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1.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012433

RESUMO

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest for a wide range of agricultural crops. It causes significant yield loss through feeding damage and by increasing the crop's vulnerability to bacterial and fungal infections. Although expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in transgenic crops has been very successful in protecting against insect pests, including H. armigera, field-evolved resistance has occurred in multiple species. To manage resistant populations, new protection strategies must be continuously developed. Trans-Kingdom RNA interference (TK-RNAi) is a promising method for controlling herbivorous pests. TK-RNAi is based on delivering dsRNA or hairpin RNA containing essential insect gene sequences to the feeding insect. The ingested molecules are processed by the insect's RNAi machinery and guide it to silence the target genes. Recently TK-RNAi delivery has been enhanced by expressing the ds- or hp-RNAs in the chloroplast. This compartmentalizes the duplexed RNA away from the plant's RNAi machinery, ensuring that it is delivered in an unprocessed form to the insect. Here, we report another alternative approach for delivering precursor anti-insect RNA in plants. Insect pre-microRNA (pre-miR) transcripts were modified to contain artificial microRNAs (amiRs), targeting insect genes, and expressed in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These modified pre-miRs remained largely unprocessed in the plants and H. armigera feeding on leaves from these plants had increased mortality, developmental abnormalities and delayed growth rates. This shows that plant-expressed insect pre-amiRs (plin-amiRs) are a new strategy of protecting plants against herbivorous insects.

2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 13, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sector collaborative partnerships are a vital strategy in efforts to strengthen research-informed policy and practice and may be particularly effective at addressing the complex problems associated with chronic disease prevention. However, there is still a limited understanding of how such partnerships are implemented in practice and how their implementation contributes to outcomes. This paper explores the operationalisation and outcomes of knowledge mobilisation strategies within the Australian Prevention Partnership Centre - a research collaboration between policy-makers, practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The Centre's programme model identifies six knowledge mobilisation strategies that are hypothesised to be essential for achieving its objectives. Using a mixed methods approach combining stakeholder interviews, surveys, participant feedback forms and routine process data over a 5-year period, we describe the structures, resources and activities used to operationalise these strategies and explore if and how they have contributed to proximal outcomes. RESULTS: Results showed that Centre-produced research, resources, tools and methods were impacting policy formation and funding. Policy-makers reported using new practical methodologies that were helping them to design, implement, evaluate and obtain funding for scaled-up policies and programmes, and co-creating compelling prevention narratives. Some strategies were better implemented and more impactful than others in supporting these outcomes, with variation in who they worked for. The activities used to effect engagement, capacity-building and partnership formation were mostly generating positive results, but co-production could be enhanced by greater shared decision-making. Considerably more work is needed to successfully operationalise knowledge integration and adaptive learning. CONCLUSIONS: Describing how collaborative cross-sector research partnerships are operationalised in practice, and with what effects, can provide important insights into practical strategies for establishing and growing such partnerships and for maximising their contributions to policy. Findings suggest that the Centre has many strengths but could benefit from more inclusive and transparent governance and internal processes that facilitate dialogue about roles, expectations and co-production practices.

3.
Anal Chem ; 92(3): 2764-2769, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940175

RESUMO

IgG-like multispecific antibodies with asymmetric constructs have become widely used formats for therapeutic applications in recent years. Correct assembly of the subunits in this class of therapeutics is a critical quality attribute (CQA) with direct impact on biological activity. Therefore, early drug development efforts such as clone selection during cell line development must be guided by information on potential chain mispairing to enable timely decision making and risk mitigation. Here we describe a high-throughput analytical platform based on denaturing size-exclusion ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with intact protein mass spectrometry for profiling of mispairing and other product-related impurities, including half antibodies. This method can be performed directly on the clarified cell culture harvest fluid without the need for Protein A purification or other sample preparations and provides unbiased information on the product quality of the clones and the effect of growth conditions in a fast and cost-effective manner. Screening large numbers of clones expressing different trispecific antibody (tsAb) constructs revealed that although chain mispairing primarily depends on the antibody sequence and structure, it is also a characteristic of the clone. In addition, different growth conditions may affect the type and distribution of half antibodies and mispaired species impurities but not the quality ranking of the clones.

4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promising health interventions tested in pilot studies will only achieve population-wide impact if they are implemented at scale across communities and health systems. Scaling up effective health interventions is vital as not doing so denies the community the most effective services and programmes. However, there remains a paucity of practical tools to assess the suitability of health interventions for scale-up. The Intervention Scalability Assessment Tool (ISAT) was developed to support policy-makers and practitioners to make systematic assessments of the suitability of health interventions for scale-up. METHODS: The ISAT was developed over three stages; the first stage involved a literature review to identify similar tools and frameworks that could be used to guide scalability assessments, and expert input to develop draft ISAT content. In the second stage, the draft ISAT tool was tested with end users. The third stage involved revising and re-testing the ISAT with end users to further refine the language and structure of the final ISAT. RESULTS: A variety of information and sources of evidence should be used to complete the ISAT. The ISAT consists of three parts. Part A: 'setting the scene' requires consideration of the context in which the intervention is being considered for scale-up and consists of five domains, as follows: (1) the problem; (2) the intervention; (3) strategic/political context; (4) evidence of effectiveness; and (5) intervention costs and benefits. Part B asks users to assess the potential implementation and scale-up requirements within five domains, namely (1) fidelity and adaptation; (2) reach and acceptability; (3) delivery setting and workforce; (4) implementation infrastructure; and (5) sustainability. Part C generates a graphical representation of the strengths and weaknesses of the readiness of the proposed intervention for scale-up. Users are also prompted for a recommendation as to whether the intervention (1) is recommended for scale-up, (2) is promising but needs further information before scaling up, or (3) does not yet merit scale-up. CONCLUSION: The ISAT fills an important gap in applied scalability assessment and can become a critical decision support tool for policy-makers and practitioners when selecting health interventions for scale-up. Although the ISAT is designed to be a health policy and practitioner tool, it can also be used by researchers in the design of research to fill important evidence gaps.

5.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(2): 499-511, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583446

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features, MRI characteristics, and management options of retroperitoneal cystic masses. Radiologists should be familiar with the MR imaging characteristics of retroperitoneal cystic masses to allow for a refined differential diagnosis, assist with lesion management, and prevent unnecessary invasive procedures.

6.
Science ; 367(6473): 91-96, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753850

RESUMO

Leaves vary from planar sheets and needle-like structures to elaborate cup-shaped traps. Here, we show that in the carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba, the upper leaf (adaxial) domain is restricted to a small region of the primordium that gives rise to the trap's inner layer. This restriction is necessary for trap formation, because ectopic adaxial activity at early stages gives radialized leaves and no traps. We present a model that accounts for the formation of both planar and nonplanar leaves through adaxial-abaxial domains of gene activity establishing a polarity field that orients growth. In combination with an orthogonal proximodistal polarity field, this system can generate diverse leaf forms and account for the multiple evolutionary origins of cup-shaped leaves through simple shifts in gene expression.

7.
Vaccine ; 38(1): 54-62, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668819

RESUMO

To help address the need for preventive measures against dengue fever, a leading cause of child mortality in the Philippines, vaccine trials are ongoing and a tetravalent vaccine (Dengvaxia™, Sanofi Pasteur) has been developed. It is hypothesized that while acceptability would be high among primary caregivers (i.e., parents/guardians), the willingness to have one's child immunized against dengue would be associated with socio-demographic variables, attitudes and knowledge regarding dengue and vaccination, and past experience with dengue. This study aimed to assess the aforementioned factors' association with primary caregivers' willingness to avail of a dengue vaccine for their 9 to 14-year-old children in an urban community in the Philippines. A cross-sectional study utilizing interviews was conducted to determine which factors were associated with willingness-to-avail assuming a free vaccine, and a case study utilizing a focus group discussion was employed to capture some underlying reasons for their willingness. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression and thematic analysis. Among the 202 study participants, 193 (95.54%) were willing to avail of the vaccine. There was a high probability of vaccine acceptance by primary caregivers (95.54%), with good attitude towards vaccination (≥12/15 points) [aOR 10.62, 90% CI (1.73-26.28)] and large household size (>5) [aOR 9.63, 90% CI (2.04-45.58)] being positively associated with willingness-to-avail, and good knowledge regarding dengue fever [aOR 0.10, 90% CI (0.03-0.74)] and older age (>44 years) [aOR 0.14, 90% CI (0.03-0.61)] being negatively associated. Crude analysis showed that household size, knowledge regarding dengue, and attitude towards vaccination were significantly associated with willingness. Multivariate analysis revealed that these factors and the primary caregiver's age were associated with willingness. Thematic analysis showed various perceptions regarding dengue and vaccination. Knowing these factors are associated with willingness-to-avail of the vaccine may help in understanding the audience of health promotion projects aimed at increasing immunization coverage.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1211, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates an etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, the association between HPV and other cancers, including esophageal and tongue remains unclear. This study delineated the molecular characteristics of HPV18 E6 and E7 in esophageal (EC109 and EC9706) and tongue (Tca83) cancer cell lines with reference to cervical cancer (HeLa). METHODS: We analysed the HPV transcription profiles of esophageal and tongue cancer cells through Next-generation RNA sequencing, and the role of HPV18 E6 and E7 in these cells was assessed via siRNA approach, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: Overall, the HPV transcription profiles of esophageal and tongue cancer cells mimicked that of cervical cancer cells, with notable disruption of E2, and expression of E6, spliced E6 (E6*), E7, E1 and L1 transcripts. As with cervical cancer cells, p53 and its downstream transactivation target, p21, were found to be the major targets of E6 in esophageal and tongue cancer cell lines. Intriguingly, E7 preferentially targeted p130 in the two esophageal cancer cell lines, instead of pRb as in cervical cancer. Tca83 exhibited an E7 to E6 transcript ratio comparable to HeLa (cervix), targeted the ERK1/2 and MMP2 pathways, and was dependent on E6 and E7 to survive and proliferate. In contrast, both the esophageal cancer cell lines were distinct from HeLa in these aspects. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that delineates transcript expression and protein interaction of HPV18 E6 and E7 in esophageal and tongue cancer cell lines, suggesting that HPV plays a role in inducing these cancers, albeit via distinct pathways than those observed in cervical cancer.

9.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-6, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature on whole of system approaches (WSAs) has been largely theoretical in focus. The Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity is a national project designed to contribute a practical implementation focus to such approaches at the population level. METHODS: National meetings were convened with federal and state government sector stakeholders to identify physical activity (PA) related policies and programs. Policies and programs were audited to develop an understanding of the existing PA system. A WSA conceptual map for PA was developed using feedback from system stakeholders, existing WSAs, and related work in obesity. RESULTS: Completion of the policy audit has revealed key areas of need regarding policy governance, coordination, financing, and evaluation. An initial WSA conceptual map for Australia has been developed incorporating governance, translation, and advocacy. Stakeholder co-production of an integrated framework for PA and design plans for a community of practice knowledge hub has commenced. CONCLUSIONS: In Australia, Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity project partners have developed a conceptual whole of systems map that is guiding progress beyond the theoretical to application in the real world: a national PA policy audit, co-production of an integrated PA policy framework, and planning for a PA community of practice knowledge hub.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e14241, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a prostate cancer diagnosis, men want information about their disease and treatment options. The internet offers a convenient means to deliver health information to patients with prostate cancer. However, there are concerns about the use of the internet among this largely senior population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the patterns and factors associated with the use of the internet as a source of health information among Canadian men with prostate cancer and the features and information required in a website. METHODS: Population surveys were conducted in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario) in 2014-2015. Data analyses included descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable analyses. The Pearson Chi-square and univariable regression were used to examine associations between independent variables and health-related internet use. Correlates of health-related internet use were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1362 patients responded across the four provinces. The mean age of respondents was 69 years (SD 8.2). In addition, 82% (n=1071) were internet users and 71% (n=910) used the internet daily. Further, 65% (n=784) used the internet as a source of prostate cancer information, and 40% (n=521) were confident about using information obtained from the internet to make health decisions. Men who used the internet to obtain prostate cancer information were more likely to be active information seekers (odds ratio [OR]: 4.5, 95% CI 2.6-7.8), be confident using information from the internet to make health decisions (OR: 3.6, 95% CI 2.3-5.7), have broadband internet access (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), and have more unmet supportive care needs (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Top features wanted in a website, reported by more than 50% of respondents, were a library of resources (n=893, 65.6%), tools to support treatment decision making (n=815, 59.8%), and tools to help navigate the prostate cancer journey (n=698, 51.2%). Top three topics of information wanted in such a website were treatment options (n=916, 67.3%), disease progression (n=904, 66.4%), and management of side effects (n=858, 63%). CONCLUSIONS: Over two-thirds of Canadian patients with prostate cancer surveyed use the internet as a source of health information about prostate cancer, but over half did not feel confident using information from the internet to make health decisions. Being an active information seeker, having confidence in using information from the internet to make health decisions, having broadband internet, and having more unmet supportive care needs were significantly associated with health-related internet use. Future work should examine electronic health literacy interventions as a means to boost men's confidence in using information from the internet and design websites that include information and features that help men navigate the prostate cancer journey and support treatment decision making and management of side effects.

11.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000427, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600203

RESUMO

Leaves display a remarkable range of forms, from flat sheets with simple outlines to cup-shaped traps. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of planar leaf development, it is unclear whether similar or distinctive mechanisms underlie shape transformations during development of more complex curved forms. Here, we use 3D imaging and cellular and clonal analysis, combined with computational modelling, to analyse the development of cup-shaped traps of the carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba. We show that the transformation from a near-spherical form at early developmental stages to an oblate spheroid with a straightened ventral midline in the mature form can be accounted for by spatial variations in rates and orientations of growth. Different hypotheses regarding spatiotemporal control predict distinct patterns of cell shape and size, which were tested experimentally by quantifying cellular and clonal anisotropy. We propose that orientations of growth are specified by a proximodistal polarity field, similar to that hypothesised to account for Arabidopsis leaf development, except that in Utricularia, the field propagates through a highly curved tissue sheet. Independent evidence for the polarity field is provided by the orientation of glandular hairs on the inner surface of the trap. Taken together, our results show that morphogenesis of complex 3D leaf shapes can be accounted for by similar mechanisms to those for planar leaves, suggesting that simple modulations of a common growth framework underlie the shaping of a diverse range of morphologies.

12.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 44(12): 3950-3961, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541277

RESUMO

Female urethral pathology can be challenging to diagnose clinically due to non-specific symptoms. High-resolution MRI has become a powerful tool in the diagnosis of urethral lesions and staging of malignancy. Additionally, dynamic MRI, fluoroscopy or ultrasound can evaluate for pelvic floor prolapse and the effectiveness of surgical interventions. This article will review the imaging features of common benign and malignant conditions of the female urethra including diverticula, benign cystic and solid lesions, malignancy, surgical slings, and injection of bulking agents.

13.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of a systems thinking approach to tackling population physical inactivity is increasingly recognized. This study used conceptual systems thinking to develop a cognitive map for physical activity (PA) influences and intervention points, which informed a standardized approach to the coding and notation of PA-related policies in Australia. METHODS: Policies were identified through desktop searches and input from 33 nominated government representatives attending 2 national PA policy workshops. Documents were audited using predefined criteria spanning policy development, strategic approaches to PA, implementation processes, and evaluation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The audit included 110 policies, mainly led by the health or planning/infrastructure sectors (n = 54, 49%). Most policies purporting to promote PA did so as a cobenefit of another objective that was not focused on PA (n = 63, 57%). An intention to monitor progress was indicated in most (n = 94, 85%); however, fewer than half (n = 52, 47%) contained evaluable goals/actions relevant to PA. Descriptions of resourcing/funding arrangements were generally absent or lacked specific commitment (n = 67, 61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study describes current PA-relevant policy in Australia and identifies opportunities for improving coordination, implementation, and evaluation to strengthen a whole-of-system and cross-agency approach to increasing population PA.

14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 44(12): 4048-4056, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of the "duct-interrupted," "corona," and "attraction" signs on MR cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) in distinguishing pancreatic head ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from inflammatory pancreatic pseudomass (IPP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 53 adults (33 men and 20 women, mean age, 55 years; range, 17-87 years) with a pancreatic head mass who underwent MRCP. Three blinded radiologists independently reviewed each MRCP exam and three signs were assessed: (1) the "duct-interrupted" sign, deemed positive for PDAC if the duct within the mass demonstrated complete interruption with upstream dilation; (2) the "corona" sign, considered positive for PDAC if dilated side-branches were located exclusively outside the mass; and (3) the "attraction" sign, deemed positive for IPP if the dilated common bile duct showed attraction and angulation towards the mass. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the signs were calculated, as well as interobserver agreement. RESULTS: Out of 53 masses, 17 (32%) were PDAC and 36 (68%) were IPP. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the "duct-interrupted" sign to differentiate between PDAC from IPP for the three readers were 29-53%, 89-95%, 56-82% and 73-81%, respectively (κ = 0.41); for the "corona" sign, they were 29-53%, 81-100%, 56-100%, and 75-78%, respectively (κ = 0.4), and for the "attraction" sign, they were 20-25%, 71-82%, 64-75%, and 31-34%, respectively (κ = 0.54). CONCLUSION: The "duct-interrupted" and "corona" MRCP signs have high specificity for diagnosing PDAC, while the "attraction" sign has good specificity for identifying IPP.

15.
CMAJ ; 191(26): E733-E736, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266787
16.
Public Health Rep ; 134(3): 293-299, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inactive lifestyles contribute to health problems and premature death and are influenced by the physical environment. The primary objective of this study was to quantify patterns of physical inactivity in New York City and the United States by combining data from surveys and accelerometers. METHODS: We used Poisson regression models and self-reported survey data on physical activity and other demographic characteristics to predict accelerometer-measured inactivity in New York City and the United States among adults aged ≥18. National data came from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. New York City data came from the 2010-2011 New York City Physical Activity and Transit survey. RESULTS: Self-reported survey data indicated no significant differences in inactivity between New York City and the United States, but accelerometer data showed that 53.1% of persons nationally, compared with 23.4% in New York City, were inactive ( P < .001). New Yorkers reported a median of 139 weekly minutes of transportation activity, compared with 0 minutes nationally. Nationally, 50.0% of self-reported activity minutes came from recreation activity, compared with 17.5% in New York City. Regression models indicated differences in the association between self-reported minutes of transportation and recreation and accelerometer-measured inactivity in the 2 settings. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher nationally than in New York City. The largest difference was in walking behavior indicated by self-reported transportation activity. The study demonstrated the feasibility of combining accelerometer and survey measurement and that walkable environments promote an active lifestyle.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pediatr ; 209: 253-253.e1, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853199
18.
Prev Med Rep ; 13: 218-223, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705809

RESUMO

Stair climbing is a readily available form of vigorous-intensity physical activity. Evidence indicates that placing stair prompt signs at points-of-decision (e.g. near elevators and stairways) is an inexpensive, effective strategy for increasing physical activity through stair use. This article aims to share the experience of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) in the outreach and implementation of a population-scale stair prompt initiative, including lessons learned from process evaluations, with other public health authorities conducting a similar program. Between May 2008 and August 2012, NYC DOHMH implemented a stair prompt initiative as one strategy in a comprehensive program to increase physical activity and healthy eating through physical improvements to NYC's buildings, streets and neighborhoods, particularly targeting facilities in underserved and low-income neighborhoods. Program evaluation was conducted using program planning documents to examine the process, and data from NYC information line call center, outreach tracking database, and site and phone audits to examine process outcomes. The initiative successfully distributed more than 30,000 stair prompts to building owners/managers of over 1000 buildings. Keys to success included multi-sector partnerships between NYC's Health Department and non-health government agencies and organizations (such as architecture and real estate organizations), a designated outreach coordinator, and outreach strategies targeting building owners/managers owning/managing multiple buildings and buildings serving underserved and at risk populations. A NYC citywide initiative successfully distributed stair prompts to the wider community to promote population-level health impacts; lessons learned may assist other jurisdictions considering similar initiatives to increase physical activity.

19.
J Relig Health ; 58(3): 870-880, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341709

RESUMO

This descriptive study explored pastors' beliefs about etiology and treatment of mental illness. Surveys were completed by mail by 202 Korean and Euro-American Presbyterian clergy. Nearly one-third of Korean pastors viewed bad parenting and demon possession as very important causes of mental illness, in contrast to the more than two-thirds of Euro-American pastors who viewed genetics and chemical imbalances as the most important causes. Compared with their Euro-American counterparts, Korean pastors soundly endorsed spiritual treatment of mental illness. The findings of this study suggest the value of understanding the views of pastors working with populations that underutilize formal mental health services.

20.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 8(3): 395-403, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870598

RESUMO

BTI320 is a proprietary fractionated mannan polysaccharide being studied for attenuation of postprandial glucose excursion. The apparent blood glucose-lowering effect of this compound is effective in lowering postprandial hyperinsulinemia, participating in the metabolic regulation of other lipid molecules; the consequence of this activity is yet to be validated with BTI320 with respect to the risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary objective of the study was to determine the postprandial glucose and insulin responses to 3 test meals containing rice alone or consumed with BTI320 (study A) or 3 test meals (SpriteTM ) alone or consumed with BTI320 (study B). Twenty overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers, 4 female and 6 male (mean age 29 years, BMI 27-28 kg/m2 ) in study A and 6 female and 4 male (mean age 32 years, BMI 25-32 kg/m2 ) in study B participated in the BTI320 evaluations. Standardized postprandial response methodology was utilized. In study A the addition of 6- and 12-g BTI320 tablets reduced postprandial glucose responses to white rice by 19% and 32% and reduced postprandial insulin responses by 16% and 24%, respectively (P ≤ .05). In study B 2.6 and 5.2 g BTI320 reduced the glycemic index by 10% and 14%, respectively, and led to 14% and 18% decreases in the insulinemic index of the soft drink (P ≤ .05). These 2 studies demonstrated that the consumption of BTI320 before carbohydrate food or sugary beverage significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels and insulin responses to that meal or beverage in a dose-dependent manner.

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