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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349329

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritus and cutaneous dry skin. Here, we investigated whether topical application of NI-01 composed of six herbal medicines has a therapeutic effect on AD in vivo. Twelve marker compounds of NI-01 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector for quality control. To induce AD, house dust mite extract was applied to the shaved dorsal skin and ear surfaces of NC/Nga mice twice a week for 6 weeks. NI-01 (1, 2, or 4 mg/mouse) was applied daily to the site for experiment periods. The coefficient of determination of each compound showed good linearity (≥ 0.9999). The recovery rate of the 12 marker components was 96.77%-105.17%; intra and interday precision and repeatability were ≤ 1.40%. Topical application of NI-01 reduced house dust mite induced AD symptoms. The increased expressions of interleukin-4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 caused by house dust mites were markedly suppressed in NI-01-treated mice. Corticosterone levels significantly decreased, whereas serotonin levels increased with NI-01 application. These results suggest that NI-01 alleviates AD symptoms by inhibiting infiltration of inflammatory cells, thereby decreasing AD-related stress. NI-01 could be beneficial for the treatment of AD-like skin diseases.

2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327462

RESUMO

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare and unusual cancer that arises from sustentacular cells of the lymph node that present antigen to B cells, rather than lymphocytes themselves. While surgery for primary disease is still paramount in primary management, for unresectable, recurrent and metastatic tumours, FDCS is frequently treated with anthracycline-based lymphoma chemotherapy regimens. In recent years, it is clear that Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD1)-directed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are active in Hodgkin lymphoma, but significantly less active in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These data raised the question of whether FDCS respond to ICI therapy. We present two patients with FDCS who were treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab with evidence of tumour response. These cases also highlight the difficulty in arriving at a proper diagnosis, emphasising the need for expert review of pathology to optimise treatment for these and other patients with sarcoma.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A persistent issue in cancer drug development is the discordance between robust antitumor drug activity observed in laboratory models and the limited benefit frequently observed when patients are treated with the same agents in clinical trials. Difficulties in accurately modeling the complexities of human tumors may underlie this problem. To address this issue, we developed Comparative In Vivo Oncology (CIVO), which enables in situ investigation of multiple microdosed drugs simultaneously in a patient's tumor. This study was designed to test CIVO's safety and feasibility in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a single arm, prospective, 13-patient pilot study. Patients scheduled for incisional biopsy or tumor resection were CIVO-injected 1 to 3 days prior to surgery. Saline or microdoses of anticancer agents were percutaneously injected into the tumor in a columnar fashion through each of eight needles. Following excision, drug responses were evaluated in the injected tissue. RESULTS: The primary objective was met, establishing CIVO's feasibility and safety. Device-related adverse events were limited to transient grade 1 nonserious events. In addition, biomarker evaluation of localized tumor response to CIVO microinjected drugs by IHC or with NanoString GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler demonstrated consistency with known mechanisms of action of each drug, impact on the tumor microenvironment, and historic clinical activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results are an advance toward use of CIVO as a translational research tool for early evaluation of investigational agents and drug combinations in a novel approach to phase 0 trials.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112551, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923540

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bojungikki-tang is a traditional herbal medicine used to boost immunity and reduce fatigue. However, there is not enough scientific evidence about its toxicological safety profile to support its continued clinical application. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to investigate the subchronic toxicity profile of Bojungikki-tang water extract (BITW) in Sprague Dawley rats who were exposed to it in multiple doses and various concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BITW was administered to rats orally, once daily at doses of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. We checked toxicological parameters including general observations, organ/body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological signs, hematological and serum biochemical values, urinalysis values and histopathological findings. RESULTS: The 13 week repeated oral administration of BITW to rats at doses at doses levels of less than or equal to 2000 mg/kg/day caused no significant toxicological changes and only minor nonsignificant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that administration of BITW for up to 13 weeks may be safe and nontoxic, with a no-observed-adverse-effect-level of >2000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175714

RESUMO

BACKGRUND: Magnesium deficiency common in obesity is known to promote chronic low-grade inflammation and aggravate asthma symptoms; however, the effects of magnesium supplementation in obese asthmatic patients have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of magnesium co-administration with dexamethasone on airway inflammation in obese mice. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic reactions, challenged with aerosolized OVA, and administered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg) with or without magnesium. Bronchial inflammation was analyzed based on the presence of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, total and OVA-specific IgE in serum, goblet cells ratios, bronchial wall thickness, and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. RESULTS: In obese mice, co-administration of magnesium and dexamethasone decreased IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and total and OVA-specific IgE in serum, and reduced α-smooth muscle actin-positive areas in the bronchi compared with mice treated with dexamethasone alone. However, no differences were observed in dexamethasone-treated normal-weight mice depending on magnesium supplementation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that magnesium increases immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone in airway inflammation aggravated by obesity, suggesting that magnesium supplementation may have a potential in alleviating asthma symptoms in obese patients with reduced responses to corticosteroids.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223325

RESUMO

Ssanghwa-tang (SHT), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to recover fatigue or consumptive disease after an illness. Along with much attention to herbal formula, the concerns about the safety and toxicity have arisen. To establish the safety information, SHT was administrated in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats at a daily dose of 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg for 4 weeks. During the test periods, we examined the mortality, clinical observation, body weight change, food consumption, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No changes of mortality and necropsy findings occurred in any of the groups during the experimental period. In either sex of rats treated with SHT at 5000 mg/kg/day, changes were observed in food intake, reticulocyte, total bilirubin, some urinalysis parameters, and relative organ weights. The results indicated that SHT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. This dosage was considered no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and was appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 240: 111913, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091465

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gyejibokryeong-hwan is a traditional herbal medicine and is reported to have various pharmacological actions. Despite many reports of previous studies, there is limited scientific evidence concerning its safety and few drug-metabolism profiles to support the continued therapeutic application of Gyejibokryeong-hwan. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute and subacute toxicity profile of a Gyejibokryeong-hwan water extract (GBHW) in vivo, and its effects on the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute and subacute toxicity was evaluated by giving GBHW to rats. In a study of acute toxicity, the rats were given GBHW by single oral gavage administration at 0 and 5000 mg/kg. In a study of subacute toxicity, rats were given GBHW by oral gavage at 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg/day daily for 28 days. The activities of the major human microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes were investigated using fluorescence- and luminescence-based enzyme assays in vitro, respectively. RESULTS: GBHW did not cause any mortality in the study of acute toxicity. In the study of subacute toxicity, GBHW at more than 2000 mg/kg/day was observed with minor changes in the absolute and relative organ weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis parameters in rats of either sex. However, these changes were not considered to be important toxicologically. GBHW moderately inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1. CONCLUSIONS: Our present data suggest that GBHW does not cause toxicologically important adverse events at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day in the 4-week repeated dose toxicity study and provide valuable information concerning its potential to interact with conventional medicine.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Água/química
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142482

RESUMO

We describe a case of a 44-year-old woman with locally advanced aggressive angiomyxoma with a novel translocation high-mobility group AT-hook 2-yes-associated protein 1 (HMGA2-YAP1) fusion, implying a t(11;12)(q22.1;q14.3) translocation. She was started on gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist injection and an aromatase inhibitor for persistent disease, which responded to treatment; she was subsequently treated with radiation before a more definitive operation was conducted. This case report indicates that HGMA2-YAP1-translocated aggressive angiomyxoma is responsive to oestrogen antagonism and hopefully will allow for the development of diagnostics useful for this rare but often morbid neoplasm. This case also highlights the importance of appropriate workup of a soft tissue mass.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Mixoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias Vulvares/genética , Adulto , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mixoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mixoma/cirurgia , Doenças Raras , Translocação Genética/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Vulvares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Vulvares/cirurgia
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111852, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammatory and viral diseases. However, the safety of Yongdamsagan-tang has not been established. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the subacute toxicity of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the subacute toxicity of YSTE in male and female Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (n = 5 per group). Rats were treated with YSTE at doses of 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg administered once a day by oral gavage for 4 weeks. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mortality, body weight, food intake, serum biochemistry, or results of hematology and urinalysis after YSTE administration. However, all rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE exhibited excessive salivation and discolored urine. Necropsy findings showed discoloration in the liver of both male (n = 1) and female (n = 3) rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE, and an increase in the relative weights of kidney and liver was also found in male rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day. In addition, decreases in serum creatinine, total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were observed in male rats treated with 2000 or 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in some rats are considered to be independent of YSTE toxicity. Therefore, the results suggest that oral administration of YSTE in rats for 4 weeks is safe at doses of up to 5000 mg/kg/day.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
10.
Melanoma Res ; 29(1): 70-76, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169431

RESUMO

Under current AJCC staging criteria, stage IIC patients paradoxically have worse outcomes than IIIA patients despite the lack of nodal metastatic disease. This study sought to identify additional clinicopathologic characteristics correlated with worse patient outcomes. Retrospective chart review of stage IIC and IIIA melanoma patients were evaluated between 1995 and 2011 with clinical follow-up through 2015. Records were reviewed for demographics, clinical characteristics, and tumor pathology. Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test were used to assess group differences. Clinicopathologic features were evaluated relative to overall survival (OS), time to distant metastases, and local/regional recurrence. Overall, 128 patients were included (45 stage IIC and 83 stage IIIA) with a median follow-up time of 5.7 years. Compared with stage IIIA patients, stage IIC patients were older, and their melanomas were more likely to be nodular, amelanotic, thicker, have higher mitotic rate, tumor lymphocytic infiltrate, no radial growth phase, and less likely to have associated precursor lesions. Stage IIC patients had shorter OS and time to distant metastases; multivariate regression revealed that older age (>55 years) and mitotic rate (>5 mitoses/mm) were independent predictors of OS. Melanomas in stage IIC disease may be biologically distinct from those that are seen in stage IIIA. While sentinel node biopsies remain the standard-of-care, these results suggest that clinicians may want to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics described above to aggressively counsel, screen for distant disease, and consider adjuvant therapy, in particular for older patients and higher mitotic rates in thicker primary tumors, regardless of nodal status.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228826

RESUMO

We had tested antiobesity effect of 52 traditional herbal formulas in 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) was chosen as one of the effective medications to inhibit triglyceride accumulation. We investigated the antiobesity effect of BHSST on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. In addition, we evaluated the acute toxicity of BHSST in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of BHSST for 8 days. Accumulated triglyceride level and the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and proteins were subsequently investigated. To evaluate the single oral toxicity of BHSST, the SD rats of each sex were administered a single dose (5000 mg/kg) of BHSST via oral gavage; the control group received vehicle only. After a single administration, the mortality, clinical signs, gross findings, and body weight were monitored for 15 days. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 4 weeks to induce obesity and randomly received 50 mg/kg of Orlistat (n=12, OR), 200 mg/kg of BHSST (n=12, B200), and 1000 mg/kg of BHSST (n=12, B1000) for another 8 weeks. BHSST suppressed the triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. BHSST also downregulated the adipogenesis-related gene levels and protein expression compared with those in undifferentiated adipocytes. In a single oral dose toxicity study, there was no adverse effect on mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, and gross findings in the treatment group. HFD-fed mice treated with BHSST showed significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and white adipose tissue weight. The medial lethal dose (LD50) of BHSST was 5000 mg/kg/day body weight for each sex in the rats. BHSST decreased the body weight gain in HFD-fed obese mice and inhibited triglyceride accumulation via a cascade of multiple factors at the mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

12.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 98: 88-97, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026136

RESUMO

Oryeong-san is a traditional herbal formula that is used for the treatment of common genitourinary diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its safety and influence on drug metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the subacute toxicity of an Oryeong-san water extract (OSWE) in rats and its effects on activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Subacute toxicity was modeled in animals exposed to treatment with the extract at multiple doses. Rats were given OSWE by oral gavage at 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We checked general observations and investigated any changes of body/organ weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis in vivo; and the activities of human microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes in vitro. We found that OSWE caused no significant toxicological changes at the doses tested. Therefore, the no observed adverse effect level of OSWE was more than 5000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats. OSWE inhibited the activities of CYP2C19 (IC50: 737.69 µg/mL) and CYP2E1 (IC50: 177.77 µg/mL). These results indicate that OSWE may be safe with no drug-related toxicity for up to 4 weeks and provide useful information concerning its potential to interact with conventional drugs or other herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 224: 441-450, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920360

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional herbal formula Gyejibokryeong-hwan (GJBRH; Guizhifuling-wan, Keishibukuryo-gan) consisting five medicinal herbs has been used to treat uterine disorders, gynecological diseases and blood stasis syndrome in Asia. AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the safety of GJBRH in Crl:CD Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats over a period of 13 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To confirm the stability of the components of GJBRH, we analyzed the component contents in GJBRH at different storage periods, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Male and female SD rats were orally administered with GJBRH at doses of 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks and assessed after a 4-week recovery period. Mortality, changes in body weight and food consumption, organ weights, hematology and serum biochemistry were monitored during the experimental period, along with clinical observations, ophthalmological examinations, urinalysis and histopathology. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the eight marker compounds in GJBRH according to storage period. No significant GJBRH-treatment-related toxicological changes were observed in mortality or ophthalmological examinations in either sex. However, soft feces were observed in the male 5000 mg/kg/day group. In addition, there were significant changes in body weight and food consumption in both male and female rats treated with GJBRH at a dose of 5000 mg/kg/day. In the hematological examinations, we found a significant increase in white blood cells, neutrophils and fibrinogen in the 5000 mg/kg/day groups. In the urinalysis, a decrease in the total protein and albumin and an increase in the ovalbumin/globulin ratio were observed in both male and female rats treated with GJBRH at a dose of 5000 mg/kg/day. Histopathological examinations revealed erosion/ulcers and dilated glands in the stomachs of males from the 5000 mg/kg/day group, and squamous cell hyperplasia and epithelial atrophy was observed in the stomachs of both male and female rats treated with GJBRH at a dose of 5000 mg/kg/day. CONCLUSION: The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 2000 mg/kg/day for both sexes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Animais , Atrofia/induzido quimicamente , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Hiperplasia/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
14.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690562

RESUMO

The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa against various diseases, their effects against BPH have not been reported. Here, we investigated the inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) against BPH, and its underlying mechanisms regarding cell growth of BPH using BPH-1 cells. An in vitro 5α-reductase activity assay showed that EEER exhibited inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase. In BPH-1 cells, EEER treatment inhibited cell viability and reduced the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and phosphor-ERK1/2 proteins. Moreover, EEER also induced apoptosis, with chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Regarding its underlying mechanisms, EEER exacerbated the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually caused the cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EEER had a potent 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and that EEER treatment in BPH-1 cells inhibited cell viability via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, EEER may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Evodia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Evodia/química , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Próstata/enzimologia , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/enzimologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 218: 109-115, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501675

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Paljung-san is a traditional herbal medicine used widely for the treatment of urogenital diseases in East Asia. However, scientific evidence of the efficacy of Paljung-san and its mechanisms of action against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not clearly established. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the inhibitory effect of Paljung-san water extract (PSWE) and its mechanisms against BPH in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Active compounds of PSWE were analyzed quantitatively by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For in vitro study, PSWE treated BPH-1 cells were used to perform western blot analysis, cell cycle analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For in vivo BPH model, male rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP) every day for four weeks. 200 and 500 mg/kg of PSWE was administrated daily by oral gavage with s.c. injection of TP, respectively. RESULTS: HPLC revealed that PSWE contains 1.21, 1.18, 2.27, 3.56, 4.23, 3.00, 6.78, and 0.004 mg/g of gallic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, geniposide, liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin, and chrysophanol components, respectively. In human BPH-1 cells, PSWE treatment reduced cell proliferation through arresting the cell cycle in the DNA synthesis phase. Moreover, PSWE suppressed prostaglandin E2 production with reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. In TP -induced BPH rat model, PSWE administration showed reduced prostate weights and dihydrotestosterone levels and led to a restoration of normal prostate morphology. PSWE also decreased TP-induced Ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein levels in the prostatic tissues. Decreased glutathione reductase activity and increased malondialdehyde levels in the BPH groups were reversed by PSWE administration. CONCLUSION: PSWE attenuates the progression of BPH through anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, these data provide the scientific evidence of pharmacological efficacy of PSWE against BPH.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 21, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gyejibokryeong-hwan (Guizhi Fuling Wan in China), a mixture of five herbal plants, is a well-known treatment for renal diseases including those associated with climacteric syndrome. However, the genotoxicity of Gyejibokryeong-hwan has not yet been well established. METHODS: The present study investigated that the genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of Gyejibokryeong-hwan (GJBRHE): an in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells, an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mouse bone marrow. RESULTS: GJBRHE with or without the S9 mix showed no genotoxicity in the Ames test up to 5000 µg/plate or in the in vivo MN test up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. In contrast, the chromosomal aberration test showed that GJBRHE induced an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations compared with the control after treatment for 6 h with 4200 µg/mL GJBRHE in the presence of the S9 mix and for 22 h with 800 µg/mL GJBRHE in the absence of the S9 mix. CONCLUSIONS: GJBRHE did not cause detectable genotoxic effects in the bacterial mutation test or the in vivo MN test, however genotoxic effect was detected in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay. Our results suggest that GJBRHE may be associated with a low risk of carcinogenesis. Thus, further detailed experiments would be needed to clarify the compound responsible for inducing this genotoxicity of GJBRHE and to determine its mechanism.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Mol Med Rep ; 17(2): 2515-2522, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207093

RESUMO

Inflammatory skin disease are caused by multiple factors, including susceptibility genes, and immunologic and environmental factors, and are characterized by an increase in epidermal thickness and the infiltration of macrophages, keratinocytes, mast cells, eosinophils and other inflammatory cells. Keratinocytes may serve an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. The traditional herbal decoction Hyangso­san (HSS) has been used to treat symptoms of the common cold, including headache, pantalgia, fever and chills. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence regarding whether HSS has an effect on inflammatory skin diseases. The present study investigated the anti­skin inflammation activity of HSS using the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The mRNA expression and production of inflammatory chemokines, including C­C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22), CCL5, CCL17, and interleukin (IL)­8, was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and ELISA analyses. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of HSS on signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway in HaCaT cells. The cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor­α (TNF­α) and interferon­Î³ (IFN­Î³) to induce an inflammatory reaction. In the TNF­α­ and IFN­Î³­stimulated cells, the production and expression of inflammatory chemokines were observed, including CCL22, CCL5, CCL17 and IL­8. In addition, stimulation with TNF­α and IFN­Î³ increased the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. By contrast, HSS extract treatment inhibited TNF­α­ and IFN­Î³­induced STAT1 activation. Results from the present study indicated that HSS exhibited inhibitory effects on TNF­α­ and IFN­Î³­mediated chemokine production and expression by targeting STAT1 in keratinocytes. Overall, the results indicated that HSS may be a potential candidate therapeutic drug for inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Dermatite/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocinas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 384, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is non-cancerous condition of enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men. The immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque (Rutaceae), Ponciri Fructus are widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the therapy of various diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a Ponciri Fructus extract (PFE) on the development of BPH in a in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP). METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were used as a model of BPH after its induction by daily subcutaneous injections of TP/corn oil, for a period of four weeks. PFE was administrated daily 1 h before TP/corn oil injection by oral gavage at a dose level of 200 mg/kg during the 4 weeks of TP/corn oil injections. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, we measured the relative prostate weight, the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), histological changes, activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase), and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, we also measured the inhibition (%) of 5α-reductase in the prostatic tissue. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that PFE significantly inhibited the development of BPH; decreased the relative prostate weight, the level of testosterone and DHT in serum and prostatic tissue, prostatic hyperplasia, expression of PCNA, and increased the antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, PFE showed a weak inhibitory activity on 5α-reductase. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PFE may be used as a therapeutic agent for BPH via antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Poncirus , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Propionato de Testosterona
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 209: 230-235, 2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782621

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate, is a progressive disease that is observed in most elderly men. Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used commonly for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Although the therapeutic efficacy of Yongdamsagan-tang against BPH in vivo was reported previously, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated the effect of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) and its mechanism on the growth of human BPH epithelial BPH-1 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: YSTE was extracted from 11 herbaceous plants and its chemical composition was analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). YSTE was treated in the epithelial BPH-1 cell line and then cell lysates or supernant were used to evaluate cell viability, cell cycle, proliferation and cytokine production. RESULTS: HPLC revealed that Baicalin and gentiopicroside were involved as the major compounds of YSTE. YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells repressed cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding the inhibitory mechanisms of YSTE on cell growth, YSTE inhibited cell proliferation via a decrease in endogenous cyclin D1 protein levels and arrest at the S phase during cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells suppressed prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. The secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-8 and interleukin-6, was also reduced by YSTE treatment. CONCLUSIONS: YSTE in BPH-1 cells showed antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities via cell-cycle arrest and downregulation of COX-2 expression, respectively. Taken together, the results of the present study will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of YSTE in BPH.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Próstata/citologia , Hiperplasia Prostática , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387129

RESUMO

Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT), a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

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