-195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734238

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: We aimed to elucidate whether a balanced salt solution decreases the occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) as compared to 0.9% saline solution. Study Design: A randomized clinical trial. Setting & Participants: The study was performed in 14 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) < 45 or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and additional risk factors (age ≥ 60 years or diabetes) who were undergoing scheduled CE-CT were included from December 2016 to December 2018. Intervention: An open-label intervention was performed. The study group received a balanced salt solution and the control group received 0.9% saline solution as prophylactic fluids for CE-CT. Outcomes: The primary outcome was CI-AKI, defined by creatinine level elevation ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or 25% from baseline within 48 to 72 hours after CE-CT. Secondary outcomes included AKI defined based on the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guideline, eGFR changes, death, or requiring dialysis within 6 months after CE-CT. Results: 493 patients received the study fluids. The control and study groups included 251 and 242 patients, respectively. The occurrence of CI-AKI in the study (10 [4.2%]) and control (17 [6.8%]) groups was not significantly different (P = 0.27). No significant difference was present for the secondary outcomes; AKI by the KDIGO definition (study: 19 [7.9%], control: 27 [10.8%]; P = 0.33), death/dialysis (study: 11 [4.7%], control: 9 [3.7%]; P = 0.74), and eGFR changes (study: 0.1 ± 0.2 mg/dL, control: 0.3 ± 2.8 mg/dL; P = 0.69). Limitations: This study failed to meet target enrollment. Conclusions: The risk for CI-AKI was similar after administration of a balanced salt solution and after use of 0.9% saline solution during CE-CT in higher-risk patients. Funding: This study was funded by CJ Healthcare (CS2015_0046). Trial Registration: Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with study number NCT02799368.

18.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(5): 1173-1187, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate long-term temporal trends and outcomes of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in a multicenter kidney biopsy cohort, focusing on hypertension and diabetes, the leading causes of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). METHODS: The study included a total of 21,426 patients who underwent kidney biopsy from 1979 to 2018 in 18 hospitals in Korea. We selected subgroups of adults with diabetes (n = 2,813) or clinically presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HT-N, n = 2,917). Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected in conjunction with pathologic findings. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed kidney diseases over time and their associations with clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: The prevalence of biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy (DN) has increased significantly from 2.5% to 6.0% in the total cohort in the recent 30 years with an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. Approximately 68% of total diabetic patients had non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD); the proportion was retained since 2000s. DN showed a significantly higher risk of ESKD than NDRD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 1.88). The prevalence of biopsy-proven HT-N remained < 2% in the total cohort for several decades. There was no difference in risks of ESKD between patients with or without biopsy-proven HT-N (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.59). CONCLUSION: In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes and DN has significantly increased in the kidney biopsy cohort, showing an increased risk of ESKD. Despite the large numbers of patients meeting the clinical criteria of HT-N, most of those were diagnosed with pathologic diagnoses other than HT-N.

19.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(19): 11158-11169, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822114

RESUMO

The prediction of prognosis in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is challenging. We investigated the correlation between urinary cMet (ucMet) levels and clinical parameters and examined the effects of cMet agonistic antibody (cMet Ab) in an in vitro IgAN model. Patients diagnosed with IgAN (n = 194) were divided into three groups representing undetectable (Group 1), below-median (Group 2) and above-median (Group 3) levels of ucMet/creatinine (ucMet/Cr). Stained kidney biopsy samples were graded according to cMet intensity. Primary-cultured human mesangial cells were stimulated with recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and treated with cMet Ab. Our results showed that ucMet/Cr levels positively correlated with proteinuria (P < .001). During the follow-up, patients in Group 3 showed a significantly lower probability of complete remission (CR; uPCr < 300 mg/g) than those in groups 1 and 2, after adjusting for blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria, which influence clinical prognosis (HR 0.60, P = .038); moreover, ucMet/Cr levels were also associated with glomerular cMet expression. After TNF-α treatment, the proliferation of mesangial cells and increased interleukin-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression were markedly reduced by cMet Ab in vitro. In conclusion, ucMet/Cr levels significantly correlated with proteinuria, glomerular cMet expression, and the probability of CR. Further, cMet Ab treatment alleviated the inflammation and proliferation of mesangial cells. Hence, ucMet could serve as a clinically significant marker for treating IgAN.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13715, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792552

RESUMO

Weights assigned to comorbidities in predicting mortality may vary based on the type of index disease and advances in the management of comorbidities. We aimed to develop a modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) using an Asian nationwide database (mCCI-A), enabling the precise prediction of mortality rates in this population. The main data source used in this study was the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) obtained from the National Health Insurance database, which includes health insurance claims filed between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2013, in Korea. Of the 1,025,340 individuals included in the NHIS-NSC, 570,716 patients who were hospitalized at least once were analyzed in this study. In total, 399,502 patients, accounting for 70% of the cohort, were assigned to the development cohort, and the remaining patients (n = 171,214) were assigned to the validation cohort. The mCCI-A scores were calculated by summing the weights assigned to individual comorbidities according to their relative prognostic significance determined by a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. The modified index was validated in the same cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model provided reassigned severity weights for 17 comorbidities that significantly predicted mortality. Both the CCI and mCCI-A were correlated with mortality. However, compared with the CCI, the mCCI-A showed modest but significant increases in the c statistics. According to the analyses using continuous net reclassification improvement, the mCCI-A improved the net mortality risk reclassification by 44.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 41.6-46.5; p < 0.001). The mCCI-A facilitates better risk stratification of mortality rates in Korean inpatients than the CCI, suggesting that the mCCI-A may be a preferable index for use in clinical practice and statistical analyses in epidemiological studies.

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