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1.
JAMA ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062674

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with chronic illness frequently use Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) to document treatment limitations. Objectives: To evaluate the association between POLST order for medical interventions and intensive care unit (ICU) admission for patients hospitalized near the end of life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patients with POLSTs and with chronic illness who died between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017, and were hospitalized 6 months or less before death in a 2-hospital academic health care system. Exposures: POLST order for medical interventions ("comfort measures only" vs "limited additional interventions" vs "full treatment"), age, race/ethnicity, education, days from POLST completion to admission, histories of cancer or dementia, and admission for traumatic injury. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the association between POLST order and ICU admission during the last hospitalization of life; the secondary outcome was receipt of a composite of 4 life-sustaining treatments: mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, dialysis, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For evaluating factors associated with POLST-discordant care, the outcome was ICU admission contrary to POLST order for medical interventions during the last hospitalization of life. Results: Among 1818 decedents (mean age, 70.8 [SD, 14.7] years; 41% women), 401 (22%) had POLST orders for comfort measures only, 761 (42%) had orders for limited additional interventions, and 656 (36%) had orders for full treatment. ICU admissions occurred in 31% (95% CI, 26%-35%) of patients with comfort-only orders, 46% (95% CI, 42%-49%) with limited-interventions orders, and 62% (95% CI, 58%-66%) with full-treatment orders. One or more life-sustaining treatments were delivered to 14% (95% CI, 11%-17%) of patients with comfort-only orders and to 20% (95% CI, 17%-23%) of patients with limited-interventions orders. Compared with patients with full-treatment POLSTs, those with comfort-only and limited-interventions orders were significantly less likely to receive ICU admission (comfort only: 123/401 [31%] vs 406/656 [62%], aRR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.45-0.62]; limited interventions: 349/761 [46%] vs 406/656 [62%], aRR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.71-0.87]). Across patients with comfort-only and limited-interventions POLSTs, 38% (95% CI, 35%-40%) received POLST-discordant care. Patients with cancer were significantly less likely to receive POLST-discordant care than those without cancer (comfort only: 41/181 [23%] vs 80/220 [36%], aRR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.43-0.85]; limited interventions: 100/321 [31%] vs 215/440 [49%], aRR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.51-0.78]). Patients with dementia and comfort-only orders were significantly less likely to receive POLST-discordant care than those without dementia (23/111 [21%] vs 98/290 [34%], aRR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.29-0.67]). Patients admitted for traumatic injury were significantly more likely to receive POLST-discordant care (comfort only: 29/64 [45%] vs 92/337 [27%], aRR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.14]; limited interventions: 51/91 [56%] vs 264/670 [39%], aRR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.09-1.68]). In patients with limited-interventions orders, older age was significantly associated with less POLST-discordant care (aRR, 0.93 per 10 years [95% CI, 0.88-1.00]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with POLSTs and with chronic life-limiting illness who were hospitalized within 6 months of death, treatment-limiting POLSTs were significantly associated with lower rates of ICU admission compared with full-treatment POLSTs. However, 38% of patients with treatment-limiting POLSTs received intensive care that was potentially discordant with their POLST.

2.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(2): 171-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248675

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) forms are intended to help prevent the provision of unwanted medical interventions among patients with advanced illness or frailty who are approaching the end of life. We seek to evaluate how POLST form completion, treatment limitations, or both influence intensity of treatment among patients who present to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults who presented to the ED at an academic medical center in Oregon between April 2015 and October 2016. POLST form completion and treatment limitations were the main exposures. Primary outcome was hospital admission; secondary outcomes included ICU admission and a composite measure of aggressive treatment. RESULTS: A total of 26,128 patients were included; 1,769 (6.8%) had completed POLST forms. Among patients with POLST, 52.1% had full treatment orders, and 6.4% had their forms accessed before admission. POLST form completion was not associated with hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.12), ICU admission (aOR=0.82; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.22), or aggressive treatment (aOR=1.06; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.51). Compared with POLST forms with full treatment orders, those with treatment limitations were not associated with hospital admission (aOR=1.12; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.37) or aggressive treatment (aOR=0.87; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.52), but were associated with lower odds of ICU admission (aOR=0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.61). CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting to the ED with POLST, the majority of POLST forms had orders for full treatment and were not accessed by emergency providers. These findings may partially explain why we found no association of POLST with treatment intensity. However, treatment limitations on POLST forms were associated with reduced odds of ICU admission. Implementation and accessibility of POLST forms are crucial when considering their effect on the provision of treatment consistent with patients' preferences.

3.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 58(5): 857-863.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349036

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Advance care planning (ACP) is difficult in the setting of a life-threatening trauma but may be equally important in this context, especially with increasing numbers of trauma victims being elderly or having multimorbidity. OBJECTIVES: Identify predictors of absent ACP documentation in the electronic health records of patients with underlying chronic illness who died of traumatic injury. METHODS: We used death records and electronic health records to identify decedents with chronic life-limiting illness who died of traumatic injury between 2010 and 2015 and to evaluate factors associated with documentation of living wills, durable powers of attorney, or physician orders for life-sustaining treatment. RESULTS: Only 22% of decedents had ACP documentation at time of injury. Among those without preinjury ACP documentation, 4% completed ACP documentation after injury. In multipredictor analyses, patients were less likely to have ACP documentation at the time of injury if they were younger (P < 0.001), had fewer chronic illnesses (P = 0.002), and had fewer nonsurgical hospitalizations (P = 0.042) in the year before injury. Among patients without ACP documentation before injury, those with fewer postinjury nonsurgical hospitalizations were less likely to complete ACP documentation after injury (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patient characteristics play an important role in the completion of ACP among patients with chronic life-limiting illness and who died from sudden severe injury. Interventions to improve ACP completion by patients with serious chronic conditions have the potential for increasing goal-concordant care in the event of traumatic injury.

4.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 58(4): 567-577.e1, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228534

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prioritizing among potentially conflicting end-of-life values may help patients discriminate among treatments and allow clinicians to align treatments with values. OBJECTIVES: To investigate end-of-life values that patients prioritize when facing explicit trade-offs and identify predictors of patients whose values and treatment preferences seem inconsistent. METHODS: Analysis of surveys from a multi-center cluster-randomized trial of patients with serious illness. Respondents prioritized end-of-life values and identified cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) preferences in two health states. RESULTS: Of 535 patients, 60% prioritized relief of discomfort over extending life, 17% prioritized extending life over relief of discomfort, and 23% were unsure. Patients prioritizing extending life were most likely to prefer CPR, with 93% preferring CPR in current health and 67% preferring CPR if dependent on others, compared with 69% and 21%, respectively, for patients prioritizing relief of discomfort, and 78% and 33%, respectively, for patients unsure of their prioritized value (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Among patients prioritizing relief of discomfort, preference for CPR in current health was less likely among older patients (odds ratio 0.958 per year; 95% CI 0.935, 0.981) and more likely with better self-perceived health (odds ratio 1.402 per level of health; 95% CI 1.090, 1.804). CONCLUSION: Clinicians face challenges as they clarify patient values and align treatments with values. Patients' values predicted CPR preferences, but a substantial proportion of patients expressed CPR preferences that appeared potentially inconsistent with their primary value. Clinicians should question assumptions about relationships between values and CPR preferences. Further research is needed to identify ways to use values to guide treatment decisions.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(7): 613-625, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122895

RESUMO

For patients with chronic, life-limiting illnesses, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) near the end of life might not improve patient outcomes or be consistent with patient and family values, goals, and preferences. In this context, advance care planning and palliative care interventions designed to clarify patients' values, goals, and preferences have the potential to reduce provision of high-intensity interventions that are unwanted or non-beneficial. In this Series paper, we have assessed interventions that are effective at helping patients with chronic, life-limiting illnesses to avoid an unwanted ICU admission. The evidence found was largely from observational studies, with considerable heterogeneity in populations, methods, and types of interventions. Results from randomised trials of interventions to improve communication about goals of care are scarce, of variable quality, and mixed. Although observational studies show that advance care planning and palliative care interventions are associated with a reduced number of ICU admissions at the end of life, causality has not been well established. Using the available evidence we suggest recommendations to help to avoid ICU admission when it does not align with patient and family values, goals, and preferences and conclude with future directions for research.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 47(7): 934-941, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Family members of ICU survivors report long-term psychologic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We describe patient- and family-member risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among family members of survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of family members of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors. SETTING: Single tertiary care center in Seattle, Washington. SUBJECTS: From 2010 to 2015, we assembled an inception cohort of adult acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors who identified family members involved in ICU and post-ICU care. One-hundred sixty-two family members enrolled in the study, corresponding to 120 patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Family members were assessed for self-reported psychologic symptoms 6 months after patient discharge using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item depression scale, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale. The primary outcome was posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and anxiety. We used clustered multivariable logistic regression to identify patient- and family-member risk factors for psychologic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were present in 31% (95% CI, 24-39%) of family participants. Family member risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included preexisting mental health disorders (adjusted odds ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.42-7.31), recent personal experience of serious physical illness (adjusted odds ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.40-6.75), and female gender (adjusted odds ratio, 5.18; 95% CI, 1.74-15.4). Family members of previously healthy patients (Charlson index of zero) had higher frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.06-4.77). Markers of patient illness severity were not associated with family posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of long-term posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among family members of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors is high. Family members with preexisting mental health disorders, recent experiences of serious physical illness, and family members of previously healthy patients are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

7.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 55(1): 75-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887270

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent analyses of Medicare data show decreases over time in intensity of end-of-life care. Few studies exist regarding trends in intensity of end-of-life care for those under 65 years of age. OBJECTIVES: To examine recent temporal trends in place of death, and both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, for age-stratified decedents with chronic, life-limiting diagnoses (<65 vs. ≥65 years) who received care in a large healthcare system. METHODS: Retrospective cohort using death certificates and electronic health records for 22,068 patients with chronic illnesses who died between 2010 and 2015. We examined utilization overall and stratified by age using multiple regression. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths at home did not change, but hospital admissions in the last 30 days of life decreased significantly from 2010 to 2015 (hospital b = -0.026; CI = -0.041, -0.012). ICU admissions in the last 30 days also declined over time for the full sample and for patients aged 65 years or older (overall b = -0.023; CI = -0.039, -0.007), but was not significant for younger decedents. Length of stay (LOS) did not decrease for those using the hospital or ICU. CONCLUSION: From 2010 to 2015, we observed a decrease in hospital admissions for all age groups and in ICU admissions for those over 65 years. As there were no changes in the proportion of patients with chronic illness who died at home nor in hospital or ICU LOS in the last 30 days, hospital and ICU admissions in the last 30 days may be a more responsive quality metric than site of death or LOS for palliative care interventions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Crônica/terapia , Assistência Terminal/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Palliat Med ; 21(S2): S52-S60, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As our population ages and the burden of chronic illness rises, there is increasing need to implement quality metrics that measure and benchmark care of the seriously ill, including the delivery of both primary care and specialty palliative care. Such metrics can be used to drive quality improvement, value-based payment, and accountability for population-based outcomes. METHODS: In this article, we examine use of the electronic health record (EHR) as a tool to assess quality of serious illness care through narrative review and description of a palliative care quality metrics program in a large healthcare system. RESULTS: In the search for feasible, reliable, and valid palliative care quality metrics, the EHR is an attractive option for collecting quality data on large numbers of seriously ill patients. However, important challenges to using EHR data for quality improvement and accountability exist, including understanding the validity, reliability, and completeness of the data, as well as acknowledging the difference between care documented and care delivered. Challenges also include developing achievable metrics that are clearly linked to patient and family outcomes and addressing data interoperability across sites as well as EHR platforms and vendors. This article summarizes the strengths and weakness of the EHR as a data source for accountability of community- and population-based programs for serious illness, describes the implementation of EHR data in the palliative care quality metrics program at the University of Washington, and, based on that experience, discusses opportunities and challenges. Our palliative care metrics program was designed to serve as a resource for other healthcare systems. DISCUSSION: Although the EHR offers great promise for enhancing quality of care provided for the seriously ill, significant challenges remain to operationalizing this promise on a national scale and using EHR data for population-based quality and accountability.

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