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1.
Harmful Algae ; 89: 101671, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672230

RESUMO

Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their macroalgal substrate hosts is believed to shape the tendency of substrate preferences and habitat specialization. This was supported by studies that manifested epiphytic preferences and behaviors in Gambierdiscus species toward different macroalgal hosts. To further examine the supposition, a laboratory-based experimental study was conducted to examine the growth, epiphytic behaviors and host preferences of three Gambierdiscus species towards four macroalgal hosts over a culture period of 40 days. The dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus balechii, G. caribaeus, and a new ribotype, herein designated as Gambierdiscus type 7 were initially identified based on the thecal morphology and molecular characterization. Our results showed that Gambierdiscus species tested in this study exhibited higher growth rates in the presence of macroalgal hosts. Growth responses and attachment behaviors, however, differed among different species and strains of Gambierdiscus over different macroalgal substrate hosts. Cells of Gambierdiscus mostly attached to substrate hosts at the beginning of the experiments but detached at the later time. Localized Gambierdiscus-host interactions, as demonstrated in this study, could help to better inform efforts of sampling and monitoring of this benthic toxic dinoflagellate.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Dinoflagelados , Alga Marinha , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia
2.
Harmful Algae ; 83: 95-108, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097256

RESUMO

Thirteen isolates of Prorocentrum species were established from the coral reefs of Perhentian Islands Marine Park, Malaysia and underwent morphological observations and molecular characterization. Six species were found: P. caipirignum, P. concavum, P. cf. emarginatum, P. lima, P. mexicanum and a new morphotype, herein designated as P. malayense sp. nov. Prorocentrum malayense, a species closely related to P. leve, P. cf. foraminosum, P. sp. aff. foraminossum, and P. concavum (Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. 2018), is distinguished from its congeners as having larger thecal pore size and a more deeply excavated V-shaped periflagellar area. Platelet arrangement in the periflagellar area of P. malayense is unique, with the presence of platelet 1a and 1b, platelet 2 being the most anterior platelet, and a broad calabash-shaped platelet 3. The species exhibits consistent genetic sequence divergences for the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). The phylogenetic inferences further confirmed that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to species in Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of compensatory base changes (CBCs). Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of okadaic acid in P. lima (1.0-1.6 pg cell-1) and P. caipirignum (3.1 pg cell-1); this is the first report of toxigenic P. caipirignum in the Southeast Asian region. Other Prorocentrum species tested, including the new species, however, were below the detection limit.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , DNA Ribossômico , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
3.
Harmful Algae ; 78: 56-68, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196925

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the effect of fine-scale habitat differences on the dynamics of benthic harmful dinoflagellate assemblages. To determine how these microhabitat differences affect the distribution and abundance of the major benthic harmful dinoflagellate genera in a tropical coral reef ecosystem, a field study was undertaken between April-September 2015 and January 2016 on the shallow reef flat of the fringing reef of Rawa Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sampling of benthic dinoflagellates was carried out using an artificial substrate sampling method (fiberglass screens). Benthic microhabitats surrounding the sampling screens were characterized simultaneously from photographs of a 0.25-m2 quadrat based on categories of bottom substrate types. Five taxonomic groups of benthic dinoflagellates, Ostreopsis, Gambierdiscus, Prorocentrum, Amphidinium, and Coolia were identified, and cells were enumerated using a light microscope. The results showed Gambierdiscus was less abundant than other genera throughout the study period, with maximum abundance of 1.2 × 103 cells 100 cm-2. While most taxa were present on reefs with high coral cover, higher cell abundances were observed in reefs with high turf algal cover and coral rubble, with the exception of Ostreopsis, where the abundance reached a maximum of 3.4 × 104 cells 100 cm-2 in habitats with high coral cover. Microhabitat heterogeneity was identified as a key factor governing the benthic harmful dinoflagellate assemblages and may account for much of the observed variability in dominant taxa. This finding has significant implications for the role of variability in the benthic harmful algal bloom (BHAB) outbreaks and the potential in identifying BHAB-related toxin transfer pathways and the key vectors in the food webs.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Biota , Malásia , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(23): 22944-22962, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858995

RESUMO

Effects of aquaculture activities on the environmental parameters and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in a semi-enclosed lagoon located at Semerak River, Malaysia. Elevated concentrations of phosphate and ammonia were observed at the aquaculture area and the inner lagoon. Relatively low dissolved oxygen, high total chlorophyll a, and high phytoplankton abundances but low species richness were recorded. Chaetoceros, Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, Blixaea quinquecornis, and Skeletonema blooms were observed, and some were associated with anoxia condition. Eutrophication level assessed by UNTRIX suggests that the water quality in the lagoon is deteriorating. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen at the impacted area were 15 and 12 times higher than the reference sites, respectively. Such trophic status indices could provide a useful guideline for optimal aquaculture management plan to reduce the environmental impact caused by aquaculture.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Eutrofização , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Qualidade da Água , Amônia/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Malásia , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios/química
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