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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126711, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332489

RESUMO

Understanding the interactions between oil and other particles in shoreline can help determine the environmental risk and cleanup strategy after oil spill. Nevertheless, far less has been known regarding the impact of aged MPs on oil behavior in the shoreline environment. In this study, the aging course of polyethylene (PE) in shaking seawater and ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions was investigated. The seawater aging mainly affected the physical properties of MPs, increasing its surface pores and hydrophilicity. UV aging significantly affected both the physical and chemical properties of MPs, which increased its hydrophilicity and crystallinity, decreased its mean particle size and introduced oxygen-containing functional groups onto MPs. The two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) analysis confirmed the evolution of oxygen-containing functional groups from C-O to CO. The effects of aged MPs on oil behavior in water-sand system were further explored. The oil remaining percentages were non-linearly changed with the increasing aging degree of MPs. The particle size of the aqueous phase after washing was inversely related to the oil remaining percentage. Further FTIR analysis revealed that C-O and C-H functional groups played an important role in the process of oil adsorbed on MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Plásticos , Polietileno , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113913, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731942

RESUMO

In-situ burning can be used to prevent oil spreading in oil spill response. In this study, a steady-state Gaussian plume model was applied to analyze the concentration distribution of fine particulate matter produced by in-situ burning, as well as to assess the health risks associated with different combustion methods and ambient conditions, in reference to three simulation scenarios. The spatial and temporal distribution of emission sources can affect the dispersion pattern. The distribution into an array of different burning locations ensures better dispersion of emissions, thereby preventing the formation of high concentration regions. The wind and atmosphere stability play an important role in pollution dispersion. Lower wind and temperature inversion can seriously hinder the diffusion of pollutants. The health risk to technical staff adjacent to the burning areas is a serious concern, and when the community is more than 20 km away from the burning zone, there is few risks. Through simulation, the influences of combustion methods and natural factors on the concentration and diffusion of pollutants are evaluated. The results can help provide an optimized burning strategy for oil spill response in the Arctic area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Vento
3.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813028

RESUMO

Background The availability of age-appropriate, taste-masked oral solid medications for the paediatric population is currently inadequate. We have developed a novel chocolate-based drug delivery platform to taste-mask bitter drugs commonly utilised in the hospital setting, but there is limited evidence regarding parent's perspectives on these medications. Aim To identify key themes regarding parents' perspectives on taste-masked medications that look like confectionary. Additionally, to explore and identify the various barriers and facilitators to using oral medication among the paediatric population.Methods Qualitative descriptive study (July to August 2020) at a single tertiary paediatric hospital (Perth Children's Hospital-PCH). Parents with at least one child (2-18 years) that underwent any elective operation at PCH were included in the study, in total 17 were interviewed. Results The two primary themes that underpinned parent's perspectives on taste-masked medications that look like confectionary were medication safety and taste. Majority of parents supported the use of the proposed medication on the basis that the favourable taste profile will facilitate oral consumption, as opposed to their previous experiences with conventional paediatric medications that do not taste mask the bitter flavour. However, medication safety, in the forms of patient education and appropriate packaging, must be considered to minimise harmful misuse of the proposed medication. Conclusion Participants unanimously support the short-term use of taste-masked medications that look like confectionary, particularly in the hospital setting. However, patient education is highly sought after by parents regarding the role of these medications, to ensure medication safety with their children.

4.
Thromb Res ; 208: 83-91, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the atrial fibrillation (AF) population attending Australian primary care is not receiving guideline-adherent oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment. This study aimed to explore reasons for non-adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines in AF from the perspectives of general practitioners (GPs) and to map these reasons to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model to identify potential opportunities to support practice change. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative descriptive study among GPs practising in Western Australia was conducted using semi-structured interviews, from November 2020 to February 2021. The Framework Method was employed to facilitate thematic analysis, using NVivo software. Interview responses were also mapped to the COM-B model. RESULTS: Nine of the 10 GPs initially consented participated in the semi-structured interview (Male = 56%, median age = 52 years, data saturation reached with 6 participants). Two themes emerged from analysis of the interview transcripts: (1) GPs' decision-making process and (2) Patient refusal to take OACs. The COM-B model mapping identified behavioural factors that could impact adherence: capability (GPs' knowledge and understanding of AF guideline recommendations), opportunity (access to a cardiologist, and patients' refusal to take OACs), and motivation (using formal bleeding risk assessment tools). CONCLUSION: GPs identified various reasons contributing to non-adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines in patients with AF. Multifaceted interventions should consider behavioural opportunities to improve adherence, including education and training, electronic decision support, clinical audits by allied health professionals, partnership between general practices and local hospitals, and cardiologist-led interventions to support GPs. Further studies are needed to capture patients' reasons for refusing OACs.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127825, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836687

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) can interact with spilled oil to form MP-oil-dispersant agglomerates (MODAs) in oceans. This study investigated the MODA formation mechanism and its impact on oil dispersion during marine oil spill responses. Two types of agglomerates, MODA-1 (MP-in-oil) and MODA-2 (MP-oil droplet-embedded), were identified. The 12 µm-MPs only formed MODA-1, while 45 µm-MPs and 125 µm-MPs formed MODA-1 and MODA-2 due to the surface free energy minimization principle. Impacts of MODA on oil dispersion under different mixing energy levels and seawater salinities were explored. We found that MODA reduced oil dispersion effectiveness under different mixing energy levels. Among three MP sizes, 12 µm-MPs caused the greatest reduction in dispersion effectiveness due to the formation of MODA-1. Pristine 12 µm-MPs reduced dispersion effectiveness by 21.95% under 5.62 × 10-1 W/kg, while pristine 45 µm-MPs and pristine 125 µm-MPs decreased it by 5.85% and 1.83%, respectively. In addition, MODA formed by pristine MPs has a larger impact on oil dispersion effectiveness than that of aged MPs under different salinities. Under 20psu, pristine 12 µm-MPs reduced dispersion effectiveness by 33.68%, while aged 12 µm-MPs decreased it by 24.61%. This study is the first report on the MODA formation mechanism, which is essential for exploring MODA transport and toxicity through marine trophic levels.

6.
Environ Technol ; : 1-23, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842051

RESUMO

Recovery of oil spilled on surface waters by the use of sorbents remains one of the primary oil spill response options available. To improve on this response measure, we have successfully fabricated an activated char (AC) sorbent material by pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS), a readily available waste product generated across the world from wastewater treatment plants. The inherent Fe-minerals in SS texture were converted to magnetic Fe3O4 particles during the pyrolysis reaction. The AC provided a unique means to recover the sorbent after the oil sorption process with a magnetic field. Meanwhile, a superhydrophobic sorbent material with a water contact angle of 152.2° was created by the treatment of AC with myristic acid which could float on the water surface. Feasibility studies at the laboratory-scale were conducted with motor oil and light crude oils to evaluate its potential use in spill response operations. Results showed a sorption capacity of about 8.5 and 10.7 g/g for motor oil and light crude oil, respectively. Following the recovery of the test oils by ethanol stripping, the material could be recycled up to 5 times with trivial loss in sorption capacity. This research proposes a framework for the development of a highly efficient sorbent material for oil spill response operations from SS waste.

8.
Radiographics ; 41(7): 2011-2028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623945

RESUMO

Chest, abdominal, and groin pain are common patient complaints that can be due to a variety of causes. Once potentially life-threatening visceral causes of pain are excluded, the evaluation should include musculoskeletal sources of pain from the body wall and core muscles. Percutaneous musculoskeletal procedures play a key role in evaluating and managing pain, although most radiologists may be unfamiliar with applications for the body wall and core muscles. US is ideally suited to guide these less commonly performed procedures owing to its low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time visualization of superficial soft-tissue anatomy. US provides the operator with added confidence that the needle will be placed at the intended location and will not penetrate visceral or vascular structures. The authors review both common and uncommon US-guided procedures targeting various portions of the chest wall, abdominal wall, and core muscles with the hope of familiarizing radiologists with these techniques. Procedures include anesthetic and corticosteroid injection as well as platelet-rich plasma injection to promote tendon healing. Specific anatomic structures discussed include the sternoclavicular joint, costochondral joint, interchondral joint, intercostal nerve, scapulothoracic bursa, anterior abdominal cutaneous nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, iliohypogastric nerve, genitofemoral nerve, pubic symphysis, common aponeurotic plate, and adductor tendon origin. Relevant US anatomy is depicted with MRI correlation, and steps to performing successful safe US-guided injections are discussed. Confidence in performing these procedures will allow radiologists to continue to play an important role in diagnosis and management of many musculoskeletal pathologic conditions. ©RSNA, 2021.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Manejo da Dor , Humanos , Dor Pélvica , Nervos Periféricos
9.
Digit Health ; 7: 20552076211038165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616563

RESUMO

Objective: Currently, active surveillance systems to monitor adverse events following immunisation are limited to hospitals, and medical and immunisation clinics. Globally, community pharmacies represent a significant destination for immunisation services. However, until recently, pharmacies lacked active surveillance systems. We therefore wished to explore pharmacists' experiences with SmartVax: an active surveillance system that has recently been integrated for use in Australian community pharmacies. Specifically, we wished to explore pharmacists' perceived (1) benefits of using SmartVax, (2) areas for improvement in the system, and (3) issues with future/ongoing access to the system. Methods: The present study forms the qualitative arm of a convergent mixed-methods pilot study. In the present study, we performed semi-structured interviews with pharmacist immunisers after a 21- to 22-week trial period with SmartVax. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was performed independently by two researchers in QSR NVivo 12, using the framework method. Results: Fifteen participants completed the semi-structured interviews. A broad range of perceived benefits were cited by participants, including the usability of SmartVax, the ease of patient follow-up facilitated by the system, and enhancement to the patient-pharmacist relationship. Participants voiced a desire for the system to have more granularity and a faster response time in the report generated for pharmacies. When asked about issues with future/ongoing access to SmartVax, cost concerns of the system were the prevailing theme. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, among pharmacist immuniser end-users of SmartVax, the system is perceived to be easy-to-use, facilitates patient follow-up, and enhances the patient-pharmacist relationship.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638565

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy with limited effective treatment options. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors have been shown to efficiently suppress MPM cell growth initially, with limited utility in the current clinical setting. In this study, we utilised a large collection of MPM cell lines and MPM tissue samples to study the role of E-cadherin (CDH1) and microRNA on the efficacy of FAK inhibitors in MPM. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) results showed that the majority of MPM FFPE samples exhibited either the absence of, or very low, E-cadherin protein expression in MPM tissue. We showed that MPM cells with high CDH1 mRNA levels exhibited resistance to the FAK inhibitor PND-1186. In summary, MPM cells that did not express CDH1 mRNA were sensitive to PND-1186, and MPM cells that retained CDH1 mRNA were resistant. A cell cycle analysis showed that PND-1186 induced cell cycle disruption by inducing the G2/M arrest of MPM cells. A protein-protein interaction study showed that EGFR is linked to the FAK pathway, and a target scan of the microRNAs revealed that microRNAs (miR-17, miR221, miR-222, miR137, and miR148) interact with EGFR 3'UTR. Transfection of MPM cells with these microRNAs sensitised the CHD1-expressing FAK-inhibitor-resistant MPM cells to the FAK inhibitor.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma Maligno/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13792-13801, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617733

RESUMO

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout released 3.19 million barrels (435 000 tons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Driven by currents and wind, an estimated 22 000 tons of spilled oil were deposited onto the northeastern Gulf shorelines, adversely impacting the ecosystems and economies of the Gulf coast regions. In this work we present field work conducted at the Gulf beaches in three U.S. States during 2010-2011: Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida, to explore endogenous mechanisms that control persistence and biodegradation of the MC252-oil deposited within beach sediments as deep as 50 cm. The work involved over 1500 measurements incorporating oil chemistry, hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations, nutrient and DO concentrations, and intrinsic beach properties. We found that intrinsic beach capillarity along with groundwater depth provides primary controls on aeration and infiltration of near-surface sediments, thereby modulating moisture and redox conditions within the oil-contaminated zone. In addition, atmosphere-ocean-groundwater interactions created hypersaline sediment environments near the beach surface at all the studied sites. The fact that the oil-contaminated sediments retained near or above 20% moisture content and were also eutrophic and aerobic suggests that the limiting factor for oil biodegradation is the hypersaline environment due to evaporation, a fact not reported in prior studies. These results highlight the importance of beach porewater hydrodynamics in generating unique hypersaline sediment environments that inhibited oil decomposition along the Gulf shorelines following DWH.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Golfo do México , Petróleo/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; : 132628, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687682

RESUMO

The released oil can affect the vulnerable shoreline environment if the oil spills happen in coastal waters. The stranded oil on shorelines is persistent, posing a long-term influence on the intertidal ecosystem after weathering. Therefore, shoreline cleanup techniques are required to remove the oil from the shoreline environment. In this study, a new shoreline cleanup initiative using chitosan/rhamnolipid (CS/RL) complex dispersion with pH-stimulus response was developed for oiled sand cleanup. The results of factorial and single-factor design revealed that the CS/RL complex dispersion maintained high removal efficiency for oiled sand with different levels of oil content in comparison to using rhamnolipid alone. However, the increase of salinity negatively affected the removal efficiency. The electrostatic screening effect of high ionic strength can hinder the formation of the CS/RL complex, and thus reduce removal efficiency. The pH-responsive characteristic of chitosan allows the easy separation of water and oil in washing effluent. The chitosan polyelectrolytes aggregated and precipitated due to the deprotonation of amino groups by adjusting the pH of the washing effluent to above 8. The microscope image demonstrated that the chitosan aggregates wrapped around the oil droplets and settled to the bottom together, thus achieving oil-water separation. Such pH-stimulus response may help achieve an easy oil-water separation after washing. These findings have important implications for developing the new strategies of oil spill response.

14.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine parental understanding of directions on common pediatric prescription pharmacy labels and to identify enablers and barriers that affect interpretation of these labels. METHODS: Prospective qualitative descriptive study (July to August 2020) of 20 parents in post-surgical wards at a single Australian tertiary pediatric center. RESULTS: Four key themes emerged through inductive analysis of the interview transcripts: 1) the addition of specific directions, such as administration with/without food and treatment course duration were perceived to be beneficial; 2) explicit phrasing of dosing intervals and times were more easily interpreted; 3) the use of simpler and common terminology enhanced understanding of the directions; and 4) presentation of multiple-step directions (e.g. tapering regimens) in a simplified and more organized manner was identified as an enabler and was thought to reduce confusion. CONCLUSION: Differences in wording and presentation of pediatric prescription medication label directions led to variable interpretation by parents. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: Therefore, there is a need for guidelines to standardize the wording of prescription medication advice labels. Findings from this study can be used to achieve this goal.

15.
Mol Cell ; 81(22): 4650-4662.e4, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715014

RESUMO

Mutations in ATP13A2, also known as PARK9, cause a rare monogenic form of juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease named Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and other neurodegenerative diseases. ATP13A2 encodes a neuroprotective P5B P-type ATPase highly enriched in the brain that mediates selective import of spermine ions from lysosomes into the cytosol via an unknown mechanism. Here we present three structures of human ATP13A2 bound to an ATP analog or to spermine in the presence of phosphomimetics determined by cryoelectron microscopy. ATP13A2 autophosphorylation opens a lysosome luminal gate to reveal a narrow lumen access channel that holds a spermine ion in its entrance. ATP13A2's architecture suggests physical principles underlying selective polyamine transport and anticipates a "pump-channel" intermediate that could function as a counter-cation conduit to facilitate lysosome acidification. Our findings establish a firm foundation to understand ATP13A2 mutations associated with disease and bring us closer to realizing ATP13A2's potential in neuroprotective therapy.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125919, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492851

RESUMO

The salinity of the upper parts of seashores can become higher than seawater due to evaporation between tidal inundations. Such hypersaline ecosystems, where the salinity can reach up to eight-fold higher than that of seawater (30-35 g/L), can be contaminated by oil spills. Here we investigate whether such an increase has inhibitory effects on oil biodegradation. Seawater was evaporated to a concentrated brine and added to fresh seawater to generate high salinity microcosms. Artificially weathered Hibernia crude oil was added, and biodegradation was followed for 76 days. First-order rate constants (k) for the biodegradation of GC-detectable hydrocarbons showed that the hydrocarbonoclastic activity was substantially inhibited at high salt - k decreased by ~75% at 90 g/L salts and ~90% at 160 g/L salts. This inhibition was greatest for the alkanes, although it extended to all classes of compounds measured, with the smallest effect on four-ring aromatics (e.g., chrysenes). Genera of well-known aerobic hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were only identified at 30 g/L salts in the presence of oil, and only a few halophilic Archaea showed a slight enrichment at higher salt concentrations. These results indicate that biodegradation of spilled oil will likely be slowed in supratidal ecosystems and suggest that occasional irrigation of oiled supratidal zones could be a useful supporting strategy to remediation processes.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos , Água do Mar
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126122, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492916

RESUMO

Biosurfactant-based dispersants (BBDs) may be more effective, cost-efficient and environmentally friendly than dispersants currently used for oil spill response. An improved understanding of BBD performance is needed to advance their development and commercial use. In this study, the ability of four BBDs, i.e. sufactins, trehalose lipids, rhamnolipids and exmulsins, alone and as various combinations to disperse Arabian light crude oil and weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil was compared to a widely used commercial oil dispersant (Corexit 9500A). Surfactin and trehalose lipids, which have balanced surface activity/emulsification ability, showed dispersion efficacy comparable to Corexit 9500A. Rhamnolipids (primarily a surface-active agent) and exmulsins (primarily an emulsifier) when used alone had significantly lower efficacy. However, blends of these surfactants had excellent dispersion performance because of synergistic effects. Balanced surface activity and emulsification ability may be key to formulate effective BBDs. Of the BBDs evaluated, surfactins with an effective dispersant-to-oil ratio as low as 1:62.3 and trehalose lipids with high oil affinity, biodegradation rate, and low toxicity characteristics show the most promise for commercial development.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(5): G449-G460, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523348

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex inflammatory disorder with numerous associated genetic and environmental risk factors. The most distressing characteristic of CP is recalcitrant pain, often requiring surgical resection including total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). We studied five consented subjects undergoing pancreatic resection and processed isolated cells for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq). Using high-dimensional transcriptomic cluster analysis, we identified 11 unique cell clusters in the pancreas tissue. These cell clusters include a cluster of undifferentiated/dedifferentiated cells and two unique clusters of acinar cells, one of which appears to be in a transitional stage. To determine the cellular response to protease inhibitor and stimulation, we treated aliquots of cells from one subject with a protease inhibitor cocktail with and without bethanechol (a muscarinic receptor agonist) at 100 and 400 µM and compared gene expression profiles. The protease inhibitors appeared to reduce cell stress. Pancreatic digestive enzymes and islet hormones were upregulated in both doses of bethanechol-treated cells compared with naïve cells. High-dose bethanechol appeared to be toxic and consistent with hyperstimulation. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of investigating human acinar cell physiology at the single-cell level and initial evidence that these cells retain responsiveness to agonist stimulation with predicted second messenger and transcriptomic responses.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We conducted single cell RNA sequencing on pancreas tissue from five individuals. We identified eleven unique cell clusters including a large population of dedifferentiated cells as well as two unique clusters of acinar cells, one of which appears to exist in a transitional state. We also examined the cellular response of pancreas tissue to stimulation and identified affected genes and pathways, including pancreatic digestive enzymes.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Células Acinares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Acinares/patologia , Desdiferenciação Celular , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Pancreatite Crônica/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149234, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346356

RESUMO

Marine oil spills are often reported as a result of activities associated with oil exploration, production and transportation. The spilled oil may reach the shoreline, and then the stranded oil can persist for a long time, exerting many negative effects on coastal ecosystems. Conventional shoreline cleanup methods cannot effectively remove the oil residues from affected areas and are very expensive. Therefore, the use of alginate hydrogel coatings was proposed as a new initiative for emergent shoreline oiling prevention. The alginate hydrogel-coated gravels showed high surface roughness, as well as remarkable water wetting and low-oil-adhesion properties. There was a low oil adhesion on the coated gravels in the continuous test with oil/water emulsion flow, indicating the excellent oil-repellent properties of the coated substrate. The results of batch oil-repellent tests showed that independent of the kind or weathering degree of the oil used, oil can be easily washed out from the coated gravels. The coated gravels had good environmental stability and the slightly partial de-crosslinking of alginate structure would not reduce the oil repellence performance. Moreover, the performance of the alginate hydrogel-coated gravel was further proved with a laboratory shoreline tank simulator, in which more stranded oil floated to the water surface and less oil remained on gravels and entered into subsurface. This proposed oiling prevention method can be used not only for shorelines but also for coastal piers, seaports, and solid manmade shorelines. The coating material is derived from the biomass in the ocean and can be degraded under natural conditions. This study may provide a unique direction for the future development of green oil spill control strategy.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alginatos , Ecossistema , Hidrogéis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Thromb Res ; 205: 128-136, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines on atrial fibrillation management help optimize the use of oral anticoagulants. However, guideline non-adherence is common, particularly in the primary care setting. The primary aim of this systematic review was to identify effective strategies for improving adherence to guideline-directed thromboprophylaxis to patients with atrial fibrillation in the primary care setting. METHODS: A search was conducted on 6 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, the Cumulative Indexing of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science) supplemented by a Google advanced search. Studies aimed at improving oral thromboprophylaxis guideline adherence in patients with atrial fibrillation, in the primary care setting, were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 33 studies were included in this review. Nine studies employed electronic decision support (EDS), of which 4 reported modest improvements in guideline adherence. Five of 6 studies that utilized local guidelines as quality improvement measures reported improvement in guideline adherence. All 5 studies that employed coordinated care and the use of specialist support and 4 of the 5 studies that involved pharmacist-led interventions reported improvements in guideline adherence. Interventions based mainly on feedback from audits were less effective. CONCLUSIONS: Multifaceted interventions, especially those incorporating coordinated care and specialist support, pharmacists, or local adaptations to and implementation of national and/or international guidelines appear to be more consistently effective in improving guideline adherence in the primary care setting than interventions based mainly on EDS and feedback from audits.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
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