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1.
J Microbiol ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723794

RESUMO

With developments in synthetic biology, "engineering biology" has emerged through standardization and platformization based on hierarchical, orthogonal, and modularized biological systems. Genome engineering is necessary to manufacture and design synthetic cells with desired functions by using bioparts obtained from sequence databases. Among various tools, the CRISPR-Cas system is modularly composed of guide RNA and Cas nuclease; therefore, it is convenient for editing the genome freely. Recently, various strategies have been developed to accurately edit the genome at a single nucleotide level. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas technology has been extended to molecular diagnostics for nucleic acids and detection of pathogens, including disease-causing viruses. Moreover, CRISPR technology, which can precisely control the expression of specific genes in cells, is evolving to find the target of metabolic biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the status of various CRISPR technologies that can be applied to synthetic biology and discuss the development of synthetic biology combined with CRISPR technology in microbiology.

2.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial wrinkles and sagging are the most visible signs of aging and can cause profound distress. Microneedle fractional radiofrequency (MFR) is a minimally invasive procedure, which utilizes both microneedling and radiofrequency energy to rejuvenate the skin. OBJECTIVE: To describe the safety and efficacy of a temperature-controlled MFR device on facial fine lines and laxity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart & histology review was performed on individuals who received bipolar MFR for facial rejuvenation. A total of 15 Koreans with a median age of 46 years were included. All participants underwent a single treatment session. The results were assessed objectively using serial photography and subjectively based on the participants' satisfaction scores. Histologic changes before, immediately after MFR and at 4 months follow-up was examined. Complications were also recorded. RESULTS: Partially denatured collagen fibers and dermal shrinkage was observed immediately after MFR whereas an increase in elastin and collagen was noted at 4 months follow-up. 86.7% of recipients considered the results satisfactory. Consensus ratings by two independent dermatologists on the objective outcomes at 4-month follow-up were very much improved (53.3%), much improved (26.7%) and improved (20%). Treatment was well tolerated and did not cause any significant long-lasting discomfort. CONCLUSION: Temperature-controlled bipolar MFR is a minimally invasive treatment option to consider for facial fine lines and laxity via neo-collagenesis and neo-elastogenesis. The procedure was safe and clinically effective.

3.
J Ginseng Res ; 47(1): 65-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644394

RESUMO

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a significant visual disease that induces impaired vision and irreversible blindness in the elderly. However, the effects of ginseng berry extract (GBE) on the retina have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GBE on blue light (BL)-induced retinal damage and elucidate its underlying mechanisms in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells) and Balb/c retina. Methods: To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of GBE on retinal damage in vitro, we performed cell viability assay, pre-and post-treatment of sample, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and western immunoblotting using A2E-laden ARPE-19 cells with BL exposure. In addition, Balb/c mice were irradiated with BL to induce retinal degeneration and orally administrated with GBE (50, 100, 200 mg/kg). Using the harvested retina, we performed histological analysis (thickness of retinal layers), qRT-PCR, and western immunoblotting to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of GBE against retinal damage in vivo. Results: GBE significantly inhibited BL-induced cell damage in ARPE-19 cells by activating the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway, regulating NF-kB translocation, caspase 3 activation, PARP cleavage, expressions of apoptosis-related factors (BAX/BCL-2, LC3-Ⅱ, and p62), and ROS production. Furthermore, GBE prevented BL-induced retinal degeneration by restoring the thickness of retinal layers and suppressed inflammation and apoptosis via regulation of NF-kB and SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and expressions of apoptosis-related factors in vivo. Conclusions: GBE could be a potential agent to prevent dry AMD and progression to wet AMD.

4.
World J Mens Health ; 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Testosterone hormonal replacement is the most commonly prescribed solution for men with reproductive issues; however, this treatment has various drawbacks. Hence, the identification of a natural product that promotes steroidogenesis is urgently needed. Ginseng is a popular traditional medicine. This study aimed to investigate steroidogenic effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GBE; Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro model, mouse Leydig cells were treated with varying concentrations of GBE, and the levels of steroidogenesis-related genes and proteins and testosterone were measured using western blotting, qRT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Similarly, in an in vivo model using lipopolysaccharide-injected C57BL/6J mice, expression of steroidogenesis-related genes and proteins and testosterone levels were analyzed. Additionally, sleep deprivation was used to simulate common life stressors related to late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and the natural effects of aging. Mice were fed sham or GBE before being subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation. RESULTS: In vitro, GBE induced steroidogenic effects by increasing the levels of enzymes associated with steroidogenesis, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), CYP11A1, and CYP17A1. In vivo, GBE significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes. Furthermore, the synthetic testosterone levels in mouse Leydig cell supernatants and blood sera were increased. In the sleep deprivation study, mice fed GBE showed increased testosterone production and survival under such stressful conditions. CONCLUSIONS: GBE increased mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenesis-related enzymes STAR, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1. These key enzymes induced the increased production of testosterone both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, GBE might be a promising therapeutic or additive nutritional agent for improving men's health by increasing steroidogenesis or improving LOH.

5.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(21): 1158, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467364

RESUMO

Background: Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied widely. However, a hospital visit was necessary to apply previous prediction models for the evaluation of DM. This study was conducted to develop and validate a hospital visit-free self-diagnosis tool for DM. Methods: Participants who underwent health screening between 2017-2018 (n=7,519; training cohort) and 2019-2020 (n=7,564; validation cohort) were extracted from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). DM was defined as doctor-diagnosed DM in a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors for DM, and a multivariable logistic regression-based nomogram was developed for the prediction of DM, which was validated in a cohort consisting of an independent population. The presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was operationally defined using the KNHANES-NAFLD score. Results: Age, sex, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, urinary protein, urinary glucose, and NAFLD were identified as independent predictors for DM. After excluding laboratory variables that require laboratory tests, a simplified multivariable model was conducted based on hospital visit-free variables, including age, sex, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and NAFLD. The full and simplified prediction models for DM were presented as nomograms. In the independent validation cohort, the full and simplified DM prediction models were validated with an area under the curve values of 0.903 and 0.824 from the receiver operating characteristic curves, respectively. Conclusions: Involvement of NAFLD has allowed satisfactory prediction of DM without laboratory tests that require a hospital visit. The developed model may be promising in terms of early diagnosis of DM among individuals without hospital visits and may reduce the socioeconomic burden of DM in the real-world, which awaits future prospective trials to confirm.

6.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33(2): 1-10, 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575858

RESUMO

The skin is a dynamic ecosystem on which diverse microbes reside. The interkingdom interaction between microbial species in the skin microbiota is thought to influence the health and disease of the skin although the roles of the intra- and interkingdom interactions remain to be elucidated. In this context, the interactions between Malassezia and Staphylococcus, the most dominant microorganisms in the skin microbiota, have gained attention. This study investigated how the interaction between Malassezia and Staphylococcus affected the antifungal susceptibility of the fungus to the azole antifungal drug ketoconazole. The susceptibility was significantly decreased when Malassezia was co-cultured with Staphylococcus. We found that acidification of the environment by organic acids produced by Staphylococcus influenced the decrease of the ketoconazole susceptibility of M. restricta in the co-culturing condition. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that the significant increased ergosterol content and cell membrane and wall thickness of the M. restricta cells grown in the acidic environment may be the main cause of the altered azole susceptibility of the fungus. Overall, our study suggests that the interaction between Malassezia and Staphylococcus influences the antifungal susceptibility of the fungus and that pH has a critical role in the polymicrobial interaction in the skin environment.

7.
CRISPR J ; 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576897

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas system has been used as a convenient tool for genome editing because the nuclease that cuts the target DNA and the guide RNA that recognizes the target are separated into modules. Cas12f1, which has a smaller size than that of other Cas nucleases, is easily loaded into vectors and is emerging as a new genome editing tool. In this study, AsCas12f1 was used to negatively select only Escherichia coli cells obtained by oligonucleotide-directed genome editing. Although double-, triple-, and quadruple-base substitutions were accurately and efficiently performed in the genome, the performance of single-base editing was poor. To resolve this limitation, we serially truncated the 3'-end of sgRNAs and determined the maximal truncation required to maintain the target DNA cleavage activity of Cas12f1. Negative selection of single-nucleotide-edited cells was efficiently performed with the maximally 3'-truncated sgRNA-Cas12f1 complex in vivo. Moreover, Sanger sequencing showed that the accuracy of single-nucleotide substitution, insertion, and deletion in the microbial genome was improved. These results demonstrated that a truncated sgRNA approach could be widely used for accurate CRISPR-mediated genome editing.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583574

RESUMO

Magnesium-sulfur (Mg-S) batteries are emerging as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries, due to their high energy density and low cost. Unfortunately, current Mg-S batteries typically suffer from the shuttle effect that originates from the dissolution of magnesium polysulfide intermediates, leading to several issues such as rapid capacity fading, large overcharge, severe self-discharge, and potential safety concern. To address these issues, here we harness a copper phosphide (Cu3P) modified separator to realize the adsorption of magnesium polysulfides and catalyzation of the conversion reaction of S and Mg2+ toward stable cycling of Mg-S cells. The bifunctional layer with Cu3P confined in a carbon matrix is coated on a commercial polypropylene membrane to form a porous membrane with high electrolyte wettability and good thermal stability. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, polysulfide permeability tests, and post-mortem analysis reveal that the catalytic layer can adsorb polysulfides, effectively restraining the shuttle effect and facilitating the reversibility of the Mg-S cells. As a result, the Mg-S cells can achieve a high specific capacity, fast rates (449 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 249 mAh g-1 at 1.0 C), and a long cycle life (up to 500 cycles at 0.5 C) and operate even at elevated temperatures.

9.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(11): 3829-3835, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326101

RESUMO

Enterobacterial phage λ is a temperate phage that infects Escherichia coli and has a lytic-lysogenic life cycle. CI, a λ repressor, regulates the expression of lytic transcripts and acts as a major genetic switch that determines the lysogenic state. To manipulate the genome of phage λ, the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system was constructed in lysogenic E. coli MG1655 cells. For instance, we successfully changed cI857 to cIWT in the phage genome through Cas9-mediated single-nucleotide editing. A lytic phage was prepared by introducing an amber mutation in the middle of the cI gene, but it could not lyse lysogenic MG1655 cells. We prepared a phage expressing cI antisense mRNA by reverse substitution of the cI gene. Lysis of λ cI857 lysogenic cells occurred by the infection of the λ cIantisense. These results suggest an effective lysogenic cell control method by a synthetic phage expressing antisense mRNA of the genetic switch gene. It is expected to be applied as a tool to control harmful lysogenic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago lambda , Escherichia coli , Bacteriófago lambda/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Lisogenia/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 983625, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36275542

RESUMO

The emergence of deep neural networks has allowed the development of fully automated and efficient diagnostic systems for plant disease and pest phenotyping. Although previous approaches have proven to be promising, they are limited, especially in real-life scenarios, to properly diagnose and characterize the problem. In this work, we propose a framework which besides recognizing and localizing various plant abnormalities also informs the user about the severity of the diseases infecting the plant. By taking a single image as input, our algorithm is able to generate detailed descriptive phrases (user-defined) that display the location, severity stage, and visual attributes of all the abnormalities that are present in the image. Our framework is composed of three main components. One of them is a detector that accurately and efficiently recognizes and localizes the abnormalities in plants by extracting region-based anomaly features using a deep neural network-based feature extractor. The second one is an encoder-decoder network that performs pixel-level analysis to generate abnormality-specific severity levels. Lastly is an integration unit which aggregates the information of these units and assigns unique IDs to all the detected anomaly instances, thus generating descriptive sentences describing the location, severity, and class of anomalies infecting plants. We discuss two possible ways of utilizing the abovementioned units in a single framework. We evaluate and analyze the efficacy of both approaches on newly constructed diverse paprika disease and pest recognition datasets, comprising six anomaly categories along with 11 different severity levels. Our algorithm achieves mean average precision of 91.7% for the abnormality detection task and a mean panoptic quality score of 70.78% for severity level prediction. Our algorithm provides a practical and cost-efficient solution to farmers that facilitates proper handling of crops.

11.
Nature ; 610(7930): 67-73, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131017

RESUMO

The high volatility of the price of cobalt and the geopolitical limitations of cobalt mining have made the elimination of Co a pressing need for the automotive industry1. Owing to their high energy density and low-cost advantages, high-Ni and low-Co or Co-free (zero-Co) layered cathodes have become the most promising cathodes for next-generation lithium-ion batteries2,3. However, current high-Ni cathode materials, without exception, suffer severely from their intrinsic thermal and chemo-mechanical instabilities and insufficient cycle life. Here, by using a new compositionally complex (high-entropy) doping strategy, we successfully fabricate a high-Ni, zero-Co layered cathode that has extremely high thermal and cycling stability. Combining X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanotomography, we find that the cathode exhibits nearly zero volumetric change over a wide electrochemical window, resulting in greatly reduced lattice defects and local strain-induced cracks. In-situ heating experiments reveal that the thermal stability of the new cathode is significantly improved, reaching the level of the ultra-stable NMC-532. Owing to the considerably increased thermal stability and the zero volumetric change, it exhibits greatly improved capacity retention. This work, by resolving the long-standing safety and stability concerns for high-Ni, zero-Co cathode materials, offers a commercially viable cathode for safe, long-life lithium-ion batteries and a universal strategy for suppressing strain and phase transformation in intercalation electrodes.

12.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(8): 1047-1053, 2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791075

RESUMO

When ptsG, a glucose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) component, is deleted in Escherichia coli, growth can be severely poor because of the lack of efficient glucose transport. We discovered a new PTS transport system that could transport glucose through the growth-coupled experimental evolution of ptsG-deficient E. coli C strain under anaerobic conditions. Genome sequencing revealed mutations in agaR, which encodes a repressor of N-acetylgalactosamine (Aga) PTS expression in evolved progeny strains. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of Aga PTS gene increased because of the loss-of-function of agaR. We confirmed the efficient Aga PTS-mediated glucose uptake by genetic complementation and anaerobic fermentation. We discussed the discovery of new glucose transporter in terms of different genetic backgrounds of E. coli strains, and the relationship between the pattern of mixed-acids fermentation and glucose transport rate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Glucose , Sistema Fosfotransferase de Açúcar do Fosfoenolpiruvato , Acetilgalactosamina , Ágar , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases
13.
Biomaterials ; 287: 121679, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849998

RESUMO

Cell therapy is targeted at many organs, but locally or systemically delivered cells are shortly able to survive resulting from the immune/inflammation reactions and irregular cell targeting. Here we explore the multimodal nanoparticle having anti-inflammation and magnetic guidance for successful cell transplantation. We design magnetic resonance (MR)-active glycyrrhizin-chitosan coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO@Chitosan-GL) to inhibit release of inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein and to offer noninvasive monitoring after intrahepatic transplantation of pancreatic islets and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) spheroids. Intracellular delivered SPIO@Chitosan-GL is not cytotoxic to pancreatic islets and MSC spheroids and attenuate DAMP release from them. Also, therapeutic cells labeled with SPIO@Chitosan-GL are magnetically localized to the intended lobe of liver during transplantation procedure. If necessary, partial hepatectomy can be performed to remove the localized therapeutic cells for protection of the remaining liver lobes from systemic inflammation. Therapeutically, the cells selectively localized in the liver can treat blood glucose in diabetic mice to normal levels with DAMP modulation, and are visualized using in vivo MR imaging for over 4 weeks. Collectively, DAMP-modulating SPIO@Chitosan-GL can be used in multimodal nanomedince for attenuating the inflammation reaction by transplanted cells and for noninvasively long-term monitoring of transplanted cells.

14.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683565

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered a major cause of death worldwide, and various studies have been conducted for its early diagnosis. Our work developed a scoring system by predicting and validating COPD and performed predictive model implementations. Participants who underwent a health screening between 2017 and 2020 were extracted from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) database. COPD individuals were defined as aged 40 years or older with prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC < 0.7). The logistic regression model was performed, and the C-index was used for variable selection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with area under the curve (AUC) values were generated for evaluation. Age, sex, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure were used to predict COPD and to develop a COPD score based on a multivariable model. A simplified model for COPD was validated with an AUC value of 0.780 from the ROC curves. In addition, we evaluated the association of the derived score with cardiovascular disease (CVD). COPD scores showed significant performance in COPD prediction. The developed score also showed a good effect on the diagnostic ability for CVD risk. In the future, studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of the derived scores with standard diagnostic tests are needed.

15.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(6): 2134-2143, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584409

RESUMO

Mismatch tolerance, a cause of the off-target effect, impedes accurate genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas system. Herein, we observed that oligonucleotide-directed single-base substitutions could be rarely introduced in the microbial genome using CRISPR/Cpf1-mediated negative selection. Because crRNAs have the ability to recognize and discriminate among specific target DNA sequences, we systematically compared the effects of modified crRNAs with 3'-end nucleotide truncations and a single mismatch on the genomic cleavage activity of FnCpf1 inEscherichia coli. Five nucleotides could be maximally truncated at the crRNA 3'-end for the efficient cleavage of the DNA targets of galK and xylB in the cells. However, target cleavage in the genome was inefficient when a single mismatch was simultaneously introduced in the maximally 3'-end-truncated crRNA. Based on these results, we assumed that the maximally truncated crRNA-Cpf1 complex can distinguish between single-base-edited and unedited targets in vivo. Compared to other crRNAs with shorter truncations, maximally 3'-end-truncated crRNAs showed highly efficient single-base substitutions (>80%) in the DNA targets of galK and xylB. Furthermore, the editing efficiency for the 24 bases in both galK and xylB showed success rates of 79 and 50%, respectively. We successfully introduced single-nucleotide indels in galK and xylB with editing efficiencies of 79 and 62%, respectively. Collectively, the maximally truncated crRNA-Cpf1 complex could perform efficient base and nucleotide editing regardless of the target base location or mutation type; this system is a simple and efficient tool for microbial genome editing, including indel correction, at the single-nucleotide resolution.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Nucleotídeos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , DNA/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma Microbiano , Nucleotídeos/genética
16.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt C): 113392, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525295

RESUMO

Air pollution and meteorological factors can exacerbate susceptibility to respiratory viral infections. To establish appropriate prevention and intervention strategies, it is important to determine whether these factors affect the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, this study examined the effects of sunshine, temperature, wind, and air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) on the age-standardized incidence ratio of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in South Korea between January 2020 and April 2020. Propensity score weighting was used to randomly select observations into groups according to whether the case was cluster-related, to reduce selection bias. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 incidence. Age 60 years or over (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35), exposure to ambient air pollutants, especially SO2 (OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 1.13-23.9) and CO (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27), and non-cluster infection (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24-1.32) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To manage and control COVID-19 effectively, further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to develop appropriate guidelines to minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
17.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565712

RESUMO

Sarcopenia and obesity are serious health problems that are highly related to several metabolic diseases. Sarcopenic obesity, a combined state of sarcopenia and obesity, results in higher risks of metabolic diseases and even mortality than sarcopenia or obesity alone. Therefore, the development of therapeutic agents for sarcopenic obesity is crucial. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. Then, mice were administered with Panax ginseng berry extract (GBE) for an additional 4 weeks, with continuous HFD intake. GBE significantly decreased the food efficiency ratio, serum lipid and insulin levels, adipose tissue weights, and adipocyte size. It significantly increased the grip strength, muscle masses, and myofiber cross-sectional area. It deactivated the protein kinase C (PKC) theta and zeta, resulting in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, which is known to regulate muscle synthesis and degradation. Furthermore, it inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines in the muscle tissue. GBE attenuated both obesity and sarcopenia. Thus, GBE is a potential agent to prevent or treat sarcopenic obesity.


Assuntos
Panax , Sarcopenia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8672, 2022 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606487

RESUMO

Fine segmentation labelling tasks are time consuming and typically require a great deal of manual labor. This paper presents a novel method for efficiently creating pixel-level fine segmentation labelling that significantly reduces the amount of necessary human labor. The proposed method utilizes easily produced multiple and complementary coarse labels to build a complete fine label via supervised learning. The primary label among the coarse labels is the manual label, which is produced with simple contours or bounding boxes that roughly encompass an object. All others coarse labels are complementary and are generated automatically using existing algorithms. Fine labels can be rapidly created during the supervised learning of such coarse labels. In the experimental study, the proposed technique achieved a fine label IOU (intersection of union) of 92% in segmenting our newly constructed bean field dataset. The proposed method also achieved 95% and 92% mean IOU when tested on publicly available agricultural CVPPP and CWFID datasets, respectively. Our proposed method of segmentation also achieved a mean IOU of 81% when it was tested on our newly constructed paprika disease dataset, which includes multiple categories.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Algoritmos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119429119, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377791

RESUMO

Charge density waves (CDWs) have been observed in nearly all families of copper-oxide superconductors. But the behavior of these phases across different families has been perplexing. In La-based cuprates, the CDW wavevector is an increasing function of doping, exhibiting the so-called Yamada behavior, while in Y- and Bi-based materials the behavior is the opposite. Here, we report a combined resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS) and neutron scattering study of charge and spin density waves in isotopically enriched La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 over a range of doping 0.07≤x≤0.20. We find that the CDW amplitude is temperature independent and develops well above experimentally accessible temperatures. Further, the CDW wavevector shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, exhibiting Yamada behavior at low temperature with a sudden change occurring near the spin ordering temperature. We describe these observations using a Landau­Ginzburg theory for an incommensurate CDW in a metallic system with a finite charge compressibility and spin-CDW coupling. Extrapolating to high temperature, where the CDW amplitude is small and spin order is absent, our analysis predicts a decreasing wavevector with doping, similar to Y and Bi cuprates. Our study suggests that CDW order in all families of cuprates forms by a common mechanism.

20.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215448

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is prevalent as the aging population grows. Therefore, the need for supplements for the elderly is increasing. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of a Panax ginseng berry extract (GBE) and soluble whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) mixture on a sarcopenia-related muscular deterioration in aged mice. Ten-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were administered three different doses of the GBE + WPH mixture for 8 weeks; 700 mg/kg, 900 mg/kg, and 1100 mg/kg. Grip strength, serum inflammatory cytokines level, and mass of muscle tissues were estimated. The deteriorating function of aging muscle was investigated via protein or gene expression. Grip strength and mass of three muscle tissues were increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine alleviated systemic inflammatory state. The mixture resolved the imbalance of muscle protein turnover through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and increased gene expression of the muscle regeneration-related factors, while decreasing myostatin, which interferes with muscle protein synthesis and regeneration. Furthermore, we confirmed that increased mitochondria number in muscle with the improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis. These physiological changes were similar to the effects of exercise.


Assuntos
Panax , Sarcopenia , Animais , Frutas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/uso terapêutico , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia
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