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1.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519870

RESUMO

Ski-slope hearing loss (HL), which refers to increased auditory threshold at high frequencies, is common in adults. However, genetic contributions to this post-lingual HL remain largely unknown. Here, we prospectively investigated deafness-associated and novel candidate genes causing ski-slope HL. We analyzed 192 families with post-lingual HL via gene panel and/or exome sequencing. With an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 35.4% (68/192) in post-lingual HL, ski-slope HL showed a lower diagnostic rate (30.7%) compared with other conditions (40.7%). In patients who showed HL onset before the age of 40, genetic diagnostic probability was significantly lower for ski-slope HL than for other conditions. Further analysis of 51 genetically undiagnosed patients in the ski-slope HL group identified three variants in delta-like ligand 1 (DLL1), a Notch ligand, which presented in vitro gain-of-function effects on Notch downstream signaling. In conclusion, genetic diagnostic rates in post-lingual HL varied according to audiogram patterns with age-of-onset as a confounding factor. DLL1 was identified as a candidate gene causing ski-slope HL.

2.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 880-896, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426676

RESUMO

Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. Here we report the reprogramming of mouse tail-tip fibroblasts simultaneously into cells resembling these three cell types using the microRNA mimic miR-208b-3p, ascorbic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 4, as well as the formation of tissue-like structures formed by the directly reprogrammed cells. Implantation of the formed cardiovascular tissue into the infarcted hearts of mice led to the migration of reprogrammed cells to the injured tissue, reducing regional cardiac strain and improving cardiac function. The migrated endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells contributed to vessel formation, and the migrated cardiomyocytes, which initially displayed immature characteristics, became mature over time and formed gap junctions with host cardiomyocytes. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to make cardiac tissue may aid the development of applications in cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/transplante , Coração/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/transplante , Regeneração , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transcriptoma
3.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 258, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells have been known to contribute to surveillance and control of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association of NK cell activity with stage and recurrence risk of HCC have not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Untreated patients with newly diagnosed HCC were prospectively enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had undergone surgery or radiofrequency ablation were classified as the curative treatment group, and their blood samples were collected again at 1 month after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients with HCC were enrolled. The mean age was 62.5 years. At baseline, interferon (IFN)-γ producing NK cell proportion was significantly lower in patients with Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage B, C, or D than in those with BCLC stage 0 (42.9% vs. 56.8%, P = 0.045). Among all patients, 56 patients had undergone curative treatment, and 42 patients re-visited at 1 month after curative treatment. There was no significant change in total NK cell and IFN-γ producing NK cell proportion from baseline to 1 month after treatment (all P > 0.05). During a median follow-up of 12.4 months, HCC recurred in 14 patients (33.3%). When patients were classified according to the IFN-γ producing NK cell proportion (group 1, ≥ 45%; and group 2, < 45%), HCC recurrence rate did not differ according to the IFN-γ producing NK cell proportion at baseline (log-rank test, P = 0.835). However, patients with < 45% IFN-γ producing NK cell proportion at 1 month after treatment had a significantly higher HCC recurrence rate than patients with that of ≥ 45% (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that BCLC stage B (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.412, P = 0.045) and < 45% IFN-γ producing NK cell proportion at 1 month after treatment (HR = 6.934, P = 0.001) independently predicted an increased risk of HCC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased NK cell activity is significantly associated with the advanced stage of HCC, and the increased recurrence risk of HCC after curative treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Mol Cells ; 44(4): 223-232, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935043

RESUMO

Uniquely expressed in the colon, MS4A12 exhibits store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) activity. However, compared to MS4A1 (CD20), a Ca2+ channel and ideal target for successful leukaemia immunotherapy, MS4A12 has rarely been studied. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MS4A12 in Ca2+ influx and expression changes in MS4A12 in human colonic malignancy. Fluorescence of GCaMP-fused MS4A12 (GCaMP-M12) was evaluated to analyse MS4A12 activity in Ca2+ influx. Plasma membrane expression of GCaMP-M12 was achieved by homo- or hetero-complex formation with no-tagged MS4A12 (nt-M12) or Orai1, respectively. GCaMP-M12 fluorescence in plasma membrane increased only after thapsigargin-induced depletion of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores, and this fluorescence was inhibited by typical SOCE inhibitors and siRNA for Orai1. Furthermore, GCaMP-MS4A12 and Orai1 co-transfection elicited greater plasma membrane fluorescence than GCaMP-M12 co-transfected with nt-M12. Interestingly, the fluorescence of GCaMP-M12 was decreased by STIM1 over-expression, while increased by siRNA for STIM1 in the presence of thapsigargin and extracellular Ca2+. Moreover, immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Orai1 co-expression decreased protein interactions between MS4A12 and STIM1. In human colon tissue, MS4A12 was expressed in the apical region of the colonic epithelium, although its expression was dramatically decreased in colon cancer tissues. In conclusion, we propose that MS4A12 contributes to SOCE through complex formation with Orai1, but does not cooperate with STIM1. Additionally, we discovered that MS4A12 is expressed in the apical membrane of the colonic epithelium and that its expression is decreased with cancer progression.

5.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1914-1931, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) exhibits diverse molecular characteristics. However, reliable biomarkers that predict therapeutic responses are yet to be discovered. We aimed to identify the molecular features of treatment responses to chemotherapy and immunotherapy in BTCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We enrolled 121 advanced BTC patients (68 cholangiocarcinomas [33 intrahepatic, 35 extrahepatic], 41 gallbladder cancers, and 12 Ampulla of Vater cancers) whose specimens were analyzed by clinical sequencing platforms. All patients received first-line palliative chemotherapy; 48 patients underwent programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade therapy after failed chemotherapy. Molecular and histopathological characterization was performed using targeted sequencing and immunohistochemical staining to investigate treatment response-associated biomarkers. Genomic analysis revealed a broad spectrum of mutational profiles according to anatomical location. Favorable responses to chemotherapy were observed in the small-duct type compared with the large-duct type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, with frequent mutations in BRCA1-associated protein-1/isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 and KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase/SMAD family member 4 genes, respectively. The molecular features were further analyzed in BTCs, and transforming growth factor beta and DNA damage response pathway-altered tumors exhibited poor and favorable chemotherapy responses, respectively. In PD-1/PD-L1 blockade-treated patients, KRAS alteration and chromosomal instability tumors were associated with resistance to immunotherapy. The majority of patients (95.0%) with these resistance factors show no clinical benefit to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and low tumor mutational burdens. Low tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density in tumors with these resistance factors indicated immune-suppressive tumor microenvironments, whereas high intratumoral TIL density was associated with a favorable immunotherapy response. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes predictive molecular features of chemotherapy and immunotherapy responses in advanced BTCs using clinical sequencing platforms. Our result provides an intuitive framework to guide the treatment of advanced BTCs benefiting from therapeutic agents based on the tumors' molecular features.

6.
Transplantation ; 105(10): 2213-2225, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressant widely prescribed following an allogenic organ transplant. Due to wide interindividual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability, optimizing TAC dosing based on genetic factors is required to minimize nephrotoxicity and acute rejections. METHODS: We enrolled 1133 participants receiving TAC from 4 cohorts, consisting of 3 with kidney transplant recipients and 1 with healthy males from clinical trials. The effects of clinical factors were estimated to appropriately control confounding variables. A genome-wide association study, haplotype analysis, and a gene-based association test were conducted using the Korea Biobank Array or targeted sequencing for 114 pharmacogenes. RESULTS: Genome-wide association study verified that CYP3A5*3 is the only common variant associated with TAC PK variability in Koreans. We detected several CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 rare variants that could potentially affect TAC metabolism. The haplotype structure of CYP3A5 stratified by CYP3A5*3 was a significant factor for CYP3A5 rare variant interpretation. CYP3A4 rare variant carriers among CYP3A5 intermediate metabolizers displayed higher TAC trough levels. Gene-based association tests in the 61 absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion genes revealed that CYP1A1 are associated with additional TAC PK variability: CYP1A1 rare variant carriers among CYP3A5 poor metabolizers showed lower TAC trough levels than the noncarrier controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that rare variant profiling of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4, combined with the haplotype structures of CYP3A locus, provide additive value for personalized TAC dosing. We also identified a novel association between CYP1A1 rare variants and TAC PK variability in the CYP3A5 nonexpressers that needs to be further investigated.

7.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(5): NP256-NP262, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565998

RESUMO

Sound therapy is a treatment modality for tinnitus patients by increasing the background neuronal activity in the auditory system and inducing relative alleviation of the tinnitus. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of natural ocean sound exposure and ocean-side relaxation in chronic tinnitus patients. We prospectively enrolled all 18 chronic tinnitus patients (≥6 months) from July to November 2018. All patients completed 90 hours of our programs. The improvement in their subjective tinnitus severity, moods, the quality of life, and sleep was serially assessed using several questionnaires at baseline, immediately, and 1 month after the program. Changes in serum stress hormone levels of the patients were also compared between the baseline and immediately after the program. Average total Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire score and factor 2 (hearing difficulty related to tinnitus) score significantly improved over time (P = .024 and P = .002). Patient's serum cortisol and epinephrine level did not show significant decrease, and serum norepinephrine and serotonin level significantly increased immediately after our program (P < .001 and P < .001). Natural ocean sound exposure and ocean-side relaxation for short-term period has a potential efficacy on chronic tinnitus patients.

8.
Complement Med Res ; 28(3): 206-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of short-term sunlight exposure on blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) in vitamin D3-insufficient, prehypertensive patients. METHODS: Twenty prehypertensive male participants were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. BP and PR were measured using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and endocrine biomarkers were assessed. RESULTS: Sunlight exposure decreased 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and PR (SBP: 132.6 mm Hg to 129.3 mm Hg, DBP: 77.6 mm Hg to 75.7 mm Hg, and PR: 76.1 bpm to 71.3 bpm, p values: 0.0011, 0.0012, and <0.0001, respectively). The decrement patterns of SBP, DBP, and PR during nighttime (SBP: 123.5 mm Hg to 117.9 mm Hg, DBP: 72.2 mm Hg to 68.0 mm Hg, and PR: 68.2 bpm to 59.1 bpm, p values: 0.0015, 0.0003, and <0.0001, respectively) were more profound compared between daytime and nighttime. Blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were significantly increased (p = 0.0001) but aldosterone levels were significantly decreased (p = 0.0014) after sunlight exposure. In addition, an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and aldosterone levels was observed (R = -0.4709, p = 0.0419). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The pilot study gives promising results that it is worthwhile to evaluate short-term sunlight exposure as a potentially effective approach in decreasing BP and PR in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-insufficient prehypertensive patients in a larger trial with a control group.

9.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(1): 86-95, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048561

RESUMO

The majority of children with physical disabilities experience significant restrictions in their daily lives. Notably, they are at a risk for lower levels of activity and involvement in critical life domains. To address this issue, this study investigated whether behavioral activation (BA), in tandem with the installment of power-assisted devices (PAD), would have beneficial effects on activity levels, overall involvement in life domains, mobility, and depressive symptoms among children with physical disabilities. From among 123 children with physical disabilities aged 6-13 who used a nonpowered wheelchair device, 40 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into either the PAD-only group or the BA + PAD group. The participants were assessed at 3 time periods (pretreatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks), using standardized self-report measures and digital odometers. Both groups showed an increase in the distance traveled. Although BA + PAD had no additional benefits over PAD-only in improving the distance traveled and depressive symptoms, the BA + PAD group showed significantly higher levels of activity and overall involvement in life domains than the PAD-only group did. The findings provide preliminary support for the provision of BA for children with physical disabilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
Autophagy ; : 1-18, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017561

RESUMO

Nuclear protein HMGB1 is secreted in response to various stimuli and functions as a danger-associated molecular pattern. Extracellular HMGB1 induces inflammation, cytokine production, and immune cell recruitment via activation of various receptors. As HMGB1 does not contain an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide, HMGB1 is secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi independently via an unconventional secretion pathway. However, the mechanism underlying HMGB1 secretion remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of secretory autophagy machinery and vesicular trafficking in HMGB1 secretion. We observed that HSP90AA1 (heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1), a stress-inducible protein, regulates the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and its secretion through direct interaction. Additionally, geldanamycin, an HSP90AA1 inhibitor, reduced HMGB1 secretion. GORASP2/GRASP55 (golgi reassembly stacking protein 2), ARF1Q71L (ADP ribosylation factor 1), and SAR1AT39N (secretion associated Ras related GTPase 1A), which promoted unconventional protein secretion, increased HMGB1 secretion. HMGB1 secretion was inhibited by an early autophagy inhibitor and diminished in ATG5-deficient cells even when GORASP2 was overexpressed. In contrast, a late autophagy inhibitor increased HMGB1 secretion under the same conditions. The multivesicular body formation inhibitor GW4869 dramatically decreased HMGB1 secretion under HMGB1 secretion-inducing conditions. Thus, we demonstrated that secretory autophagy and multivesicular body formation mediate HMGB1 secretion.

11.
Cell Calcium ; 92: 102305, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069962

RESUMO

CaV1.2 and transient receptor potential canonical channel 3 (TRPC3) are two proteins known to have important roles in pathological cardiac hypertrophy; however, such roles still remain unclear. A better understanding of these roles is important for furthering the clinical understanding of heart failure. We previously reported that Trpc3-knockout (KO) mice are resistant to pathologic hypertrophy and that their CaV1.2 protein expression is reduced. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these two proteins and characterize their role in neonatal cardiomyocytes. We measured CaV1.2 expression in the hearts of wild-type (WT) and Trpc3-/- mice, and examined the effects of Trpc3 knockdown and overexpression in the rat cell line H9c2. We also compared the hypertrophic responses of neonatal cardiomyocytes cultured from Trpc3-/- mice to a representative hypertrophy-causing drug, isoproterenol (ISO), and measured the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 (NFAT3) in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMCs). We inhibited the L-type current with nifedipine, and measured the intracellular calcium concentration using Fura-2 with 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-induced Ba2+ influx. When using the Trpc3-mediated Ca2+ influx, both intracellular calcium concentration and calcium influx were reduced in Trpc3-KO myocytes. Not only was the expression of CaV1.2 greatly reduced in Trpc3-KO cardiac lysate, but the size of the CaV1.2 currents in NCMCs was also greatly reduced. When NCMCs were treated with Trpc3 siRNA, it was confirmed that the expression of CaV1.2 and the intracellular nuclear transfer activity of NFAT decreased. In H9c2 cells, the ISO activated- and verapamil inhibited- Ca2+ influxes were dramatically attenuated by Trpc3 siRNA treatment. In addition, it was confirmed that both the expression of CaV1.2 and the size of H9c2 cells were regulated according to the expression and activation level of TRPC3. We found that after stimulation with ISO, cell hypertrophy occurred in WT myocytes, while the increase in size of Trpc3-KO myocytes was greatly reduced. These results suggest that not only the cell hypertrophy process in neonatal cardiac myocytes and H9c2 cells were regulated according to the expression level of CaV1.2, but also that the expression level of CaV1.2 was regulated by TRPC3 through the activation of NFAT.

12.
Cell Rep ; 32(1): 107864, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640229

RESUMO

In the hippocampus, locations associated with salient features are represented by a disproportionately large number of neurons, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this over-representation remain elusive. Using longitudinal calcium imaging in mice learning to navigate in virtual reality, we find that the over-representation of reward and landmark locations are mediated by persistent and separable subsets of neurons, with distinct time courses of emergence and differing underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, we find that in mice lacking Shank2, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-linked gene encoding an excitatory postsynaptic scaffold protein, the learning-induced over-representation of landmarks was absent whereas the over-representation of rewards was substantially increased, as was goal-directed behavior. These findings demonstrate that multiple hippocampal coding processes for unique types of salient features are distinguished by a Shank2-dependent mechanism and suggest that abnormally distorted hippocampal salience mapping may underlie cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in a subset of ASDs.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Feminino , Objetivos , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Recompensa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Pflugers Arch ; 472(8): 1003-1018, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621085

RESUMO

Many anion channels, frequently referred as Cl- channels, are permeable to different anions in addition to Cl-. As the second-most abundant anion in the human body, HCO3- permeation via anion channels has many important physiological roles. In addition to its classical role as an intracellular pH regulator, HCO3- also controls the activity and stability of dissolved proteins in bodily fluids such as saliva, pancreatic juice, intestinal fluid, and airway surface liquid. Moreover, HCO3- permeation through these channels affects membrane potentials that are the driving forces for transmembrane transport of solutes and water in epithelia and affect neuronal excitability in nervous tissue. Consequently, aberrant HCO3- transport via anion channels causes a number of human diseases in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and neuronal systems. Notably, recent studies have shown that the HCO3- permeabilities of several anion channels are not fixed and can be altered by cellular stimuli, findings which may have both physiological and pathophysiological significance. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms and the physiological roles of HCO3- permeation through anion channels. We hope that the present discussions can stimulate further research into this very important topic, which will provide the basis for human disorders associated with aberrant HCO3- transport.


Assuntos
Ânions/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/imunologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Oncogene ; 39(34): 5675-5689, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690868

RESUMO

NORE1A (RASSF5) is a tumor suppressor of the Ras-association domain family (RASSF) that is commonly inactivated in multiple human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its growth inhibition function remains largely undefined. Here we report that NORE1A antagonizes tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI) through the assembly of ITCH-mediated destruction complex to suppress TNF-NF-κB signaling and tumorigenesis. Moreover, NORE1A is identified as a transcription target of NF-κB, which directs an apoptotic switch of TNF effect by blocking ITCH interaction with and ubiquitination of BAX. Mechanistically, NORE1A binds directly to TNFRI and ITCH via the C1 and PPXY domains, respectively to facilitate the formation of ITCH-mediated destruction complex followed by ubiquitination-mediated lysosomal degradation of TNFRI. Through this function, NORE1A suppresses TNF-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription of pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting genes, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion and migration of tumor cells, and also debilitates tumor cell activation of macrophage and fibroblast. While NORE1A suppresses TNF receptor-mediated apoptosis, it activates TNF-induced apoptosis through BAX activation by protecting BAX from ITCH binding and ubiquitination. Cytotoxic response to TNF is substantially attenuated in NORE1A-depleted cells and tumors, and NORE1A-induced tumor regression is highly impeded in BAX-depleted tumors. An inverse correlation is shown between NORE1A and TNFRI expression in both cancer cell lines and primary tumors, and NORE1A effect on survival of cancer patients is strongly associated with expression status of ITCH. Collectively, this study uncovers that NORE1A directs a substrate switch of ITCH favoring TNFRI over BAX to terminate TNF signaling and accelerate apoptosis, illuminating the mechanistic consequence of NORE1A inactivation in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HCT116 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(6): 1191-1211, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in ADCK4 (aarF domain containing kinase 4) generally manifest as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and induce coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome resulting from ADCK4 mutations are not well understood, largely because the function of ADCK4 remains unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the ADCK4's function in podocytes, we generated a podocyte-specific, Adck4-knockout mouse model and a human podocyte cell line featuring knockout of ADCK4. These knockout mice and podocytes were then treated with 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB), a CoQ10 precursor analogue, or with a vehicle only. We also performed proteomic mass spectrometry analysis to further elucidate ADCK4's function. RESULTS: Absence of Adck4 in mouse podocytes caused FSGS and albuminuria, recapitulating features of nephrotic syndrome caused by ADCK4 mutations. In vitro studies revealed that ADCK4-knockout podocytes had significantly reduced CoQ10 concentration, respiratory chain activity, and mitochondrial potential, and subsequently displayed an increase in the number of dysmorphic mitochondria. However, treatment of 3-month-old knockout mice or ADCK4-knockout cells with 2,4-diHB prevented the development of renal dysfunction and reversed mitochondrial dysfunction in podocytes. Moreover, ADCK4 interacted with mitochondrial proteins such as COQ5, as well as cytoplasmic proteins such as myosin and heat shock proteins. Thus, ADCK4 knockout decreased the COQ complex level, but overexpression of ADCK4 in ADCK4-knockout podocytes transfected with wild-type ADCK4 rescued the COQ5 level. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that ADCK4 is required for CoQ10 biosynthesis and mitochondrial function in podocytes, and suggests that ADCK4 in podocytes stabilizes proteins in complex Q in podocytes. Our study also suggests a potential treatment strategy for nephrotic syndrome resulting from ADCK4 mutations.


Assuntos
Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/etiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Podócitos/enzimologia , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328139

RESUMO

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is common in the elderly and an appropriate intervention for LBP management should be investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of mud-heat intervention combined with core exercise as an alternative intervention for relieving pain and improving motor function in individuals with nonspecific chronic LBP. Methods: Thirty-one individuals with chronic nonspecific LBP were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n = 16) or the control group (n = 15). The intervention group used a mud pack for 30 min and performed a core-exercise program for 50 min twice a day for 4 days (8 sessions). The control group performed the core-exercise program only, at the same time point as the intervention group. Pain intensity was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale and a pain pressure threshold (PPT) as the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome measures included functional disability by LBP (Oswestry Disability Index), muscle properties, and static/dynamic balance. Results: There was a significant group difference in pain intensity at rest (p=0.048) and in the PPT at the two sites assessed (2 cm lateral to L3 spinous process, p=0.045; 2 cm lateral to L5 spinous process, p=0.015). No group differences were found in terms of muscle properties. Compared to core exercise only, moor-heat therapy and core exercise showed a significant improvement in static balance (p=0.026) and dynamic balance (p=0.019). Conclusion: Mud therapy combined with core exercise is effective in relieving pain and improving motor function in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. Further research is needed to underpin these preliminary results.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1418, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184397

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in the intracellular transport of macromolecules. However, molecular mechanisms of Golgi-mediated lipid transport remain poorly understood. Here, we show that genetic inactivation of the Golgi-resident protein GRASP55 in mice reduces whole-body fat mass via impaired intestinal fat absorption and evokes resistance to high-fat diet induced body weight gain. Mechanistic analyses reveal that GRASP55 participates in the Golgi-mediated lipid droplet (LD) targeting of some LD-associated lipases, such as ATGL and MGL, which is required for sustained lipid supply for chylomicron assembly and secretion. Consequently, GRASP55 deficiency leads to reduced chylomicron secretion and abnormally large LD formation in intestinal epithelial cells upon exogenous lipid challenge. Notably, deletion of dGrasp in Drosophila causes similar defects of lipid accumulation in the midgut. These results highlight the importance of the Golgi complex in cellular lipid regulation, which is evolutionary conserved, and uncover potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz do Complexo de Golgi/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Drosophila , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz do Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso
18.
Sci Adv ; 6(8): eaax9914, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128399

RESUMO

The most prevalent pathogenic mutations in the CFTR (ΔF508) and SLC26A4/pendrin (p.H723R), which cause cystic fibrosis and congenital hearing loss, respectively, evoke protein misfolding and subsequent defects in their cell surface trafficking. Here, we report that activation of the IRE1α kinase pathway can rescue the cell surface expression of ΔF508-CFTR and p.H723R-pendrin through a Golgi-independent unconventional protein secretion (UPS) route. In mammalian cells, inhibition of IRE1α kinase, but not inhibition of IRE1α endonuclease and the downstream effector XBP1, inhibited CFTR UPS. Treatment with the IRE1α kinase activator, (E)-2-(2-chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethyl-pyrazine (CSTMP), rescued cell surface expression and functional activity of ΔF508-CFTR and p.H723R-pendrin. Treatment with a nontoxic dose of CSTMP to ΔF508-CFTR mice restored CFTR surface expression and CFTR-mediated anion transport in the mouse colon. These findings suggest that UPS activation via IRE1α kinase is a strategy to treat diseases caused by defective cell surface trafficking of membrane proteins, including ΔF508-CFTR and p.H723R-pendrin.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/biossíntese , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transportadores de Sulfato/biossíntese , Animais , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/química , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Camundongos , Dobramento de Proteína , Transporte Proteico , Transportadores de Sulfato/química
19.
J Ginseng Res ; 44(2): 341-349, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148417

RESUMO

Background: The replicative senescence of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) is accompanied by growth arrest. In our previous study, the treatment of senescent HDFs with Rg3(S) lowered the intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and reversed cellular senescence by inducing peroxiredoxin-3, an antioxidant enzyme. However, the signaling pathways involved in Rg3(S)-induced senescence reversal in HDFs and the relatedness of the stereoisomer Rg3(R) in corresponding signaling pathways are not known yet. Methods: We performed senescence-associated ß-galactosidase and cell cycle assays in Rg3(S)-treated senescent HDFs. The levels of ROS, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as well as the mitochondrial DNA copy number, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+/1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) ratio, and NAD-dependent sirtuins expression were measured and compared among young, old, and Rg3(S)-pretreated old HDFs. Major signaling pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and sirtuin 1/3, including cell cycle regulatory proteins, were examined by immunoblot analysis. Results: Ginsenoside Rg3(S) reversed the replicative senescence of HDFs by restoring the ATP level and NAD+/NADH ratio in downregulated senescent HDFs. Rg3(S) recovered directly the cellular levels of ROS and the NAD+/NADH ratio in young HDFs inactivated by rotenone. Rg3(S) mainly downregulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt through the inhibition of mTOR by cell cycle regulators like p53/p21 in senescent HDFs, whereas Rg3(R) did not alter the corresponding signaling pathways. Rg3(S)-activated sirtuin 3/PGC1α to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusion: Cellular molecular analysis suggests that Rg3(S) specifically reverses the replicative senescence of HDFs by modulating Akt-mTOR-sirtuin signaling to promote the biogenesis of mitochondria.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1343, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165640

RESUMO

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most commonly identified inner ear malformations in hearing loss patients including Pendred syndrome. While biallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene, encoding pendrin, causes non-syndromic hearing loss with EVA or Pendred syndrome, a considerable number of patients appear to carry mono-allelic mutation. This suggests faulty pendrin regulatory machinery results in hearing loss. Here we identify EPHA2 as another causative gene of Pendred syndrome with SLC26A4. EphA2 forms a protein complex with pendrin controlling pendrin localization, which is disrupted in some pathogenic forms of pendrin. Moreover, point mutations leading to amino acid substitution in the EPHA2 gene are identified from patients bearing mono-allelic mutation of SLC26A4. Ephrin-B2 binds to EphA2 triggering internalization with pendrin inducing EphA2 autophosphorylation weakly. The identified EphA2 mutants attenuate ephrin-B2- but not ephrin-A1-induced EphA2 internalization with pendrin. Our results uncover an unexpected role of the Eph/ephrin system in epithelial function.


Assuntos
Efrina-A2/genética , Bócio Nodular/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Efrina-A1/genética , Efrina-A1/metabolismo , Efrina-A2/química , Efrina-A2/metabolismo , Efrina-B2/genética , Efrina-B2/metabolismo , Bócio Nodular/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação Puntual , Ligação Proteica , Transportadores de Sulfato/química , Transportadores de Sulfato/metabolismo
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