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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24094, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916545

RESUMO

The dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acts to modulate behaviours including cognitive control and motivation, and has been implicated in behavioral inhibition and responsivity to food cues. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of habitual eating behaviors and obesity risk, with potential mediation by development of the PFC. We previously found that genetic variations influencing DRD4 function or expression were associated with measures of laboratory and real-world eating behavior in girls and boys. Here we investigated brain responses to high energy-density (ED) and low-ED food cues using an fMRI task conducted in the satiated state. We used the gene-based association method PrediXcan to estimate tissue-specific DRD4 gene expression in prefrontal brain areas from individual genotypes. Among girls, those with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed lesser activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in a distributed network of regions implicated in attention and sensorimotor processing including middle frontal gyrus, and lesser activation to low-ED vs non-food cues in key regions implicated in valuation including orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial PFC. In contrast, males with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed minimal differences in food cue response, namely relatively greater activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in the inferior parietal lobule. Our data suggest sex-specific effects of prefrontal DRD4 on brain food responsiveness in adolescence, with modulation of distributed regions relevant to cognitive control and motivation observable in female adolescents.

2.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002345, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed a retrospective, single-institution study to characterize the pathological findings of testis tissue specimens from older boys and adolescents with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional review board approval, pathology reports were obtained for testicular specimens from patients age 10 years or older at a pediatric hospital from 1994 to 2016. Reports were excluded if they lacked clinical records, lacked testicular parenchyma, were from a descended testis or were from a patient with differences of sexual development. Variables of interest included age, testis location, procedure and pathological findings. Presence of malignancy among intra-abdominal versus extra-abdominal undescended testes was compared using Fisher's Exact Test. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients met inclusion criteria. The median age was 15.3 years (range 10.1-27.7). None had a history of testicular malignancy. Forty-five unilateral orchiectomies, 22 unilateral orchiopexies with biopsy and 4 bilateral procedures were performed. Seventeen testes (22.7%) were intra-abdominal, 42 (56.0%) were in the inguinal canal, 9 (12.0%) were at the external inguinal ring, 3 (4.0%) were in the superficial inguinal pouch and 4 (5.3%) were in the scrotum. Malignancy was detected in 2/71 patients (2.8%). By location, 2/16 patients (12.5%) with intra-abdominal testis and 0/55 patients (0%) with extra-abdominal testis demonstrated malignancy (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Among males with cryptorchidism ages 10 years and older without differences of sexual development, 2/16 patients with intra-abdominal testis and 0/55 patients with extra-abdominal testis demonstrated malignancy. In older boys and adolescents, orchiectomy or biopsy is indicated for intra-abdominal testes but may not be necessary for extra-abdominal undescended testes.

3.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; : 100176, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774759

RESUMO

Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by pelvic pain, and urinary frequency and/or urgency. As the proximal fluid of this syndrome, urine is an ideal candidate sample matrix for an unbiased study of UCPPS. In this study, a large, discovery-phase, TMT-based quantitative urinary proteomics analysis of 244 subjects was performed. The subjects included patients with UCPPS (n=82), healthy controls (HC) (n=94) and disparate chronic pain diseases, termed positive controls (PC) (n=68). Utilizing training and testing cohorts, we identified and validated a small and distinct set of proteins that distinguished UCPPS from HC (n=9) and UCPPS from PC (n=3). Validated UCPPS: HC proteins were predominantly ECM/ECM modifying or immunomodulatory/host defense in nature. Significantly varying proteins in the UCPPS: HC comparison were overrepresented by members of several dysregulated biological processes including decreased immune cell migration, decreased development of epithelial tissue and increased bleeding. Comparison with the PC cohort enabled evaluation of UCPPS-specific upstream regulators, contrasting UCPPS with other conditions that cause chronic pain. Specific to UCPPS were alterations in the predicted signaling of several upstream regulators, including alpha-catenin, IL6, EGF, and TGFB1, among others. These findings advance our knowledge of the etiology of UCPPS and inform potential future clinical translation into a diagnostic panel for UCPPS.

4.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sport-related concussions affect millions of individuals across the United States each year and current techniques to diagnose and monitor them rely largely on subjective measures. Our goal was to discover and validate objective, quantifiable non-invasive biomarkers with the potential to be used in sport-related concussion diagnosis. METHODS: Urine samples from a convenience series of healthy control collegiate athletes who had not sustained a concussion and athletes who sustained a concussion as diagnosed by a sports medicine physician within seven days were collected prospectively and studied. Participants also completed an instrumented single-task gait analysis as a functional measure. Participants were recruited from a single collegiate athletic program, were ≥18 years old, and were excluded if they had a concomitant injury, active psychiatric conditions or pre-existing neurological disorders. Using Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) mass spectroscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), urinary biomarkers of concussion were identified and validated. RESULTS: Forty-eight control and 47 concussion age- and sex-matched athletes were included in the study (51.6%F, 48.4%M, average age 19.6y). Participants represented both contact and non-contact sports. All but one of the post-concussion participants reported experiencing symptoms at the time of data collection. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) were downregulated in the urine of athletes with concussions compared to healthy controls. Multivariable risk algorithms developed to predict the probability of sport-related concussion showed that IGF-1 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity predicts concussion risk across a range of post-injury timepoints (AUC=0.786; 95% CI:0.690-0.884). When IGF-1 and IGFBP5 are multiplexed with single-task gait velocity, they accurately distinguish between healthy controls and concussion at acute timepoints (AUC=0.835, 95% CI:0.701-0·968, p<0.001). DISCUSSION: These noninvasive biomarkers, discovered in an objective and validated manner, may be useful in diagnosing and monitoring sport-related concussions in both acute phases of injury in addition to several days post-injury. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that urinary IGF-1 and IGFBP5 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity may be useful in diagnosing sport-related concussion. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02354469, submitted February 2015, first patient enrolled August 2015 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02354469).

5.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100392, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568521

RESUMO

The adverse effects of stress on brain and behavior have long been known and well-studied, with abundant evidence linking stress to, among other things, mood and anxiety disorders. Likewise, many have investigated potential treatments for stress-related mood and anxiety phenotypes and demonstrated good response to standard antidepressant medications like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as well as environmental manipulations like exercise or enrichment. However, the extent to which stress and various treatments act on overlapping pathways in the brain is less well understood. Here, we used a widely studied social defeat stress paradigm to induce a robust depression- and anxiety-like phenotype and chronic corticosterone elevation that persisted for at least 4 weeks in wild type male mice. When mice were treated with either the SSRI fluoxetine or an enriched environment, both led to similar behavioral recovery from social defeat. We then focused on the amygdala and assessed the effects of social defeat, fluoxetine, and enrichment on 168 genes broadly related to synaptic plasticity or oxidative stress. We found 24 differentially expressed genes in response to social defeat stress. Interestingly, fluoxetine led to broad normalization of the stress-induced expression pattern while enrichment led to expression changes in a separate set of genes. Together, this study provides additional insight into the chronic effects of social defeat stress on behavior and gene expression in the amygdala. The findings also suggest that, for a subset of genes assessed, fluoxetine and environmental enrichment have strikingly divergent effects on expression in the amygdala, despite leading to similar behavioral outcomes.

6.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538688

RESUMO

Children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are at an increased risk of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and renal scarring. Gut microbiota are associated with disease phenotypes, but there has been no study that associates urinary microbiota (uMB) and metabolic profiles with VUR pathology. To identify dominant uMB genera and metabolites associated with UTIs in VUR, urine samples collected under sterile conditions underwent 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing (n = 49) and metabolomic analysis by mass spectrometry (n = 96). Alterations in uMB and metabolomic profiles in VUR patients suggest remodeling of urinary bacterial communities after UTIs: Dorea- and Escherichia-dominant uMB profiles were more frequently identified in participants with VUR. Prevotella- and Lactobacillus-dominant uMB profiles were more prevalent in controls (p < 0.001). Microbial composition varied based on recurrent febrile UTI status (p = 0.001). A total of 243 urinary metabolites involved in energy, amino acid, nucleotide, and lipid metabolism were altered in VUR patients with UTIs (p < 0.05). Importantly, VUR specimens revealed changes in the bacteria-associated metabolic pathways such as glutamate degradation, methyl-citrate cycle, and bile acid metabolism. PATIENT SUMMARY: Differences in urinary commensal bacteria and metabolites exist between children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). These changes may be utilized to identify patients at risk of VUR-associated kidney damage.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(12): e5124-e5135, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265046

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) or stress increases the risk of medical disorders, including cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. GCs contribute to accelerated aging; however, while the link between chronic GC exposure and disease onset is well established, the underpinning mechanisms are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential nexus between GCs or stress exposure and telomere length. METHODS: In addition to rats exposed to 3 weeks of chronic stress, an iatrogenic mouse model of Cushing syndrome (CS), and a mouse neuronal cell line, we studied 32 patients with CS and age-matched controls and another cohort of 75 healthy humans. RESULTS: (1) Exposure to stress in rats was associated with a 54.5% (P = 0.036) reduction in telomere length in T cells. Genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from the dentate gyrus of stressed and unstressed rats showed 43.2% reduction in telomere length (P = 0.006). (2) Mice exposed to corticosterone had a 61.4% reduction in telomere length in blood gDNA (P = 5.75 × 10-5) and 58.8% reduction in telomere length in the dentate gyrus (P = 0.002). (3) We observed a 40.8% reduction in the telomere length in patients with active CS compared to healthy controls (P = 0.006). There was a 17.8% reduction in telomere length in cured CS patients, which was not different from that of healthy controls (P = 0.08). For both cured and active CS, telomere length correlated significantly with duration of hypercortisolism (R2 = 0.22, P = 0.007). (4) There was a 27.6% reduction in telomere length between low and high tertiles in bedtime cortisol levels of healthy participants (P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that exposure to stress and/or GCs is associated with shortened telomeres, which may be partially reversible.

8.
Stress ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279166

RESUMO

Allostatic load (AL) refers to the cumulative "wear and tear" on an organism throughout its lifetime. One of the primary contributing factors to AL is prolonged exposure to stress or its primary catabolic agent cortisol. Chronic exposure to stress or cortisol is associated with numerous diseases, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a molecular marker capable of integrating a past history of cortisol exposure would be of great utility for assessing disease risk. To this end, we recruited 87 healthy males and females of European ancestry between 18 and 60 years old, extracted genomic DNA and RNA from leukocytes, and implemented a gene-centric DNA enrichment method coupled with bisulfite sequencing and RNA-Seq of total RNA for the determination of genome-wide methylation and gene transcription, respectively. Sequencing data were analyzed against awakening and bedtime cortisol data to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and CpGs (DMCs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Six candidate DMCs (punadjusted < 0.005) and nine DEGs (punadjusted < 0.0005) were used to construct a prediction model that could capture past 30+ days of both bedtime and awakening cortisol levels. Utilizing a cross-validation approach, we obtained a regression coefficient of R2 = 0.308 for predicting continuous awakening cortisol and an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.753 for dichotomous (high vs. low tertile) awakening cortisol, and R2 = 0.224 and AUC = 0.723 for continuous and dichotomous bedtime cortisol levels, respectively. To our knowledge, the current study represents the first attempt to identify genome-wide predictors of cortisol exposure that utilizes both methylation and transcription targets. The utility of our approach needs to be replicated in an independent cohort of samples for which similar cortisol metrics are available.

9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 136, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equal dosage of X-linked genes between males and females is maintained by the X-inactivation of the second X chromosome in females through epigenetic mechanisms. Boys with aneuploidy of the X chromosome exhibit a host of symptoms such as low fertility, musculoskeletal anomalies, and cognitive and behavioral deficits that are presumed to be caused by the abnormal dosage of these genes. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the relationship between CpG methylation, an epigenetic modification, at several genes on the X chromosome and behavioral dysfunction in boys with supernumerary X chromosomes. RESULTS: Two parental questionnaires, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), were analyzed, and they showed expected differences in both internal and external behaviors between neurotypical (46,XY) boys and boys with 49,XXXXY. There were several CpGs in AR and MAOA of boys with 49,XXXXY whose methylation levels were skewed from levels predicted from having one active (Xa) and three inactive (Xi) X chromosomes. Further, methylation levels of multiple CpGs in MAOA showed nominally significant association with externalizing behavior on the CBCL, and the methylation level of one CpG in AR showed nominally significant association with the BRIEF Regulation Index. CONCLUSIONS: Boys with 49,XXXXY displayed higher levels of CpG methylation at regulatory intronic regions in X-linked genes encoding the androgen receptor (AR) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), compared to that in boys with 47,XXY and neurotypical boys. Our pilot study results suggest a link between CpG methylation levels and behavior in boys with 49,XXXXY.

10.
RNA ; 27(9): 1046-1067, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162742

RESUMO

RNA exosomopathies, a growing family of diseases, are linked to missense mutations in genes encoding structural subunits of the evolutionarily conserved, 10-subunit exoribonuclease complex, the RNA exosome. This complex consists of a three-subunit cap, a six-subunit, barrel-shaped core, and a catalytic base subunit. While a number of mutations in RNA exosome genes cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia, mutations in the cap subunit gene EXOSC2 cause an apparently distinct clinical presentation that has been defined as a novel syndrome SHRF (short stature, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and distinctive facies). We generated the first in vivo model of the SHRF pathogenic amino acid substitutions using budding yeast by modeling pathogenic EXOSC2 missense mutations (p.Gly30Val and p.Gly198Asp) in the orthologous S. cerevisiae gene RRP4 The resulting rrp4 mutant cells show defects in cell growth and RNA exosome function. Consistent with altered RNA exosome function, we detect significant transcriptomic changes in both coding and noncoding RNAs in rrp4-G226D cells that model EXOSC2 p.Gly198Asp, suggesting defects in nuclear surveillance. Biochemical and genetic analyses suggest that the Rrp4 G226D variant subunit shows impaired interactions with key RNA exosome cofactors that modulate the function of the complex. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that pathogenic missense mutations present in EXOSC2 impair the function of the RNA exosome. This study also sets the stage to compare exosomopathy models to understand how defects in RNA exosome function underlie distinct pathologies.


Assuntos
Exorribonucleases/genética , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , RNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Ácido Aspártico/química , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Nanismo/enzimologia , Nanismo/genética , Nanismo/patologia , Exorribonucleases/química , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/química , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/metabolismo , Facies , Expressão Gênica , Glicina/química , Glicina/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/enzimologia , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , RNA Fúngico/química , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Retinite Pigmentosa/enzimologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Síndrome
11.
J Proteome Res ; 20(5): 2662-2672, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650863

RESUMO

The glycoprotein uromodulin (UMOD) is the most abundant protein in urine, and N-glycans are critical for many biological functions of UMOD. Comprehensive glycan profiling of UMOD provides valuable information to understand the exact mechanisms of glycan-regulated functions. To perform comprehensive glycosylation analysis of UMOD from urine samples with limited volumes, we developed a streamlined workflow that included UMOD isolation from 5 mL of urine from 6 healthy adult donors (3 males and 3 females) and a glycosylation analysis using a highly sensitive and reproducible nanoLC-MS/MS based glycomics approach. In total, 212 N-glycan compositions were identified from the purified UMOD, and 17% were high-mannose glycans, 2% were afucosylated/asialylated, 3% were neutral fucosylated, 28% were sialylated (with no fucose), 46% were fucosylated and sialylated, and 4% were sulfated. We found that isolation of UMOD resulted in a significant decrease in the relative quantity of high-mannose and sulfated glycans with a significant increase of neutral fucosylated glycans in the UMOD-depleted urine relative to the undepleted urine, but depletion had little impact on the sialylated glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform comprehensive N-glycan profiling of UMOD using nanoLC-MS/MS. This analytical workflow would be very beneficial for studies with limited sample size, such as pediatric studies, and can be applied to larger patient cohorts not only for UMOD interrogation but also for global glycan analysis.


Assuntos
Glicômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Polissacarídeos , Uromodulina
13.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147561

RESUMO

Early identification of kidney function deterioration is essential to determine which newborn patients with congenital kidney disease should be considered for surgical intervention as opposed to observation. Kidney function can be measured by fitting a tracer kinetic (TK) model onto a series of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MR images and estimating the filtration rate parameter from the model. Unfortunately, breathing and large bulk motion events due to patient movement in the scanner create outliers and misalignments that introduce large errors in the TK model parameter estimates even when using a motion-robust dynamic radial VIBE sequence for DCE-MR imaging. The misalignments between the series of volumes are difficult to correct using standard registration due to 1) the large differences in geometry and contrast between volumes of the dynamic sequence and 2) the requirement of fast dynamic imaging to achieve high temporal resolution and motion deteriorates image quality. These difficulties reduce the accuracy and stability of registration over the dynamic sequence. An alternative registration approach is to generate noise and motion free templates of the original data from the TK model and use them to register each volume to its contrast-matched template. However, the TK models used to characterize DCE-MRI are tissue specific, non-linear and sensitive to the same motion and sampling artifacts that hinder registration in the first place. Hence, these can only be applied to register accurately pre-segmented regions of interest, such as kidneys, and might converge to local minima under the presence of large artifacts. Here we introduce a novel linear time invariant (LTI) model to characterize DCE-MR data for different tissue types within a volume. We approximate the LTI model as a sparse sum of first order LTI functions to introduce robustness to motion and sampling artifacts. Hence, this model is well suited for registration of the entire field of view of DCE-MR data with artifacts and outliers. We incorporate this LTI model into a registration framework and evaluate it on both synthetic data and data from 20 children. For each subject, we reconstructed the sequence of DCE-MR images, detected corrupted volumes acquired during motion, aligned the sequence of volumes and recovered the corrupted volumes using the LTI model. The results show that our approach correctly aligned the volumes, provided the most stable registration in time and improved the tracer kinetic model fit.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Artefatos , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Movimento (Física)
14.
Epigenetics ; 16(12): 1377-1397, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319620

RESUMO

Exposure to stress or glucocorticoids (GCs) is associated with epigenetic and transcriptional changes in genes that either mediate or are targets of GC signalling. FKBP5 (FK506 binding protein 5) is one such gene that also plays a central role in negative feedback regulation of GC signalling and several stress-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, we sought to examine how the mouse Fkbp5 gene is regulated in a neuronal context and identify requisite factors that can mediate the epigenetic sequelae of excess GC exposure. Mice treated with GCs were used to establish the widespread changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) and expression of Fkbp5 across four brain regions. Then two cell lines were used to test the persistence, decay, and functional significance of GC-induced methylation changes near two GC response elements (GREs) in the fifth intron of Fkbp5. We also tested the involvement of DNMT1, cell proliferation, and MeCP2 in mediating the effect of GCs on DNAm and gene activation. DNAm changes at some CpGs persist while others decay, and reduced methylation states are associated with a more robust transcriptional response. Importantly, the ability to undergo GC-induced DNAm loss is tied to DNMT1 function during cell division. Further, GC-induced DNAm loss is associated with reduced binding of MeCP2 at intron 5 and a physical interaction between the fifth intron and promoter of Fkbp5. Our results highlight several key factors at the Fkbp5 locus that may have important implications for GC- or stress-exposure during early stages of neurodevelopment.

15.
J Urol ; 205(2): 514-523, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We analyzed a series of novel noninvasive urinary biomarkers for their ability to objectively monitor the longitudinal clinical status of patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline, 6 and 12-month urine samples were collected (216) and used to quantify vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (R1), neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MMP-9/NGAL complex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patient symptom changes were classified as improved, stable or worse using a functional clustering algorithm. Proportional odds models were used to evaluate the association between symptom change and urinary biomarkers. RESULTS: Across all sampled participants, longitudinal decreases in normalized VEGF concentration (pg/µg) were associated with pain severity improvement, and decreases in MMP-9, NGAL and VEGF-R1 concentration (pg/ml) as well as NGAL normalized concentration were associated with improved urinary symptoms. Longitudinal decreases in normalized VEGF-R1 were associated with pain improvement in patients with moderate widespreadness, no bladder symptoms and no painful filling. Lower baseline normalized VEGF-R1 concentration was associated with pain improvement in patients with pelvic pain only. Higher baseline MMP-9/NGAL levels were associated with pain and urinary improvement across all participants. Moreover, longitudinal increases in MMP-2 concentration was associated with improved pain in men and patients with painful filling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest these urinary biomarkers may be useful in monitoring urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom changes with respect to both urinary severity and pain severity. With further testing, they may represent objective biological measures of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome progression and/or resolution while also providing insight into the pathophysiology of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/urina , Dor Pélvica/urina , Doenças Urológicas/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18513, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116174

RESUMO

Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (NDEL1) enzyme activity is important for neuritogenesis, neuronal migration, and neurodevelopment. We reported previously lower NDEL1 enzyme activity in blood of treated first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) compared to healthy control subjects, with even lower activity in treatment resistant chronic SCZ patients, implicating NDEL1 activity in SCZ. Herein, higher NDEL1 activity was observed in the blood and several brain regions of a validated animal model for SCZ at baseline. In addition, long-term treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotics, under conditions in which SCZ-like phenotypes were reported to be reversed in this animal model for SCZ, showed a significant NDEL1 activity reduction in blood and brain regions which is in line with clinical data. Importantly, these results support measuring NDEL1 enzyme activity in the peripheral blood to predict changes in NDEL1 activity in the CNS. Also, acute administration of psychostimulants, at levels reported to induce SCZ-like phenotype in normal rat strains, increased NDEL1 enzyme activity in blood. Therefore, alterations in NDEL1 activity after treatment with antipsychotics or psychostimulants may suggest a possible modulation of NDEL1 activity secondary to neurotransmission homeostasis and provide new insights into the role of NDEL1 in SCZ pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/farmacologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/sangue , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
17.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 326, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020484

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA Knowledgebase (lncRNAKB) is an integrated resource for exploring lncRNA biology in the context of tissue-specificity and disease association. A systematic integration of annotations from six independent databases resulted in 77,199 human lncRNA (224,286 transcripts). The user-friendly knowledgebase covers a comprehensive breadth and depth of lncRNA annotation. lncRNAKB is a compendium of expression patterns, derived from analysis of RNA-seq data in thousands of samples across 31 solid human normal tissues (GTEx). Thousands of co-expression modules identified via network analysis and pathway enrichment to delineate lncRNA function are also accessible. Millions of expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) computed using whole genome sequence genotype data (GTEx) can be downloaded at lncRNAKB that also includes tissue-specificity, phylogenetic conservation and coding potential scores. Tissue-specific lncRNA-trait associations encompassing 323 GWAS (UK Biobank) are also provided. LncRNAKB is accessible at http://www.lncrnakb.org/ , and the data are freely available through Open Science Framework ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/RU4D2 ).


Assuntos
Bases de Conhecimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
18.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(11): 1767-1776, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737218

RESUMO

We performed an in-depth characterization and comparison of the pediatric and adult urinary glycomes using a nanoLC-MS/MS based glycomics method, which included normal healthy pediatric (1-10 years, n = 21) and adult (21-50 years, n = 22) individuals. A total of 116 N-glycan compositions were identified, and 46 of them could be reproducibly quantified. We performed quantitative comparisons of the 46 glycan compositions between different age and sex groups. The results showed significant quantitative changes between the pediatric and adult cohorts. The pediatric urinary N-glycome was found to contain a higher level of high-mannose (HM), asialylated/afucosylated glycans (excluding HM), neutral fucosylated and agalactosylated glycans, and a lower level of trisialylated glycans compared with the adult. We further analyzed gender-associated glycan changes in the pediatric and adult group, respectively. In the pediatric group, there was almost no difference of glycan levels between males and females. In adult, the majority of glycans were more abundant in males than females, except the high-mannose and tetrasialylated glycans. These findings highlight the importance to consider age-matching and adult sex-matching for urinary glycan studies. The identified normal pediatric and adult urinary glycomes can serve as a baseline reference for comparisons to other disease states affected by glycosylation.


Assuntos
Glicômica/métodos , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fucose/urina , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Manose/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589693

RESUMO

Body weight is substantially determined by eating behaviors, which are themselves driven by biological factors interacting with the environment. Previous studies in young children suggest that genetic influences on dopamine function may confer differential susceptibility to the environment in such a way that increases behavioral obesity risk in a lower socioeconomic status (SES) environment but decreases it in a higher SES environment. We aimed to test if this pattern of effect could also be observed in adolescence, another critical period for development in brain and behavior, using a novel measure of predicted expression of the dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) gene in prefrontal cortex. In a sample of 76 adolescents (37 boys and 39 girls from Baltimore, Maryland/US, aged 14-18y), we estimated individual levels of DRD4 gene expression (PredDRD4) in prefrontal cortex from individual genomic data using PrediXcan, and tested interactions with a composite SES score derived from their annual household income, maternal education, food insecurity, perceived resource availability, and receipt of public assistance. Primary outcomes were snack intake during a multi-item ad libitum meal test, and food-related impulsivity assessed using a food-adapted go/no-go task. A linear regression model adjusted for sex, BMI z-score, and genetic ethnicity demonstrated a PredDRD4 by composite SES score interaction for snack intake (p = 0.009), such that adolescents who had lower PredDRD4 levels exhibited greater snack intake in the lower SES group, but lesser snack intake in the higher SES group. Exploratory analysis revealed a similar pattern for scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (p = 0.001) such that the low PredDRD4 group reported higher stress in the lower SES group, but less stress in the higher SES group, suggesting that PredDRD4 may act in part by affecting perceptions of the environment. These results are consistent with a differential susceptibility model in which genes influencing environmental responsiveness interact with environments varying in obesogenicity to confer behavioral obesity risk in a less favorable environment, but behavioral obesity protection in a favorable one.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Lanches , Adolescente , Baltimore , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos , Receptores de Dopamina D4/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
20.
Urology ; 145: 250-252, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531466

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric necrotizing fasciitis are strongly dependent on early diagnosis and timely intervention. Yet, the lack of early cutaneous findings and nonspecific symptoms may result in initial delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Infants may be particularly at risk of missed or delayed diagnosis due to inherent barriers in communication and rarity of the condition, especially among healthy patients. We describe 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis following routine genitourinary surgery in healthy infants.

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