*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3048, 2021 May 24.*

##### RESUMO

Beyond the absence of long-range magnetic orders, the most prominent feature of the elusive quantum spin liquid (QSL) state is the existence of fractionalized spin excitations, i.e., spinons. When the system orders, the spin-wave excitation appears as the bound state of the spinon-antispinon pair. Although scarcely reported, a direct comparison between similar compounds illustrates the evolution from spinon to magnon. Here, we perform the Raman scattering on single crystals of two quantum kagome antiferromagnets, of which one is the kagome QSL candidate Cu3Zn(OH)6FBr, and another is an antiferromagnetically ordered compound EuCu3(OH)6Cl3. In Cu3Zn(OH)6FBr, we identify a unique one spinon-antispinon pair component in the E2g magnetic Raman continuum, providing strong evidence for deconfined spinon excitations. In contrast, a sharp magnon peak emerges from the one-pair spinon continuum in the Eg magnetic Raman response once EuCu3(OH)6Cl3 undergoes the antiferromagnetic order transition. From the comparative Raman studies, we can regard the magnon mode as the spinon-antispinon bound state, and the spinon confinement drives the magnetic ordering.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2779, 2021 May 13.*

##### RESUMO

While Mott insulators induced by Coulomb interactions are a well-recognized class of metal-insulator transitions, insulators purely driven by spin correlations are much less common, as the reduced energy scale often invites competition from other degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate a clean example of a spin-correlation-driven metal-insulator transition in the all-in-all-out pyrochlore antiferromagnet Cd2Os2O7, where the lattice symmetry is preserved by the antiferromagnetism. After the antisymmetric linear magnetoresistance from conductive, ferromagnetic domain walls is removed experimentally, the bulk Hall coefficient reveals four Fermi surfaces of both electron and hole types, sequentially departing the Fermi level with decreasing temperature below the Néel temperature, TN = 227 K. In Cd2Os2O7, the charge gap of a continuous metal-insulator transition opens only at T ~ 10 K << TN. The insulating mechanism parallels the Slater picture, but without a folded Brillouin zone, and contrasts sharply with Mott insulators and spin density waves, where the electronic gap opens above and at TN, respectively.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8775-8782, 2020 Apr 21.*

##### RESUMO

Under certain conditions, a fermion in a superconductor can separate in space into two parts known as Majorana zero modes, which are immune to decoherence from local noise sources and are attractive building blocks for quantum computers. Promising experimental progress has been made to demonstrate Majorana zero modes in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling proximity coupled to superconductors. Here we report signatures of Majorana zero modes in a material platform utilizing the surface states of gold. Using scanning tunneling microscope to probe EuS islands grown on top of gold nanowires, we observe two well-separated zero-bias tunneling conductance peaks aligned along the direction of the applied magnetic field, as expected for a pair of Majorana zero modes. This platform has the advantage of having a robust energy scale and the possibility of realizing complex designs using lithographic methods.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 216, 2020 Jan 10.*

##### RESUMO

The phenomena of antisymmetric magnetoresistance and the planar Hall effect are deeply entwined with ferromagnetism. The intrinsic magnetization of the ordered state permits these unusual and rarely observed manifestations of Onsager's theorem when time reversal symmetry is broken at zero applied field. Here we study two classes of ferromagnetic materials, rare-earth magnets with high intrinsic coercivity and antiferromagnetic pyrochlores with strongly-pinned ferromagnetic domain walls, which both exhibit antisymmetric magnetoresistive behavior. By mapping out the peculiar angular variation of the antisymmetric galvanomagnetic response with respect to the relative alignments of the magnetization, magnetic field, and electrical current, we experimentally distinguish two distinct underlying microscopic mechanisms: namely, spin-dependent scattering of a Zeeman-shifted Fermi surface and anomalous electron velocities. Our work demonstrates that the anomalous electron velocity physics typically associated with the anomalous Hall effect is prevalent beyond the ρxy(Hz) channel, and should be understood as a part of the general galvanomagnetic behavior.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(16): 167001, 2019 Apr 26.*

##### RESUMO

In our previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 046401 (2018)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.121.046401], we found a quantum spin liquid phase with a spinon Fermi surface in the two dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg model with four-spin ring exchange on a triangular lattice. In this work we dope the spinon Fermi surface phase by studying the t-J model with four-spin ring exchange. We perform density matrix renormalization group calculations on four-leg cylinders of a triangular lattice and find that the dominant pair correlation function is that of a pair density wave; i.e., it is oscillatory while decaying with distance with a power law. The doping dependence of the period is studied. This is the first example where a pair density wave is the dominant pairing in a generic strongly interacting system where the pair density wave cannot be explained as a composite order and no special symmetry is required.

*Nature ; 569(7757): 537-541, 2019 05.*

##### RESUMO

The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE)1,2 in two-dimensional electronic systems has given topology a central role in condensed matter physics. Although the possibility of generalizing the QHE to three-dimensional (3D) electronic systems3,4 was proposed decades ago, it has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here we report the experimental realization of the 3D QHE in bulk zirconium pentatelluride (ZrTe5) crystals. We perform low-temperature electric-transport measurements on bulk ZrTe5 crystals under a magnetic field and achieve the extreme quantum limit, where only the lowest Landau level is occupied, at relatively low magnetic fields. In this regime, we observe a dissipationless longitudinal resistivity close to zero, accompanied by a well-developed Hall resistivity plateau proportional to half of the Fermi wavelength along the field direction. This response is the signature of the 3D QHE and strongly suggests a Fermi surface instability driven by enhanced interaction effects in the extreme quantum limit. By further increasing the magnetic field, both the longitudinal and Hall resistivity increase considerably and display a metal-insulator transition, which represents another magnetic-field-driven quantum phase transition. Our findings provide experimental evidence of the 3D QHE and a promising platform for further exploration of exotic quantum phases and transitions in 3D systems.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4367, 2018 10 22.*

##### RESUMO

Recently measurements on various spin-1/2 quantum magnets such as H3LiIr2O6, LiZn2Mo3O8, ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 and 1T-TaS2-all described by magnetic frustration and quenched disorder but with no other common relation-nevertheless showed apparently universal scaling features at low temperature. In particular the heat capacity C[H, T] in temperature T and magnetic field H exhibits T/H data collapse reminiscent of scaling near a critical point. Here we propose a theory for this scaling collapse based on an emergent random-singlet regime extended to include spin-orbit coupling and antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions. We derive the scaling C[H, T]/T ~ H-Î³Fq[T/H] with Fq[x] = xq at small x, with q ∈ {0, 1, 2} an integer exponent whose value depends on spatial symmetries. The agreement with experiments indicates that a fraction of spins form random valence bonds and that these are surrounded by a quantum paramagnetic phase. We also discuss distinct scaling for magnetization with a q-dependent subdominant term enforced by Maxwell's relations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(4): 046401, 2018 Jul 27.*

##### RESUMO

1T-TaS_{2} is a cluster Mott insulator on the triangular lattice with 13 Ta atoms forming a star of David cluster as the unit cell. We derive a two-dimensional XXZ spin-1/2 model with a four-spin ring exchange term to describe the effective low energy physics of a monolayer 1T-TaS_{2}, where the effective spin-1/2 degrees of freedom arises from the Kramers degenerate spin-orbital states on each star of David. A large scale density matrix renormalization group simulation is further performed on this effective model and we find a gapless spin liquid phase with a spinon Fermi surface at a moderate to large strength region of the four-spin ring exchange term. All peaks in the static spin structure factor are found to be located on the "2k_{F}" surface of a half-filled spinon on the triangular lattice. Experiments to detect the spinon Fermi surface phase in 1T-TaS_{2} are discussed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(26): 266601, 2018 Jun 29.*

##### RESUMO

Tunneling of electrons into a two-dimensional electron system is known to exhibit an anomaly at low bias, in which the tunneling conductance vanishes due to a many-body interaction effect. Recent experiments have measured this anomaly between two copies of the half-filled Landau level as a function of in-plane magnetic field, and they suggest that increasing spin polarization drives a deeper suppression of tunneling. Here, we present a theory of the tunneling anomaly between two copies of the partially spin-polarized Halperin-Lee-Read state, and we show that the conventional description of the tunneling anomaly, based on the Coulomb self-energy of the injected charge packet, is inconsistent with the experimental observation. We propose that the experiment is operating in a different regime, not previously considered, in which the charge-spreading action is determined by the compressibility of the composite fermions.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(27): 6996-7000, 2017 07 03.*

##### RESUMO

1T-TaS2 is unique among transition metal dichalcogenides in that it is understood to be a correlation-driven insulator, where the unpaired electron in a 13-site cluster experiences enough correlation to form a Mott insulator. We argue, based on existing data, that this well-known material should be considered as a quantum spin liquid, either a fully gapped [Formula: see text] spin liquid or a Dirac spin liquid. We discuss the exotic states that emerge upon doping and propose further experimental probes.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(2): 026805, 2016 Jan 15.*

##### RESUMO

The Weyl semimetal is characterized by three-dimensional linear band touching points called Weyl nodes. These nodes come in pairs with opposite chiralities. We show that the coupling of circularly polarized photons with these chiral electrons generates a Hall conductivity without any applied magnetic field in the plane orthogonal to the light propagation. This phenomenon comes about because with all three Pauli matrices exhausted to form the three-dimensional linear dispersion, the Weyl nodes cannot be gapped. Rather, the net influence of chiral photons is to shift the positions of the Weyl nodes. Interestingly, the momentum shift is tightly correlated with the chirality of the node to produce a net anomalous Hall signal. Application of our proposal to the recently discovered TaAs family of Weyl semimetals leads to an order-of-magnitude estimate of the photoinduced Hall conductivity which is within the experimentally accessible range.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(11): 117002, 2014 Mar 21.*

##### RESUMO

In mean-field descriptions of nodal d-wave superconductors, generic edges exhibit dispersionless Majorana fermion bands at zero energy. These states give rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy, and are protected by time-reversal symmetry. We argue that the infinite density of states of these flat bands make them inherently unstable to interactions, and show that repulsive interactions lead to edge ferromagnetism which splits the flat bands. This edge ferromagnetism offers an explanation for the observation of the splitting of zero-bias peaks in edge tunneling in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. We argue that this mechanism for splitting is more likely than previously proposed scenarios and describe its experimental consequences.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(3): 037001, 2014 Jan 24.*

##### RESUMO

In this work, we find that Majorana fermions induce selective equal spin Andreev reflections (SESARs), in which incoming electrons with certain spin polarization in the lead are reflected as counterpropagating holes with the same spin. The spin polarization direction of the electrons of this Andreev reflected channel is selected by the Majorana fermions. Moreover, electrons with opposite spin polarization are always reflected as electrons with unchanged spin. As a result, the charge current in the lead is spin polarized. Therefore, a topological superconductor which supports Majorana fermions can be used as a novel device to create fully spin-polarized currents in paramagnetic leads. We point out that SESARs can also be used to detect Majorana fermions in topological superconductors.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(21): 217201, 2013 Nov 22.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce the idea of emergent lattices, where a simple lattice decouples into two weakly coupled lattices as a way to stabilize spin liquids. In LiZn2Mo3O8, the disappearance of 2/3 of the spins at low temperatures suggests that its triangular lattice decouples into an emergent honeycomb lattice weakly coupled to the remaining spins, and we suggest several ways to test this proposal. We show that these orphan spins act to stabilize the spin liquid in the J1-J2 honeycomb model and also discuss a possible 3D analogue, Ba2MoYO6 that may form a "depleted fcc lattice."

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(12): 120402, 2013 Sep 20.*

##### RESUMO

Chern insulators are band insulators which exhibit a gap in the bulk and gapless excitations in the edge. Detection of Chern insulators is a serious challenge in cold atoms since the Hall transport measurements are technically unrealistic for neutral atoms. By establishing a natural correspondence between the time-reversal invariant topological insulator and the quantum anomalous Hall system, we show for a class of Chern insulators that the topology can be determined by only measuring Bloch eigenstates at highly symmetric points of the Brillouin zone. Furthermore, we introduce two experimental schemes, including the spin-resolved Bloch oscillation, to carry out the measurement. These schemes are highly feasible under realistic experimental conditions. Our results may provide a powerful tool to detect topological phases in cold atoms.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(11): 117003, 2012 Mar 16.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce a model to explain the observed ferromagnetism and superconductivity in LAO/STO oxide interface structures. Because of the polar catastrophe mechanism, 1/2 charge per unit cell is transferred to the interface layer. We argue that this charge localizes and orders ferromagnetically via exchange with the conduction electrons. Ordinarily, this ferromagnetism would destroy superconductivity, but, due to strong spin-orbit coupling near the interface, the magnetism and superconductivity can coexist by forming a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinikov-type condensate of Cooper pairs at finite momentum, which is surprisingly robust in the presence of strong disorder.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(26): 267002, 2012 Dec 28.*

##### RESUMO

One of the simplest proposed experimental probes of a Majorana bound state is a quantized (2e(2)/h) value of zero-bias tunneling conductance. When temperature is somewhat larger than the intrinsic width of the Majorana peak, conductance is no longer quantized, but a zero-bias peak can remain. Such a nonquantized zero-bias peak has been recently reported for semiconducting nanowires with proximity induced superconductivity. In this Letter we analyze the relation of the zero-bias peak to the presence of Majorana end states, by simulating the tunneling conductance for multiband wires with realistic amounts of disorder. We show that this system generically exhibits a (nonquantized) zero-bias peak even when the wire is topologically trivial and does not possess Majorana end states. We make comparisons to recent experiments, and discuss the necessary requirements for confirming the existence of a Majorana state.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(5): 056402, 2011 Feb 04.*

##### RESUMO

Several experimental candidates for quantum spin liquids have been discovered in the past few years which appear to support gapless fermionic S=1/2 excitations called spinons. The spinons may form a Fermi sea coupled to a U(1) gauge field, and may undergo a pairing instability. We show that despite being charge neutral, the spinons couple to phonons in exactly the same way that electrons do in the long wavelength limit. Therefore, we can use sound attenuation to measure the spinon mass and lifetime. Furthermore, transverse ultrasonic attenuation is a direct probe of the onset of pairing because the Meissner effect of the gauge field causes a "rapid fall" of the attenuation at T(c) in addition to the reduction due to the opening of the energy gap. This phenomenon, well known in clean superconductors, may reveal the existence of the U(1) gauge field.