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1.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(5S): S214-S226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054748

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE)-deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism-is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The mainstay of VTE prophylaxis and therapy is anticoagulation. In select patients with VTE, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are used to prevent pulmonary embolism by trapping emboli as they pass from the lower extremity venous system through the IVC. These guidelines review the indications for placement of IVC filters in acute and chronic VTE, as well as the indications for retrieval of implanted IVC filters. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

2.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 15(5S): S2-S12, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724423

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common vascular problem that can be treated with either open, surgical repair or endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Both approaches to AAA repair require dedicated preoperative imaging to minimize adverse outcomes. After EVAR, cross-sectional imaging has an integral role in confirming the successful treatment of the AAA and early detection of complications related to EVAR. CT angiography is the primary imaging modality for both preoperative planning and follow-up after repair. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
3.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 14(11S): S506-S529, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101989

RESUMO

Obtaining central venous access is one of the most commonly performed procedures in hospital settings. Multiple devices such as peripherally inserted central venous catheters, tunneled central venous catheters (eg, Hohn catheter, Hickman catheter, C. R. Bard, Inc, Salt Lake City UT), and implantable ports are available for this purpose. The device selected for central venous access depends on the clinical indication, duration of the treatment, and associated comorbidities. It is important for health care providers to familiarize themselves with the types of central venous catheters available, including information about their indications, contraindications, and potential complications, especially the management of catheters in the setting of catheter-related bloodstream infections. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
4.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 14(11S): S530-S539, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101990

RESUMO

Iliac artery occlusive disease can present as a sudden-onset acute thrombotic or thromboembolic event or as a chronic progressive atherosclerotic process that presents as claudication progressing to rest pain. Depending on the clinical presentation, the diagnosis is usually confirmed through Doppler vascular ultrasound, CT angiography, or MR angiography; the choice of imaging is usually based on modality availability and the presence of patient comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease. The Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II classification system is commonly used to describe the extent of the peripheral vascular disease. Depending on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and radiologic extent of the disease process, therapeutic options for acute thrombotic cases can include supportive care, anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy, surgical or catheter-directed mechanical thrombectomy, and surgical bypass. Therapeutic options for atherosclerotic disease include supportive measures such as behavior modification, a supervised exercise program, adjunctive treatment with anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications, angioplasty, stent placement, stent-graft placement, surgical or catheter-directed endarterectomy or plaque excision, and surgical bypass. This document describes the appropriateness of imaging in this patient population, treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios, and the likely prognosis for these patients. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Artéria Ilíaca , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Prognóstico , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
5.
Radiology ; 244(2): 399-410, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17641363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the incremental diagnostic value of time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography over single-phase 3D MR angiography and cine MR imaging in juvenile and adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was HIPAA compliant and was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Eighty-one consecutive patients (46 male and 35 female patients; mean age, 31.1 years +/- 13.5 [standard deviation]) with CHD were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging unit. The imaging protocol comprised time-resolved MR angiography (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 2.01/0.81) after injection of 0.03 mmol gadodiamide per kilogram of body weight at 4 mL/sec and single-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography (2.87/0.97) after injection of 0.15 mmol/kg gadodiamide at 1.5 mL/sec. After review of the time-resolved and conventional MR angiographic data sets, each of two independent observers listed the additional clinical information gained from time-resolved MR angiographic data. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to test for statistical differences between the image quality ratings of the two observers. RESULTS: Time-resolved and single-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography yielded diagnostic image data in all patients. Observers 1 and 2 found functional information in time-resolved MR angiographic series in 52 and 51 patients, respectively, that was not seen at high-spatial-resolution MR angiography. Intra- and extracardiac shunts, respectively, were exclusively depicted by time-resolved MR angiography for observer 1 in 18 and two patients and for observer 2 in 15 and two patients. However, both observers reported higher confidence in the assessment of such smaller vascular structures as supraaortic vessels (in 12 patients for observer 1 and 11 patients for observer 2) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (in eight patients for observer 1 and 10 patients for observer 2) at high-spatial-resolution MR angiography. No significant difference was evident in image quality scoring between the two observers (P = .32 for time-resolved and P = .47 for conventional MR angiography). CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional MR angiography, time-resolved MR angiography yields clinically relevant information in a substantial number of patients; hence, the two techniques should be regarded as complementary.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Imagem Tridimensional , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Gadolínio DTPA , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
Radiology ; 243(3): 837-46, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17517937

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine if controlled apnea improves the image quality of contrast material--enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the chest and abdomen in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. The authors evaluated contrast-enhanced MR angiographic procedures performed in the chest, abdomen, or both, in 23 children (14 boys, nine girls; age range, 1 month to 8 years) who were under general anesthesia. All patients underwent mechanical ventilation with preoxygenation (100% oxygen) prior to controlled apnea during image acquisition. In control subjects, the authors assessed contrast-enhanced MR angiographic procedures performed in the chest, abdomen, or both, in 23 children (matched for age and type of study with children in the controlled apnea group; 11 boys, 12 girls; age range, 1 month to 8 years) who were under general anesthesia (n=15) or deep sedation (n=8) and were breathing spontaneously during image acquisition. MR angiograms of the chest, abdomen, or both, were assessed for image quality, motion artifacts, and vessel definition by two radiologists working in consensus with a subjective grading scale. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences in measurements. RESULTS: Image quality was rated excellent in 97% (30 of 31) of studies with controlled apnea and in 30% (nine of 31) of control studies (P<.001). Motion artifacts were absent in 97% (30 of 31) of studies with controlled apnea and 13% (four of 31) of control studies (P<.001). Vessel sharpness was rated as being significantly better on images obtained with controlled apnea (P<.05). There were no complications caused by anesthesia or sedation in either group. CONCLUSION: Controlled apnea is highly effective in children for eliminating respiratory motion artifacts with contrast-enhanced MR angiographic studies, resulting in greatly improved image quality and spatial resolution.


Assuntos
Abdome/patologia , Artefatos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imobilização/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mecânica Respiratória , Tórax/patologia , Apneia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 25(4): 384-9, 2007 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17264334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identify features on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans to predict suboptimal primary cytoreduction in patients treated for advanced ovarian cancer in institution A. Reciprocally cross validate the predictors identified with those from two previously published cohorts from institutions B and C. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Preoperative CT scans from patients with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent primary cytoreduction in institution A between 1999 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed by radiologists blinded to surgical outcome. Fourteen criteria were assessed. Crossvalidation was performed by applying predictive model A to the patients from cohorts B and C, and reciprocally applying predictive models B and C to cohort A. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients from institution A were included. The rate of optimal cytoreduction ( 1 cm residual disease) was 78%. Diaphragm disease and large bowel mesentery implants were the only CT predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction on univariate (P < .02) and multivariate analysis (P < .02). In combination (model A), these predictors had a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 75%, and an accuracy of 77% for suboptimal cytoreduction. When model A was applied to cohorts B and C, accuracy rates dropped to 34% and 64%, respectively. Reciprocally, models B and C had accuracy rates of 93% and 79% in their original cohorts, which fell to 74% and 48% in cohort A. CONCLUSION: The high accuracy rates of CT predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction in the original cohorts could not be confirmed in the cross validation. Preoperative CT predictors should be used with caution when deciding between surgical cytoreduction and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasia Residual , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Radiology ; 241(2): 528-37, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17005775

RESUMO

The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. The purpose was to retrospectively evaluate remote control magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in complex cardiovascular procedures, whereby operational expertise was made available locally from a remote location. Thirty patients underwent cardiac (12 patients) and/or vascular (30 patients) 1.5-T MR imaging with a remote operator by using a personal computer. All patient studies were compared with 30 control studies obtained with conventional local imaging. Cardiac cine, myocardial delayed enhancement, and MR angiograms were assessed for overall image quality and motion artifact. MR angiograms were evaluated for vascular definition. Image quality was excellent in 90% (38 of 42) of remote images versus 60% (25 of 42) of control group images (P < .01). Scores for motion artifact were not significantly different (P = .11). Interactive MR imaging was successfully implemented with remote control in complex cardiovascular cases; diagnostic quality of images was superior to that of images obtained locally.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artefatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcomputadores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Radiology ; 240(3): 858-68, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16837670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the technical feasibility of both high-spatial-resolution and time-resolved contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the pulmonary circulation at 3.0 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All examinations were HIPAA compliant. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, time-resolved and high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the pulmonary circulation was performed with a 3.0-T MR system in 31 adults (13 men, 18 women; age range, 29-87 years old): 22 volunteers and nine patients (two with mediastinal masses, seven with pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH]). The image quality of pulmonary arterial branches and parenchymal enhancement conspicuity were evaluated independently by two radiologists. The signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative analysis of perfusion parameters was performed. Statistical analysis of data was performed by using Wilcoxon rank sum test and two-sample Student t test, and interobserver variability was tested with kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Visualization up to fourth-order pulmonary arterial branches was observed on time-resolved MR angiograms and that up to fifth-order branches was observed on high-spatial-resolution MR angiograms, with diagnostic-quality blood vessel definition and good interobserver agreement. Evaluation of parenchymal enhancement and semiquantitative analysis of perfusion parameters yielded dynamic information in all subjects. Comparative analysis of definition scores for fourth- and fifth-order pulmonary arterial branches, parenchymal enhancement, the time lag between the pulmonary arterial and parenchymal enhancement, and all of the calculated perfusion indices in patients with PAH showed statistically significant differences from volunteers (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the pulmonary circulation was feasible at 3.0 T and provided high vascular morphologic detail and dynamic functional information. Clearly detectable abnormalities were present in patients with PAH.


Assuntos
Angiografia/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio DTPA , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Circulação Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Semin Intervent Radiol ; 23(3): 240-8, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21326770

RESUMO

Transcatheter arterial embolization has become a major treatment modality in a variety of clinical applications, including management of bleeding related to a broad spectrum of obstetric and gynecologic disorders. Embolotherapy has a well-documented role in the management of pelvic and genital tract hemorrhage in the postpartum and postoperative/postcesarean setting. It is also an integral part in the treatment armamentarium of abdominal and cervical ectopic pregnancy, arteriovenous malformation, and gynecologic neoplasms, including more recently, uterine leiomyomata. Based on experiences accumulated over the past decades, embolotherapy has been proven to be highly effective with success rate in the 90 to 100% range in the appropriate clinical settings. It provides visualization of the bleeding site and enables targeted, minimally invasive therapy to achieve hemostasis, which allows preservation of the uterus and hence fertility. In hospitals where experienced personnel and technology is available, transcatheter arterial embolization should be considered in the emergent management of obstetric and gynecologic hemorrhage, particularly when local and conservative measures fail to attain hemostasis.

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