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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223310

RESUMO

Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is frequently observed in patients with kidney disease. Although a substantial number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that an elevated uric acid level plays a causative role in the development and progression of kidney disease, whether hyperuricemia is simply a result of decreased renal excretion of uric acid or is a contributor to kidney disease remains a matter of debate. Over the last two decades, multiple experimental studies have expanded the knowledge of the biological effects of uric acid beyond its role in gout. In particular, uric acid induces immune system activation and alters the characteristics of resident kidney cells, such as tubular cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, toward a proinflammatory and profibrotic state. These findings have led to an increased awareness of uric acid as a potential and modifiable risk factor in kidney disease. Here, we discuss the effects of uric acid on the immune system and subsequently review the effects of uric acid on the kidneys mainly in the context of inflammation.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 86, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). However, evidence is still insufficient about the association between dialysis parameters and VC. Thus, this study was to evaluate association of dialysis parameters with VC. METHODS: We enrolled 297 ESRD patients undergoing MHD at six distinct centers in Korea. Study participants were categorized into 3 groups by the scoring system of abdominal aortic calcification based on lateral lumbar radiography (no VC group: 0, mild VC group: 1-7 and advanced VC group: 8-24). We compared the features of dialysis parameters according to the severity of VC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mild and advanced VC in each haemodialysis parameter (adjusted OR [95% CI]). RESULTS: Pooled Kt/V (spKt/V), equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V), standard Kt/V (stdKt/V) and the proportion of haemodiafiltration were increased along with the severity of VC. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that advanced VC was positively associated with spKt/V (5.27 [1.51-18.41]), eKt/V (6.16 [1.45-26.10]), stdKt/V (10.67 [1.74-65.52]) and haemodiafiltration (3.27 [1.74 to 6.16]). CONCLUSION: High dose dialysis and haemodiafiltration were significantly associated with advanced VC.

3.
J Med Food ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150484

RESUMO

Aster glehni extracts (AGE) reduced serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemia rats in several previous studies. However, its efficacy in human has not been yet explored. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of AGE on the anti-hyperuricemia effect in subjects with slightly high serum uric acid. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 12 weeks. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to either AGE (480 mg/day) or placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in serum uric acid concentrations from baseline to follow-up time points. The secondary endpoints were the change of serum xanthine oxidase activity, and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the blood from baseline to follow-up time points. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory parameters and adverse events reported by subjects. Six weeks of AGE supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid level from baseline (P = .0468) but at the end of the intervention the participants did not show the beneficial effect of AGE supplementation. Also, the serum uric acid level in the AGE group was not significantly different at the follow-up time points, when compared with placebo. The mean changes of secondary endpoints from baseline to each time point did not show significant differences within and between the two groups. There were no adverse events reported by subjects or changes in safety parameters after intervention. In conclusion, AGE supplementation for 12 weeks did not show significant benefits for reducing serum uric acid concentrations in subjects with mild hyperuricemia.

4.
Biomaterials ; 245: 119974, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220799

RESUMO

Despite being crucial for combating microbes, paradoxical Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling have been associated with the aggravation of multiple immune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The stoichiometry and precise arrangement of the interaction of adapters (via their Toll/interleukin-1 receptor [TIR] domains) are indispensable for the activation of TLRs and of downstream signaling cascades. Among adapters, plasma membrane-anchored MyD88 adaptor-like (MAL) has the potential for BB-loop-mediated self-oligomerization and interacts with other TIR domain-containing adaptors through αC and αD helices. Here, we used information on the MAL-αC interface to exploit its pharmacophores and to design a decoy peptide (MIP2) with broad-range TLR-inhibitory abilities. MIP2 abrogated MyD88- and TRIF-dependent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 signaling in murine and human cell lines and manifested a therapeutic potential in models of psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and sepsis. Levels of hallmark serological and histological biomarkers were significantly restored and the disease symptoms were substantially ameliorated by MIP2 treatment of the animals. Collectively, our biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo findings suggest that MIP2 has broad specificity for TLRs and may be effective in modulating autoimmune complications caused by microbial or environmental factors.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036641

RESUMO

Background: Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) offers considerable advantages in clearance of molecules of various sizes. However, evidence of clinical effects of OL-HDF is scarce in Korea. In this study, we investigated changes in laboratory values over more than 12 months after switching to OL-HDF. Methods: Adult patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were prospectively enrolled in a K-cohort (CRIS no. KCT0003281) from 6 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We recruited 435 patients, 339 of whom were on HD at enrollment. One hundred eighty-two patients were followed for more than 24 months. Among them, 44 were switched to OL-HDF for more than 12 months without conversion to HD. We used a paired t test to compare baseline and 24-month follow-up results. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 61.2 ± 12.2 years, and 62.6% were male. The baseline hemoglobin level was not significantly different between HD and OL-HDF group (10.61 ± 1.15 vs. 10.46 ± 1.03 g/dL, P = 0.437). However, the baseline serum protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the OL-HDF group (6.82 ± 0.49 vs. 6.59 ± 0.48 g/dL, P = 0.006; 3.93 ± 0.28 vs. 3.73 ± 0.29 g/dL, P < 0.001). In patients switched to OL-HDF, levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin significantly increased (10.46 ± 1.03 vs. 11.08 ± 0.82 g/dL, P = 0.001; 3.73 ± 0.29 vs. 3.87 ± 0.30 g/dL, P = 0.001). The normalized protein catabolic rate decreased after 24 months, but the change was not significant (1.07 ± 0.25 vs. 1.03 ± 0.21 g/kg/day, P = 0.433). Although the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was lower in patients who converted to HDF, it was not significantly different (-115.7 ± 189.7 vs. -170.5 ± 257.1 P = 0.206). Conclusion: OL-HDF treatment over more than 12 months was associated with no harmful effects on anemia and nutritional status.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18782, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011472

RESUMO

Hemodialysis (HD) patients had a high rate of infection transmission and mortality during the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A standardized guideline on isolation technique for exposed HD patients is not available. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different isolation strategies on the prevention of secondary viral transmission and clinical outcomes among exposed HD patients.During the 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea, 116 patients in 3 HD units were incidentally exposed to individuals with confirmed MERS-CoV infection and underwent different types of isolation, which were as follows: single-room isolation (n = 54, 47%), cohort isolation (n = 46, 40%), and self-imposed quarantine (n = 16, 13%). The primary outcome was rate of secondary viral transmission. The secondary outcome measures were changes in clinical and biochemical markers during the isolation period, difference in clinical and biochemical markers according to the types of isolation practice, and effect of isolation practice on patient survival.During a mean isolation period of 15 days, no further cases of secondary transmission were detected among HD patients. Plasma hemoglobin, serum calcium, and serum albumin levels and single-pool Kt/V decreased during the isolation period but normalized thereafter. Patients who were subjected to self-imposed quarantine had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lower total cholesterol level, and lower Kt/V than those who underwent single-room or cohort isolation. During the 24-month follow-up period, 12 patients died. However, none of the deaths occurred during the isolation period, and no differences were observed in patient survival rate according to different isolation strategies.Although 116 participants in 3 HD units were incidentally exposed to MERS-CoV during the 2015 outbreak in Korea, strict patient surveillance and proper isolation practice prevented secondary transmission of the virus. Thus, a renal disaster protocol, which includes proper contact surveillance and isolation practice, must be established in the future to accommodate the needs of HD patients during disasters or outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Isolamento de Pacientes , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Quarentena , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918306

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify potential proteomic biomarkers for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Among 385 KTRs enrolled in a cross-sectional multicenter study, 26 KTRs with biopsy-proven CAMR, 57 KTRs with long-term graft survival (LGS), and 10 rejection-free matched KTRs were included. A proteomic approach was employed to measure urinary extracellular vesicle (EV) changes in the KTRs. The urinary EVs were trypsin-digested using a gel-assisted protocol and quantified by label-free liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, using a data-dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the protein levels for each candidate biomarker. Analysis of the isolated EV proteins revealed 93 and 97 proteins in the CAMR and LGS patients, respectively. Proteins that were identical in both groups were excluded and only high-significance proteins with a fold change of at least 1.5 were selected as candidate biomarkers. Six proteins (APOA1, TTR, PIGR, HPX, AZGP1, and CP) that were distinguishable between CAMR and LGS were selected. The proteins were confirmed by immunoblot analyses using independently acquired urinary EV samples. AZGP1 in particular was found to be a CAMR-specific proteomic biomarker that was distinguishable from the rejection-free control group with matching kidney function, duration of transplantation, and age. We identified and validated six proteomic biomarkers for CAMR and clarified one CAMR-specific proteomic biomarker in KTRs. Further clinical trials are needed before these rejection-specific biomarkers can be applied for the early prediction, diagnosis, and monitoring of the clinical response of KTRs to the treatment of CAMR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Proteinúria/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
8.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 98-106, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906817

RESUMO

Purpose: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been found to be associated with the development and repair mechanisms of several renal diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EGF or its receptor genes might have an association with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or acute renal allograft rejection (AR) in a Korean population.Methods: Three-hundred and forty seven recipients of the first renal transplants for ESRD, including 63 AR patients along with 289 healthy adults were included in the study. Five EGF gene SNPs (rs11568835, rs11568943, rs2237051, rs11569017, and rs3756261) and four EGFR gene SNPs (rs1140475, rs2293347, rs1050171, and rs6965469) were analyzed. The genotypes of these SNPs were analyzed using the AxiomTM genome-wide human assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SNPStats and Haploview version 4.2 software. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and Log-additive) were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P value.Results: One SNP (rs11569017) in the EGF gene showed significant association with ESRD but not with AR. Another SNP (rs11568835) in the EGF gene showed significant association with susceptibility to AR but not with ESRD. One SNP (rs1050171) in the EGFR gene showed significant association with susceptibility to AR but not with ESRD.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that SNPs in the EGF and EGFR gene may be associated with the risk of ESRD and AR development in the Korean population.

9.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 38(2): 112-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584323

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we report a patient who developed lumbar epidural hematoma after trans-sacral epiduroscopic laser decompression (SELD). Background: SELD is a nonoperative minimally invasive spinal procedure, in which a herniated lumbar disk can be ablated by laser. Because of the rich epidural venous plexus, the procedure might have a risk of epidural hematoma. Materials and methods: A 57-year-old woman underwent the SELD procedure for the treatment of lower back and right buttock pain due to disk protrusion at L5-S1. One day after the procedure, complete motor weakness was observed in the right leg. Results: Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed epidural hematoma at the L1-L5 levels, compressing the thecal sac. Using a posterior approach, decompressive subtotal laminectomy on L1 and total laminectomy on L2-L5 with evacuation of the hematoma were performed. Two months postoperatively, near complete resolution of the motor weakness in the right leg was observed. Conclusions: Clinicians should keep in mind the likelihood of epidural hematoma after SELD.

10.
Eur Spine J ; 29(1): 153-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the quantity and quality of articles in the field of full-endoscopic spine surgery (FESS) from different countries and assess characteristics of worldwide research productivity. METHODS: Articles published from 1997 to July 23, 2018, were screened using the Web of Science database. All studies were assessed for the following parameters: the number of total publications, h-index, contribution of countries, authors, journals, and institutions. RESULTS: A total of 408 articles were identified between 1997 and 2018. Between 1997 and 2017, the number of published articles tended to increase by 41 times. The largest number of articles was from China (30.15%), followed by South Korea (28.68%), the USA (13.97%), Germany (9.31%), and Japan (4.90%). The highest h-index was found for articles from South Korea (23), followed by the USA (18), Germany (16), China (11), and Japan (7). The highest number of articles was published in World Neurosurgery (12.50%), followed by Pain Physician (10.29%), Spine (6.62%), European Spine Journal (4.66%), and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine (4.17%). Wooridul Spine Hospital published the largest number of articles (10.29%), followed by Tongji University (5.88%), University of Witten/Herdecke (5.39%), Brown University (5.15%), and Third Military Medical University (3.43%). CONCLUSIONS: The number of articles published in the field of FESS has increased rapidly in the past 20 years. In terms of quantity, China is the most contributive country based on the number of publications. High-quality papers as measured by h-index and the large quantity is from South Korea (second only to China). These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121223, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628058

RESUMO

A novel Mg/Al/Bi ternary mixed metal oxide (MMO) was successfully prepared by a simple coprecipitation and calcination process. The Mg/Al/Bi MMO (molar ratio = 3:0.4:0.6) presented synergistically enhanced adsorption efficiency for iodide in water with porous structure. Kinetic adsorption results indicated good agreement with pseudo first-order-kinetic model (R = 0.998) and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir isotherm of Mg/Al/Bi MMO was 202.2 mg/g, which is higher than that of Mg/Al layered double oxide (LDO) (161.0 mg/g) and bismuth oxide (57.5 mg/g). In addition, the Mg/Al/Bi MMO showed good adsorption efficiency under neutral condition (pH 7), by which the material exhibits relatively strong resistance to the presence of co-existing anions in water due to the ion selectivity. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra revealed that the enhanced adsorption of iodide by Mg/Al/Bi MMO can be induced by selective Bi-O-IBformation, which is stable waste form for its treatment. Consequently, it is clear that the novel Mg/Al/Bi MMO is a potentially attractive material in terms of selective uptake of iodide with forming stable chemical complex in radioactive contaminants.

12.
Am J Transplant ; 20(1): 112-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373158

RESUMO

The major obstacle to successful ABO blood group-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT) is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This study aimed to investigate transcriptional profiles through RNA sequencing and develop a minimally invasive diagnostic tool for discrimination between accommodation and early acute AMR in ABOi KT. Twenty-eight ABOi KT patients were selected: 18 with accommodation and 10 with acute AMR at the 10th day posttransplant protocol biopsy. Complete transcriptomes of their peripheral blood were analyzed by RNA sequencing. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis, validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and used to develop a classification model to diagnose accommodation. A total of 1385 genes were differentially expressed in accommodation compared with in AMR with P-adjusted < .05. Functional annotation and gene set enrichment analysis identified several immune-related and immunometabolic pathways. A 5-gene classification model including COX7A2L, CD69, CD14, CFD, and FOXJ3 was developed by logistic regression analysis. The model was further validated with an independent cohort and discriminated between accommodation and AMR with 92.7% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, and 91.7% accuracy. Our study suggests that a classification model based on peripheral blood transcriptomics may allow minimally invasive diagnosis of acute AMR vs accommodation and subsequent patient-tailored immunosuppression in ABOi KT.

13.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 52(6): 425-427, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832380

RESUMO

Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between the coronary artery and the cardiac chambers. In particular, an abnormal connection between the conus branch of the right coronary artery and the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery is defined as Vieussens' arterial ring. Coronary artery fistulas are usually asymptomatic, but some can cause complications such as infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case of Vieussens' arterial ring causing infective endocarditis with severe mitral regurgitation.

14.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 38(4): 411-413, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826387
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18607, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819080

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predictive of ischemic AKI and is related to delayed graft function (DGF) in renal transplantation. Nevertheless, the clinical implications and prognostic value of urinary mtDNA in kidney transplantation remain undetermined. Here, we aimed to evaluate the associations between cell-free mtDNA and clinical parameters, including pathological findings in allograft biopsy and post-transplant renal function. A total of 85 renal transplant recipients were enrolled, and blood and urine samples were collected at a median of 17 days after transplantation. Cell-free nuclear and mtDNA levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for LPL and ND1 genes. Urinary cell-free mtDNA levels were significantly higher in patients with DGF (P < 0.001) and cases of deceased donor transplantation (P < 0.001). The subjects with acute rejection showed higher urinary mtDNA levels than those without abnormalities (P = 0.043). In addition, allograft functions at 9- and 12-month post-transplantation were significantly different between tertile groups of mtDNA independent of the presence of DGF or acute rejection, showing significantly better graft outcome in the lowest tertile group. Urinary cell-free mtDNA levels during the early post-transplant period are significantly associated with DGF, acute rejection in graft biopsy, and short-term post-transplant renal function.

16.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683726

RESUMO

In this paper, a germanium-based gate-metal-core vertical nanowire tunnel field effect transistor (VNWTFET) has been designed and optimized using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. In the proposed structure, by locating the gate-metal as a core of the nanowire, a more extensive band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) area can be achieved compared with the conventional core-shell VNWTFETs. The channel thickness (Tch), the gate-metal height (Hg), and the channel height (Hch) were considered as the design parameters for the optimization of device performances. The designed gate-metal-core VNWTFET exhibits outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 80.9 µA/µm, off-state current (Ioff) of 1.09 × 10-12 A/µm, threshold voltage (Vt) of 0.21 V, and subthreshold swing (SS) of 42.8 mV/dec. Therefore, the proposed device was demonstrated to be a promising logic device for low-power applications.

17.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694192

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) forms an inflammasome with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and pro-caspase-1, which is followed by the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 to active caspase-1 and ultimately the activation of IL-1ß and IL-18 and induction of pyroptosis in immune cells. NLRP3 activation in kidney diseases aggravates inflammation and subsequent fibrosis, and this effect is abrogated by genetic or pharmacologic deletion of NLRP3. Inflammasome-dependent NLRP3 mediates the progression of kidney diseases by escalating the inflammatory response in immune cells and the cross-talk between immune cells and renal nonimmune cells. However, recent studies have suggested that NLRP3 has several inflammasome-independent functions in the kidney. Inflammasome-independent NLRP3 regulates apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells by interacting with mitochondria and mediating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and mitophagy. This review will summarize the mechanisms by which NLRP3 functions in the kidney in both inflammasome-dependent and inflammasome-independent ways and the role of NLRP3 and NLRP3 inhibitors in kidney diseases.

18.
Korean J Neurotrauma ; 15(2): 204-208, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720278

RESUMO

Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS) is an incomplete spinal cord injury caused by damage to one-half of the spinal cord. Most cases of BSS result from penetrating trauma or tumors, and acute cervical disc herniation is a relatively rare cause of BSS. In this case, a 34-year-old man with a sudden onset posterior neck pain and left side motor weakness was admitted to the local spine hospital. Pain and temperature sensation of pain was decreased below the right C4 dermatome. The left arm and leg motor grade was 0. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge trans-ligamentous herniated disc rupture from the center to the left at the level of C3-4, and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion were performed. After emergency surgery, left arm and leg motor grade recovered to 2, and normal voiding function returned. MRI verified complete removal of the cervical herniated disc. This case describes the approach to rapid diagnosis in a patient with characteristic clinical symptoms of BSS and radiological findings of a herniated cervical disc. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and immediate decompressive surgery increased the possibility of a good surgical outcome, even if the neurologic deficits are grave at the time of admission.

19.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 15(5): 640-646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723550

RESUMO

Running economy is considered a major determinant of distance running performance. Enhancing the body's ability for passive force generation could have a positive effect on running economy by minimizing the energy cost required for the propulsion of the body. Thus, the purpose of this comprehensive review was to provide a list of modifiable factors that promote this ability. The interest was focused on lower-limb stiffness, as it is a factor of great influence and at the same time can be modified with training and specific biomechanical adjustments. Although it appears that no clear instructions can be provided to athletes and coaches, it should be noted that careful consideration of the runners' anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical characteristics are necessary for optimal performance results.

20.
J Vet Sci ; 20(6): e59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775186

RESUMO

Two American Cocker Spaniels and one Bichon Frise were presented to our veterinary teaching hospital with an enlarged clitoris. Diagnostic imaging showed that the structure was composed of bony material. Exploratory laparotomy revealed uterine-like structures and testes which had an epididymis unilaterally. Surgical removal of internal genitalia, gonads and protruded clitoris were performed well. Histological evaluation revealed; inactive testes, female internal genital tracts with ambisexual ductal remnants, and prominent ossification in the clitoris. All 3 cases were diagnosed with male pseudohermaphroditism. In author's knowledge, this is the first report in Bichon Frise dog with os clitoris and also, it describes not common cases in small dog breeds with os clitoris.

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