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1.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of 5 subjective self-assessment tools (3 adherence measures and 2 psychometric scales) and pharmacy refill data in predicting objective electronically monitored nonadherence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Glaucoma patients (> 40 years old, >1 medication with poor self-reported adherence) were recruited from University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center for a study assessing the impact of a personalized glaucoma coaching program on medication adherence. METHODS: Participants completed an initial assessment including 5 self-assessment tools and a 3-month period of electronic monitoring of glaucoma medication adherence (AdhereTech); pharmacy refill data were obtained. Electronically monitored adherence was calculated monthly as the percentage of doses taken on time. The median of these adherence rates was designated as baseline adherence. Patients with adherence of ≤80% by electronic monitoring were considered nonadherent. Self-assessment tools were scored, and pharmacy refill data were summarized as the proportion of days covered. Correlation between measures of adherence was estimated with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic curves, including estimation of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were used to compare measures of adherence with respect to predicting electronically monitored nonadherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of self-reported and pharmacy refill data adherence measures in predicting electronically monitored nonadherence. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients completed 3 months of electronic monitoring with a median monthly adherence of 74 (± 21%); 53 patients (56%) were nonadherent. Pharmacy refill data were not correlated significantly with electronically monitored medication adherence (r = 0.12; P = 0.2). Of all the measures, a single-item adherence question ("Over the past month, what percentage of your drops do you think you took correctly?") showed the largest correlation with median electronically monitored adherence (r = 0.47; P < 0.0001), largest AUC for predicting nonadherence (AUC = 0.76 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.87]), best accuracy (71% [95% CI, 61%-82%]), and good sensitivity (84% [95% CI, 73%-96%]). CONCLUSIONS: The single-item question was the most accurate in predicting electronically monitored nonadherence among participants with poor self-reported adherence. In clinical practice, where alternatives are too resource intensive, this free single-item screening question can help to identify glaucoma patients at risk of poor medication adherence with reasonable accuracy.

2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 896-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196670

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging vision scientists who have yet to be awarded their first independent funding may have their research careers disproportionately affected by early COVID-19-related disruptions. In September 2020, the Alliance for Eye and Vision Research convened a panel of 22 such scientists (nominated by their academic institutions) to communicate to the US Congress about the importance of vision research. As part of the effort, interviews were conducted with scientists about the effect of the pandemic on their research. Observations: Qualitative areas of adverse consequences from the early months of COVID-19 disruptions included striking interruptions of patient-based research, limits on other types of clinical research, loss of research time for scientists with young children (especially women), challenges with animal colonies and cell cultures, impediments to research collaborations, and loss of training time. Conclusions and Relevance: The early months during the COVID-19 pandemic increased career stress on many early-stage investigators in the vision field and delayed (and may potentially derail) their ability to attract their first independent research funding grant. As a result, federal and private granting agencies may need to take these factors into account to retain talented, early-stage vision researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , Escolha da Profissão , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmologia/educação , Quarentena/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between telemedicine utilization and sociodemographic factors among patients seeking eye care. DESIGN: Comparative utilization analysis. METHODS: We reviewed the eye care utilization patterns of a stratified random sample of 1,720 patients who were seen at the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 30 to May 25, 2020). The odds of having a video, phone or in-person visit compared to having a deferred visit. Associations between independent variables and visit type were determined using a multinomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: Older patients had lower odds of having a video visit (p=0.007) and higher odds of having an in-person visit (p=0.023) compared to being deferred, and in the non-retina clinic sample, older patients still had a lower odds of a video visit (p-0.02). Non-white patients had lower odds of having an in-person visit (p<0.02) in the overall sample compared to being deferred, with a similar trend seen in the retina clinic. The mean neighborhood median household income was $76,200 (±$33,500) and varied significantly (p<0.0001) by race with Blacks having the lowest estimated mean income. CONCLUSION: Disparities exist in how patients accessed eye care during the COVID-19 pandemic with older patients - those for whom COVID 19 poses a higher risk of mortality - being more likely to be seen for in-person care. In our affluent participant sample, there was a trend towards non-white patients being less likely to access care. Reimbursing telemedicine solely through broadband internet connection may further exacerbate disparities in eye care.

4.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098169

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether demographic, clinical, or psychosocial factors act as moderators of change in medication adherence in the Support, Educate, Empower (SEE) program. DESIGN: Prospective, single-arm pilot study with a pre-post design. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with glaucoma aged ≥ 40 years and taking ≥ 1 glaucoma medication were recruited from the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center. Those who had electronically measured adherence ≤ 80% in the 3-month eligibility monitoring period were enrolled in the SEE program. METHODS: Medication adherence was monitored electronically during the 7-month intervention and calculated as the percentage of doses taken correctly. Change in adherence at different points in the SEE program and cumulative change in adherence were modeled with linear regression, and baseline demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors were investigated for significant associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables associated with change in medication adherence in the SEE program. RESULTS: Thirty-nine participants completed the SEE program. These participants were on average 63.9 years old (standard deviation [SD], 10.7 years), 56% (n = 22) were male, 44% (n = 17) were White, and 49% (n = 19) were Black. Medication adherence improved from an average of 59.9% (SD, 18.5%) at baseline to 83.6% (SD, 17.5%) after the final SEE session, for an increase of 23.7% (SD, 17.5%). Although participants with lower income (< $25 000 and $25 000-50 000 vs. >$50 000) had lower baseline adherence (48.4% and 64.1% vs. 70.4%), these individuals had greater increases in adherence during the first month of medication reminders (19.6% and 21.6% vs. 10.2%; P = 0.05 and P = 0.007, respectively). Participants taking fewer glaucoma medications also had significantly greater increases in adherence with medication reminders (P < 0.001). Those with higher levels of glaucoma-related distress (GD) had lower baseline adherence and greater increases in adherence with glaucoma coaching (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Patient-level factors associated with relatively greater improvements in medication adherence through the SEE Program included lower income, fewer glaucoma medications, and increased GD. These findings demonstrate that the SEE program can improve glaucoma self-management even among participants with social and psychological barriers to medication adherence.

5.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the treatment burden experienced by patients receiving care for primary open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Semistructured, one-on-one, qualitative interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and age ≥40 years who were scheduled for a follow-up glaucoma appointment at the Kellogg Eye Center. Researchers used purposeful sampling to ensure that there was representation of a range of ages, disease stages, total number of medical conditions, distance traveled to clinic, history of glaucoma surgery, employment, and education. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was obtained. METHODS: Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide that addressed aspects of glaucoma care that give them burden, how this burden impacts their lives, and factors that influence the burden and its impact. Researchers analyzed the transcripts using inductive thematic analysis and grounded theory to generate themes that emerged from the interviews and to map these themes into a conceptual model of glaucoma treatment burden. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Themes related to glaucoma treatment burden generated by qualitative analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients participated in the study. Study participants described 10 categories of glaucoma care activities that cause treatment burden, 8 themes for consequences of glaucoma treatment burden, and 25 themes of factors that influenced the workload created by the various glaucoma care activities and the consequences that they experienced because of these activities. CONCLUSIONS: Participants expressed that the treatment of glaucoma creates a burden for patients that is distinct from the burden of the disease process itself and that this burden negatively affects their quality of life and can potentially cause vision-threatening issues with medication and appointment adherence. We observed considerable variation in the extent to which participants experienced this burden and its consequences, much of which was explained by the influencing factors the participants described. Understanding glaucoma treatment burden and its influencing factors is important as we work to deliver patient-centered care and prevent vision loss.

6.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(1): 7, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may not be relevant to the full range of functional and vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) concerns of individuals with vision impairment due to severe peripheral field loss (PFL). Measurement of VR-QOL in severe PFL is important in order to determine the effectiveness of vision rehabilitation interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of severe PFL due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma on VR-QOL as the initial phase in the development of a novel PRO measure. METHODS: Individuals with severe PFL due to RP or glaucoma were recruited from the Kellogg Eye Center and the Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired. Participants completed semi-structured qualitative interviews, the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey. Interviews were analyzed by two coders using thematic analysis. A matrix analysis was conducted to compare VR-QOL by cause of severe PFL. Sample size was determined by thematic saturation. RESULTS: The study included 37 participants (19 RP, 18 glaucoma). Median best-corrected visual acuity for those with RP and glaucoma was 20/40 and 20/27.5, while Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity was 1.2 log contrast sensitivity (logCS) and 1.1 logCS, respectively. Median domain scores on the IVI (reading, mobility, well-being) ranged from a low of - 0.2 to a high of 0.7 logits in those with RP and from 0.5 to 1.2 logits in those with glaucoma. Qualitative interviews identified six VR-QOL themes relevant across participants with both RP and glaucoma, including activity limitations, driving, emotional well-being, reading, mobility, and social function. VR-QOL concerns were largely consistent among those with severe PFL due to RP and glaucoma. These overarching themes contained content relevant to specific challenges related to severe PFL. CONCLUSIONS: There are commonly occurring VR-QOL concerns among individuals with severe PFL due to RP and glaucoma. The outlined themes will serve as the basis for development of the Low Vision Severely Constricted Peripheral Eyesight (LV-SCOPE) Questionnaire.

7.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(2): 231-235, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706642

RESUMO

Background: Ophthalmic clinicians report low confidence in telemedicine-based eye care delivery, but it may have changed given its rapid expansion during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine clinician confidence in telemedicine-based eye care services during COVID-19. Materials and Methods: An electronic survey was sent to clinicians at University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center (April 17, 2020-May 6, 2020) when nonemergent in-person visits and procedures were restricted. The primary outcome was clinician confidence in using telemedicine-based eye care during COVID-19. Secondary outcomes included telemedicine utilization and its association with clinician confidence using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 88 respondents (90.7% response rate; n = 97 total), 83.0% (n = 73) were ophthalmologists and 17.0% (n = 15) were optometrists. Telemedicine utilization increased from 30.7% (n = 27) before the pandemic to 86.2% (n = 75) after the pandemic. Clinicians' confidence in their ability to use telemedicine varied with 28.6% (24/84) feeling confident/extremely confident, 38.1% (32/84) somewhat confident, and 33.3% (28/84) not-at-all confident. Most felt that telemedicine was underutilized (62.1%; 54/87) and planned continued use over the next year (59.8%; 52/87). Confident respondents were more likely to have performed three or more telemedicine visits (p = 0.003), to believe telemedicine was underutilized (p < 0.001), and to anticipate continued use of telemedicine (p = 0.009). Discussion: The majority of clinicians were at least somewhat confident about using telemedicine during the pandemic. Clinician confidence was associated with telemedicine visit volume and intention to continue using telemedicine. Conclusions: Policies that foster clinician confidence will be important to sustain telemedicine-based eye care delivery.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19 , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pandemias
8.
Ophthalmology ; 128(2): 317-323, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Timely mammography to screen for breast cancer in accordance with the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations can reduce morbidity and mortality substantially. This study assessed whether the odds of undergoing screening mammography are similar for women with and without visual impairment (VI). DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 65 to 72 years enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2015. METHODS: Patients with no vision loss (NVL), partial vision loss (PVL), and severe vision loss (SVL) were matched 1:1:1 based on age, race, time in Medicare, urbanicity of residence, and overall health. Women with pre-existing breast cancer were excluded. Multivariable conditional logistic regression modeling compared the odds of undergoing screening mammography within a 2-year follow-up period among the 3 groups. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Proportion of participants undergoing mammography and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of undergoing mammography within 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 1044 patients were matched (348 in each group). The mean ± standard deviation age at the index date was 69.0 ± 1.5 years for all 3 groups. The proportion of women undergoing 1 mammography screening or more within the 2-year follow-up was 69.0% (n = 240), 56.9% (n = 198), and 56.0% (n = 195) for the NVL, PVL, and SVL groups, respectively (P = 0.0005). The mean ± standard deviation number of mammography screenings undergone per patient during the 5-year period (3-year look-back plus 2-year follow-up) was 3.1 ± 2.0, 2.5 ± 2.0, and 2.3 ± 2.1 for the NVL, PVL, and SVL groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Women with SVL had 42% decreased odds (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.90; P = 0.01), and those with PVL had 44% decreased odds (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.36-0.87; P = 0.009) of undergoing mammography during follow-up compared with those with NVL. CONCLUSIONS: Women with VI were significantly less likely to undergo mammography screening for breast cancer than women without VI. Clinicians should look for ways to help ensure that patients with VI undergo mammography and other preventive screenings as recommended by the USPSTF.

9.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 3(4): 228-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of the Support, Educate, Empower (SEE) glaucoma coaching program on medication adherence among glaucoma patients with low adherence. DESIGN: Uncontrolled intervention study with a pre-post design. PARTICIPANTS: Glaucoma patients ≥ age 40, taking ≥1 medication, who self-reported poor adherence were recruited from the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center. Adherence was monitored electronically for a 3-month baseline period; participants with median adherence of ≤80% were enrolled in the SEE program. METHODS: Participants' adherence was monitored electronically (AdhereTech, New York, NY) during the 7-month program. Adherence was calculated as the percentage of doses taken on time of those prescribed. The SEE program included (1) automated medication reminders, (2) 3 in-person counseling sessions with a glaucoma coach who had training in motivational interviewing (MI), and (3) 5 phone calls with the same coach for between-session support. The coach used a web-based tool to generate an education plan tailored to the patient's glaucoma diagnosis, test results, and ophthalmologist's recommendations (www.glaucomaeyeguide.org). The tool guided an MI-based conversation between coach and patient to identify barriers to adherence and possible solutions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize baseline patient characteristics, and differences between those who did and did not complete the SEE program were tested with 2-sample t tests, chi-square tests, and Fisher exact tests. Adherence was compared before and after the SEE program with paired t tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in electronically monitored medication adherence. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants were enrolled. The participants were 54% male, 46% white, and on average 64 years of age (standard deviation [SD], 10.8 years), with an average worse-eye mean deviation (MD) of -7.9 dB (SD, 8.8 dB). Those completing the SEE program (n = 39) did not differ significantly from those who dropped out (n = 9) on gender, race, age, MD, or baseline adherence. Medication adherence improved from 59.9% at baseline to 81.3% (P < 0.0001) after completing the SEE program. Ninety-five percent of participants showed an improvement in adherence (mean relative improvement, 21.4%; SD, 16.5%; range, -3.2% to 74.4%; median, 20.1%). Fifty-nine percent of participants showed adherence of >80% on completing the SEE program. CONCLUSIONS: The SEE program participants showed clinically meaningful, statistically significant improvement in glaucoma medication adherence.

10.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(9): 974-980, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678424

RESUMO

Importance: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, eye care professionals caring for patients with sight-threatening diseases, such as glaucoma, have had to determine whether some patient appointments could safely get postponed, weighing the risk that the patient's glaucoma could worsen during the interim vs the morbidity risk of acquiring COVID-19 while seeking ophthalmic care. They also need to prioritize appointment rescheduling during the ramp-up phase (when pandemic-associated service reductions are eased). Objective: To describe a flexible and scalable scoring algorithm for patients with glaucoma that considers glaucoma severity and progression risk vs the presence of high-risk features for morbidity from COVID-19, using information from a large data repository. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, patients with upcoming clinic appointments for glaucoma from March 16, 2020, to April 16, 2020, at an academic institution enrolled in the Sight Outcomes Research Collaborative (SOURCE) Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Data Repository were identified. A risk stratification tool was developed that calculated a glaucoma severity and progression risk score and a COVID-19 morbidity risk score. These scores were summed to determine a total score for each patient. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total scores and percentages of clinic appointments recommended for rescheduling. Results: Among the 1034 patients with upcoming clinic appointments for glaucoma, the mean (SD) age was 66.7 (14.6) years. There were 575 women (55.6%), 733 White individuals (71%), and 160 Black individuals (15.5%). The mean (SD) glaucoma severity and progression risk score was 4.0 (14.4) points, the mean (SD) COVID-19 morbidity risk score was 27.2 (16.1) points, and the mean (SD) total score was 31.2 (21.4) points. During pandemic-associated reductions in services, using total score thresholds of 0, 25, and 50 points would identify 970 appointments (93.8%), 668 appointments (64.6%), and 275 appointments (26.6%), respectively, for postponement and rescheduling. The algorithm-generated total scores also helped prioritize appointment rescheduling during the ramp-up phase. Conclusions and Relevance: A tool that considers the risk of underlying ophthalmic disease progression from delayed care receipt and the morbidity risk from COVID-19 exposure was developed and implemented, facilitating the triage of upcoming ophthalmic appointments. Comparable approaches for other ophthalmic and nonophthalmic care during the COVID-19 pandemic and similar crises may be created using this methodology.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Triagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204339, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379333

RESUMO

Importance: Using corticosteroids to treat acute demyelinating optic neuritis has been identified as an area for shared decision-making. However, no analysis exists to support personalized shared decision-making that considers long- and short-term treatment benefits. Objective: To develop models of individual-level visual outcomes for patients with optic neuritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT), a randomized clinical trial, was performed at 14 academic eye centers and 1 large community eye center. Adults aged 18 to 46 years with incident acute unilateral optic neuritis within 8 days of vision loss onset were included. Data were collected from July 1988 to June 1991, downloaded on October 15, 2018, and analyzed from January 24, 2019, to February 20, 2020, using multivariable linear regression modeling. Exposures: Intravenous corticosteroids vs placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: Visual acuity (VA) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were 1-year contrast sensitivity (CS) and VA and CS at 15 and 30 days. Independent variables included age, sex, race, multiple sclerosis status, optic neuritis episodes in the fellow eye, vision symptoms (days), pain, optic disc swelling, viral illness, treatment group, and baseline VA or CS. Results: Of the 455 participants, median age was 31.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 26.3-37.0) years; 350 (76.9%) were women; and 388 (85.3%) were white. For 410 participants (90.1%) with 1-year outcomes, median VA improved from 20/66 (IQR, 20/28-20/630) at enrollment to 20/17 (IQR, 20/14-20/21) at 1 year. Baseline VA was the primary variable associated with 1-year VA (regression coefficient, 0.056 [95% CI, 0.008-0.103]; P = .02) if baseline VA was better than count fingers (CF). At 15 days, baseline VA and treatment status were associated with VA in those participants with baseline VA better than CF (regression coefficient, 0.305 [95% CI, 0.231-0.380]; F = 9.42; P < .001). However, the difference of medians (20/18 [95% CI, 20/17-20/19] with intravenous corticosteroids vs 20/23 [95% CI, 20/21-20/26] with placebo) was small for the median VA (20/66) in the trial. Treatment was not associated with 15-day or 1-year VA in participants with baseline VA of CF or worse. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, long-term VA was associated with severity of baseline vision loss. Early benefits with intravenous corticosteroid treatment were limited to participants with baseline VA better than CF. However, the early, temporary benefit of intravenous corticosteroids is of questionable clinical significance and should be weighed against potential harms.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Neurite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ophthalmology ; 127(5): 589-598, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of patients with glaucoma do not take their medications as prescribed. Estimates of the cost-utility value of adherence to prescribed glaucoma medication are vital to implement potentially effective interventions. DESIGN: Cost-utility analysis using Monte Carlo microsimulations incorporating a series of Markov cycles (10 000 iterations per strategy). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with glaucoma aged ≥40 years with a full lifetime horizon (up to 60 years). METHODS: The analysis estimated glaucomatous progression on the basis of data from the United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study. Participants with glaucoma entered the model at age 40 years with a mean deviation in the better-seeing eye of -1.4±-1.9 decibels (dB) and -4.3±-3.4 dB in the worse-seeing eye. Participants whose glaucoma worsened each year accumulate -0.8 dB loss compared with -0.1 dB loss for those who remained stable. Data from the Glaucoma Laser Trial and the Tube versus Trabeculectomy Studies were used to assign probabilities of worsening disease among treated patients. Claims data estimating rates of glaucoma medication adherence over 4 years were used to assign probability of adherence. Those with poor adherence were modeled as having outcomes similar to the placebo arm of the clinical trials. As patients' mean deviation deteriorated, they transitioned between health states from mild (≥-6 dB), to moderate (<-6 to ≥-12 dB), to severe glaucoma (<-12 to ≥23 dB), to unilateral (<-20 dB) and bilateral blindness. At each health state, patients incurred the costs of treatment and established health utilities; ultimately, societal costs of low vision and blindness were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cost and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of glaucoma medication adherence. RESULTS: Beginning at an initial glaucoma diagnosis at age 40 years, patients proceeded to single-eye blindness as early as 19 years among those who were nonadherent and 23 years for those remaining adherent. Total healthcare costs for adherent patients averaged $62 782 (standard deviation [SD], 34 107), and those for nonadherent patients averaged $52 722 (SD, 38 868). Nonadherent patients had a mean loss of 0.34 QALYs, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of $29 600 per QALY gained. CONCLUSION: At a conservative willingness to pay of $50 000/QALY, there is room to expand services to improve patient adherence.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/economia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(6): 634-640, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946451

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with vision loss who are hospitalized for common illnesses are often not identified as requiring special attention. This perception, however, may affect the outcomes, resource use, and costs for these individuals. Objective: To assess whether the mean hospitalization lengths of stay, readmission rates, and costs of hospitalization differed between individuals with vision loss and those without when they are hospitalized for similar medical conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis of health care claims data used 2 sources: Medicare database and Clinformatics DataMart. Individuals with vision loss were matched 1:1 to those with no vision loss (NVL), on the basis of age, years from initial hospitalization, sex, race/ethnicity, urbanicity of residence, and overall health. Both groups had the same health insurance (Medicare or a commercial health plan), and all had been hospitalized for common illnesses. Vision loss was categorized as either partial vision loss (PVL) or severe vision loss (SVL). Data were analyzed from April 2015 through April 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes were lengths of stay, readmission rates, and health care costs during hospitalization and 90 days after discharge. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were built to identify factors associated with these outcomes among the NVL, PVL, and SVL groups. Results: Among Medicare beneficiaries, 6165 individuals with NVL (with a mean [SD] age of 82.0 [8.3] years, and 3833 [62.2%] of whom were female) were matched to 6165 with vision loss. Of those with vision loss, 3401 (55.2%) had PVL and 2764 (44.8%) had SVL. In the Clinformatics DataMart database, 5929 individuals with NVL (with a mean [SD] age of 73.7 [15.1] years, and 3587 [60.5%] of whom were female) were matched to 5929 individuals with vision loss. Of the commercially insured enrollees with vision loss, 3515 (59.3%) had PVL and 2414 (40.7%) had SVL. Medicare enrollees with SVL, compared with those with NVL, had longer mean lengths of stay (6.48 vs 5.26 days), higher readmission rates (23.1% vs 18.7%), and higher hospitalization and 90-day postdischarge costs ($64 711 vs $61 060). Compared with those with NVL, Medicare beneficiaries with SVL had 4% longer length of stay (estimated ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = .02), 22% higher odds of readmission (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; P = .007), and 12% higher costs (estimated cost ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < .001). Similar findings were obtained for those with commercial health insurance. When these findings were extrapolated to hospitalizations of patients with vision loss nationwide, an estimated amount of more than $500 million in additional costs annually were spent caring for these patients. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that opportunities for improving outcomes and reducing costs exist in addressing patients' vision loss and concomitant functional difficulties during hospitalization and thereafter.


Assuntos
Cegueira/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Baixa Visão/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 12: 2095-2102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410304

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize a pilot program using e-health to monitor glaucoma suspects in a large integrated health system. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients enrolled in the first 2 years of a new glaucoma suspect telemedicine monitoring program was conducted. Patients were enrolled in the program after being diagnosed as glaucoma suspects in the regular clinic setting and were eligible for the program if they had better than 20/40 vision, intraocular pressure (IOP) <25 mmHg, a normal baseline visual field, and an optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) without clear evidence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Patients were followed annually thereafter with measurements of vision, IOP, and OCT RNFL, which were reviewed at a centralized telemedicine reading center. Patients were retained within the program unless there was evidence of disease progression, in which case they were referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. The first 100 patients received a survey assessing their satisfaction with the program after their first visit. The number of patients who adhered to follow-up recommendations, who were referred to an ophthalmologist for additional evaluation, and who began on IOP-lowering medications was evaluated. Results: A total of 225 patients were enrolled in this program. Of eligible patients, 97.3% attended their 1-year follow-up visit and 92.5% attended their 2-year follow-up visit. Over the course of 2 years, five patients were referred for further clinic evaluation due to concern for progressive RNFL loss, of which two were started on IOP-lowering medications. No patients were referred to the clinic for vision loss or elevated IOP. In all, 87% of patients said that they would be extremely or quite likely to recommend the program to a friend. More than 80% of patients said that the program was extremely or very helpful, convenient, and professional. Conclusion: This novel telemedicine program for monitoring low-risk glaucoma suspects achieved high patient retention. Significant disease progression was rare with a few patients requiring referrals back to the clinic setting or initiation of IOP-lowering therapy. Telemedicine is a promising method to follow patients who are glaucoma suspects.

16.
J Glaucoma ; 27(11): 999-1008, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to ascertain determinants of unreadable fundus images for participants enrolled in the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study. METHODS: Individuals were screened for glaucoma at 7 primary care practices and 4 Federally Qualified Health Centers using telemedicine. Screening (visit 1) included fundus photography, assessing family history of glaucoma, and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Participants with an unreadable image in at least one eye were deemed unreadable and invited to return for a confirmatory eye examination (visit 2). RESULTS: A total of 906 participants completed the visit 1 eye screening and 17.1% (n=155/906) were "unreadable." In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age, male sex, smoking, and worse visual acuity were significantly associated with an unreadable fundus image finding at the eye screening (P<0.05). Of the 89 participants who were invited for the confirmatory eye examination solely for unreadable images and attended visit 2, 58 (65.2%) were diagnosed with at least one ocular pathology. The most frequent diagnoses were cataracts (n=71; 15 visually significant, 56 nonvisually significant), glaucoma suspects (n=27), and anatomical narrow angle (n=10). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the causes of unreadable fundus images will foster improvements in telemedicine techniques to optimize the predictive accuracy, efficiency, and cost in ophthalmology. A high proportion of participants with unreadable images (65.2%) in our study were diagnosed with some ocular pathology, indicating that the finding of an unreadable fundus image warrants a referral for a comprehensive follow-up eye examination.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Ocular/diagnóstico , Oftalmologia , Philadelphia , Fotografação , Acuidade Visual
17.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 4: 128, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062043

RESUMO

Background: About half of people with glaucoma do not adhere to their recommended medications. Interventions for other chronic conditions have successfully utilized reminder systems and motivational interviewing (MI)-based counseling. This study was designed to pilot a personalized intervention that leverages these strategies to assess their impact on medication adherence in glaucoma patients. Methods: Glaucoma patients taking ≥ 1 medication will be pre-screened by telephone survey for adherence to their medication(s). Those who self-report poor adherence will be enrolled in a 3-month monitoring period to measure medication adherence using electronic medication monitors. Participants who are non-adherent (take

19.
Eye Contact Lens ; 44(6): 384-389, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ophthalmologists assess eye complaints with a careful history and eye examination; however, other types of physicians have limited tools to evaluate anterior segment (AS) eye diseases. We identified the eye symptom questions that providers should ask to help determine the presence and urgency of AS eye diseases. METHODS: Persons with and without AS disease completed a self-report eye symptom questionnaire (ESQ) based on the National Institutes of Health Toolbox symptom items in an academic center's corneal and comprehensive eye clinics. Gold standard ophthalmic examination determined the presence and urgency of AS disease. The association between reported symptom severity and the probability of AS disease, or urgent AS disease, was evaluated using logistic regression models, and sensitivity and specificity of the ESQ were also calculated. RESULTS: A total of 324 eyes of 162 subjects were included in the study. Of these, AS disease was present in 255 eyes (79%); of which, 111 eyes showed urgent disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (odds ratio [OR]=2.58; P<0.001), glare (OR=2.61; P=0.001), and blurry vision (OR=1.98; P<0.001) were associated with increased odds of AS disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (OR=2.02; P<0.001), eye redness (OR=1.69; P=0.02), and blurry vision (OR=1.41, P=0.01) were associated with increased odds of urgent AS disease. For the primary analysis with mild symptoms considered relevant, the sensitivity of the ESQ to detect AS disease was 83% and to detect urgent AS disease was 92%. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of eye pain, glare, redness, and blurry vision indicate the presence and urgency of AS disease.


Assuntos
Segmento Anterior do Olho , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/normas , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor Ocular/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ofuscação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ophthalmology ; 125(3): 332-339, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify costs of eye care providers' Medicare Part D prescribing patterns for ophthalmic medications and to estimate the potential savings of generic or therapeutic drug substitutions and price negotiation. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Eye care providers prescribing medications through Medicare Part D in 2013. METHODS: Medicare Part D 2013 prescriber public use file and summary file were used to calculate medication costs by physician specialty and drug. Savings from generic or therapeutic drug substitutions were estimated for brand drugs. The potential savings from price negotiation was estimated using drug prices negotiated by the United States Veterans Administration (USVA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total cost of brand and generic medications prescribed by eye care providers. RESULTS: Eye care providers accounted for $2.4 billion in total Medicare part D prescription drug costs and generated the highest percentage of brand name medication claims compared with all other providers. Brand medications accounted for a significantly higher proportion of monthly supplies by volume, and therefore, also by total cost for eye care providers compared with all other providers (38% vs. 23% by volume, P < 0.001; 79% vs. 56% by total cost, P < 0.001). The total cost attributable to eye care providers is driven by glaucoma medications, accounting for $1.2 billion (54% of total cost; 72% of total volume). The second costliest category, dry eye medications, was attributable mostly to a single medication, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion (Restasis, Allergan, Irvine, CA), which has no generic alternative, accounting for $371 million (17% of total cost; 4% of total volume). If generic medications were substituted for brand medications when available, $148 million would be saved (7% savings); if generic and therapeutic substitutions were made, $882 million would be saved (42% savings). If Medicare negotiated the prices for ophthalmic medications at USVA rates, $1.09 billion would be saved (53% savings). CONCLUSIONS: Eye care providers prescribe more brand medications by volume than any other provider group. Efforts to reduce prescription expenditures by eye care providers should focus on increasing the use of generic medications, primarily through therapeutic substitutions. Policy changes enabling Medicare to negotiate prescription drug prices could decrease costs to Medicare.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicare Part D/economia , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/farmacologia , Redução de Custos , Estudos Transversais , Substituição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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