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1.
Gastric Cancer ; 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although EBDs are essential for minimally invasive surgery, well-established prospective randomized studies comparing EBDs are scarce. This study aimed to compare the intraoperative inflammatory response and short-term surgical outcomes among different energy-based devices (EBDs) in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). METHODS: Patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer scheduled for LDG at two different medical centers were prospectively randomized into three groups: ultrasonic shears (US), advanced bipolar (BP) and ultrasonic-bipolar hybrid (HB). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level, operation time, intraoperative blood loss (IBL), laboratory tests, cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10), hospital stay, and complication rate were analyzed. A novel semiquantitative measurement method using indocyanine green (ICG) and a near-infrared camera measured the amount of lymphatic leakage. RESULTS: The primary endpoint, the CRP level, was significantly lower in the BP (n = 60) group than in the US (n = 57) or HB (n = 57) group [9.03 ± 5.55 vs. 11.12 ± 5.02 vs. 12.67 ± 6.14, p = 0.001, on postoperative day (POD) 2 and 7.48 vs. 9.62 vs. 9.48, p = 0.026, on POD 4]. IBL was significantly lower in BP than in US or HB (26.3 ± 25.3 vs. 43.7 ± 42.0 vs. 34.9 ± 37.0, p = 0.032). Jackson-Pratt drainage triglycerides were significantly lower in BP than in US (53.6 ± 33.7 vs. 84.2 ± 59.0, p = 0.11; HB: 71.3 ± 51.4). ICG fluorescence intensity, operation time, laboratory results, cytokines, hospital stay, and complication rate were not significantly different among the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: BP showed a lower postoperative CRP level and less IBL than US and HB, suggesting less collateral thermal damage and better sealing function. Surgeons may consider this when selecting EBDs for laparoscopic surgery.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 16(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676620

RESUMO

The crack propagation behavior of Al containing Mg-Si clusters is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to demonstrate the relationship between the natural aging time in Al-Si-Mg alloys and ductility. Experimental results show that the elongation at failure decreases with natural aging. There are few studies on the relationship between natural aging and ductility because of the difficult observation of Mg-Si clusters. To solve the difficulty, cracked Al containing Mg-Si clusters of varying sizes are assumed for the MD simulations. A larger Mg-Si cluster in Al results in earlier crack opening and dislocation emission. Moreover, as the Mg-Si cluster size increases, the stress near the crack tip becomes more concentrated. This causes rapid crack propagation, a similar effect to that of crack tip sharpening. As a result of long-term natural aging, the cracks expand rapidly. The influence of geometry is also investigated. Crack lengthening and thickness reduction negatively impact the fracture toughness, with the former having a larger impact than the latter. Although there are several discrepancies in the practical deformation conditions, the simulation results can help to more thoroughly understand natural aging in Al-Si-Mg alloys.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with genetic factors. However, genetic markers associated with the progression of CKD have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study among 1,738 CKD patients, mainly from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). The outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. We performed a replication study for discovered SNPs with P < 10 -6 in 2,498 CKD patients from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Several expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies, pathway enrichment analyses, exploration of epigenetic architecture, and predicting disruption of transcription factor binding sites explored potential biological implications of the loci. We developed and evaluated the effect of polygenic risk scores (PRS) on incident CKD outcomes. RESULTS: SNPs in two novel loci, TPPP and FAT1-LINC02374, were replicated (rs59402340 in TPPP, Pdiscovery = 7.11×10 -7 , PCRIC = 8.13×10 -4 , Pmeta = 7.23×10 -8 ; rs28629773 in FAT1-LINC02374 , Pdiscovery = 6.08×10 -7 , PCRIC =4.33×10 -2 , Pmeta = 1.87×10 -7 ). The eQTL studies revealed that the replicated SNPs regulated the expression level of nearby genes associated with kidney function. Furthermore, these SNPs were near gene enhancer regions and predicted to disrupt the binding of transcription factors. PRS based on the independently significant top 22 SNPs were significantly associated with CKD outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that SNP markers in the TPPP and FAT1-LINC02374 loci could be predictive markers for the decline of eGFR in CKD patients.

4.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(6): 529-538, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the current patterns of cancer incidence and estimate the projected cancer incidence and mortality between 2020 and 2035 in Korea. METHODS: Data on cancer incidence cases were extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service from 2000 to 2017, and data on cancer-related deaths were extracted from the National Cancer Center from 2000 to 2018. Cancer cases and deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. For the current patterns of cancer incidence, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) and age-standardized mortality rates were investigated using the 2000 mid-year estimated population aged over 20 years and older. A joinpoint regression model was used to determine the 2020 to 2035 trends in cancer. RESULTS: Overall, cancer cases were predicted to increase from 265 299 in 2020 to 474 085 in 2035 (growth rate: 1.8%). The greatest increase in the ASIR was projected for prostate cancer among male (7.84 vs. 189.53 per 100 000 people) and breast cancer among female (34.17 vs. 238.45 per 100 000 people) from 2000 to 2035. Overall cancer deaths were projected to increase from 81 717 in 2020 to 95 845 in 2035 (average annual growth rate: 1.2%). Although most cancer mortality rates were projected to decrease, those of breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer among female were projected to increase until 2035. CONCLUSIONS: These up-to-date projections of cancer incidence and mortality in the Korean population may be a significant resource for implementing cancer-related regulations or developing cancer treatments.

5.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583574

RESUMO

Magnesium-sulfur (Mg-S) batteries are emerging as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries, due to their high energy density and low cost. Unfortunately, current Mg-S batteries typically suffer from the shuttle effect that originates from the dissolution of magnesium polysulfide intermediates, leading to several issues such as rapid capacity fading, large overcharge, severe self-discharge, and potential safety concern. To address these issues, here we harness a copper phosphide (Cu3P) modified separator to realize the adsorption of magnesium polysulfides and catalyzation of the conversion reaction of S and Mg2+ toward stable cycling of Mg-S cells. The bifunctional layer with Cu3P confined in a carbon matrix is coated on a commercial polypropylene membrane to form a porous membrane with high electrolyte wettability and good thermal stability. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, polysulfide permeability tests, and post-mortem analysis reveal that the catalytic layer can adsorb polysulfides, effectively restraining the shuttle effect and facilitating the reversibility of the Mg-S cells. As a result, the Mg-S cells can achieve a high specific capacity, fast rates (449 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 249 mAh g-1 at 1.0 C), and a long cycle life (up to 500 cycles at 0.5 C) and operate even at elevated temperatures.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7021, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396638

RESUMO

We propose a highly efficient crosslinking strategy for organic-inorganic hybrid dielectric layers using azide-functionalized acetylacetonate, which covalently connect inorganic particles to polymers, enabling highly efficient inter- and intra-crosslinking of organic and inorganic inclusions, resulting in a dense and defect-free thin-film morphology. From the optimized processing conditions, we obtained an excellent dielectric strength of over 4.0 MV cm-1, a high dielectric constant of ~14, and a low surface energy of 38 mN m-1. We demonstrated the fabrication of exceptionally high-performance, hysteresis-free n-type solution-processed oxide transistors comprising an In2O3/ZnO double layer as an active channel with an electron mobility of over 50 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off ratio of ~107, subthreshold swing of 108 mV dec-1, and high bias-stress stability. From temperature-dependent I-V analyses combined with charge transport mechanism analyses, we demonstrated that the proposed hybrid dielectric layer provides percolation-limited charge transport for the In2O3/ZnO double layer under field-effect conditions.

7.
Metabolites ; 12(11)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422264

RESUMO

Early detection and proper management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can delay progression to end-stage kidney disease. We applied metabolomics to discover novel biomarkers to predict the risk of deterioration in patients with different causes of CKD. We enrolled non-dialytic diabetic nephropathy (DMN, n = 124), hypertensive nephropathy (HTN, n = 118), and polycystic kidney disease (PKD, n = 124) patients from the KNOW-CKD cohort. Within each disease subgroup, subjects were categorized as progressors (P) or non-progressors (NP) based on the median eGFR slope. P and NP pairs were randomly selected after matching for age, sex, and baseline eGFR. Targeted metabolomics was performed to quantify 188 metabolites in the baseline serum samples. We selected ten progression-related biomarkers for DMN and nine biomarkers each for HTN and PKD. Clinical parameters showed good ability to predict DMN (AUC 0.734); however, this tendency was not evident for HTN (AUC 0.659) or PKD (AUC 0.560). Models constructed with selected metabolites and clinical parameters had better ability to predict CKD progression than clinical parameters only. When selected metabolites were used in combination with clinical indicators, random forest prediction models for CKD progression were constructed with AUCs of 0.826, 0.872, and 0.834 for DMN, HTN, and PKD, respectively. Select novel metabolites identified in this study can help identify high-risk CKD patients who may benefit from more aggressive medical treatment.

8.
Metabolites ; 12(11)2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422279

RESUMO

Identifying the predisposing factors to chronic or end-stage kidney disease is essential to preventing or slowing kidney function decline. Therefore, here, we investigated the genetic variants related to a rapid decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (i.e., a loss of >5 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year) and verified the relationships between variant-related diseases and metabolic pathway signaling in patients with chronic kidney disease. We conducted a genome-wide association study that included participants with diabetes, hypertension, and rapid eGFR decline from two Korean data sources (N = 115 and 69 for the discovery and the validation cohorts, respectively). We identified a novel susceptibility locus: 4q32.3 (rs10009742 in the MARCHF1 gene, beta = -3.540, P = 4.11 × 10-8). Fine-mapping revealed 19 credible, causal single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs10009742. The pimelylcarnitine and octadecenoyl carnitine serum concentrations were associated with rs10009742 (beta = 0.030, P = 7.10 × 10-5, false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.01; beta = 0.167, P = 8.11 × 10-4, FDR = 0.08). Our results suggest that MARCHF1 is associated with a rapid eGFR decline in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Furthermore, MARCHF1 affects the pimelylcarnitine metabolite concentration, which may mediate chronic kidney disease progression by inducing oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum.

9.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 14(6): 730-741, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the wide spectrum of pediatric rhinitis, endotyping of rhinitis based on type 2 inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is lacking. This study aimed to investigate endotypes of pediatric rhinitis using cluster analysis. METHODS: Cluster analysis was performed on data from 241 children with rhinitis by using 12 variables reflecting clinical characteristics of skin prick, laboratory, and pulmonary function tests. After extracting clusters, between-cluster differences in clinical features, such as nasal symptom scores and asthma comorbidity, were assessed to investigate the association between the endotypes and clinical features. RESULTS: Four clusters were extracted by hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 (n = 32 [13.3%]) was the non-allergic rhinitis dominant cluster with low type 2 inflammation and the lowest rate of BHR. Patients in cluster 1 had the mildest nasal symptoms and no asthma comorbidity. Cluster 2 (n = 114 [47.3%]) was the largest cluster and exhibited intermediate type 2 inflammation and low BHR. Cluster 3 (n = 65 [27.0%]) showed high type 2 inflammation and intermediate BHR. However, the severity of nasal symptoms and asthma comorbidity in this cluster were comparable with those in cluster 2. Cluster 4 (n = 30 [12.4%]) revealed high type 2 inflammation and BHR with potential functional airway impairment. Additionally, cluster 4 displayed the most severe nasal symptoms and frequent asthma comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Four distinct endotypes of pediatric rhinitis based on allergen sensitization, type 2 inflammation, and BHR correlate to symptoms and asthma comorbidity. These endotypes may aid clinicians in understanding the wide spectrum of pediatric rhinitis.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(22)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431410

RESUMO

The effects of the shapes (needle and round) and volume fractions (low and high) of microscale particles in Al-Si-Mg-Cu-based alloys on recrystallization behavior, texture evolution, mechanical properties, and formability are investigated. The recrystallized grain size decreases as the size and volume fraction of the particles decrease and increase, respectively, regardless of the particle shape. The investigated alloys with a relatively low volume fraction of 0.7 to 2.4 vol.% exhibit higher efficiency particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) than alloys with a high volume fraction of 6.0 to 21.0 vol.%. This is because the interaction between the particles and dislocations cannot be greatly promoted when the volume fraction of the particles is large enough to form agglomerates. The sheets with round-shaped particles exhibit higher yield strength (YS) and elongation (EL) than sheets with needle-shaped particles. The improvement in YS is due to the combined effects of grain refinement and particle strengthening, and the EL is improved by reducing the probability of cracking at the tips of round-shaped particles. The sheets with round-shaped particles exhibit relatively higher average plastic strain ratio (r¯) and planar anisotropy (∆r) than the sheets with needle-shaped particles, owing to the development of Goss {110}<001> or rotated-Goss {110}<110> orientations.

11.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(5): 464-474, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We introduced the cohort studies included in the Korea Cohort Consortium (KCC), focusing on large-scale cohort studies established in Korea with a prolonged follow-up period. Moreover, we also provided projections of the follow-up and estimates of the sample size that would be necessary for big-data analyses based on pooling established cohort studies, including population-based genomic studies. METHODS: We mainly focused on the characteristics of individual cohort studies from the KCC. We developed "PROFAN", a Shiny application for projecting the follow-up period to achieve a certain number of cases when pooling established cohort studies. As examples, we projected the follow-up periods for 5000 cases of gastric cancer, 2500 cases of prostate and breast cancer, and 500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The sample sizes for sequencing-based analyses based on a 1:1 case-control study were also calculated. RESULTS: The KCC consisted of 8 individual cohort studies, of which 3 were community-based and 5 were health screening-based cohorts. The population-based cohort studies were mainly organized by Korean government agencies and research institutes. The projected follow-up period was at least 10 years to achieve 5000 cases based on a cohort of 0.5 million participants. The mean of the minimum to maximum sample sizes for performing sequencing analyses was 5917-72 102. CONCLUSIONS: We propose an approach to establish a large-scale consortium based on the standardization and harmonization of existing cohort studies to obtain adequate statistical power with a sufficient sample size to analyze high-risk groups or rare cancer subtypes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Gástricas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Sci Robot ; 7(71): eabq1514, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260697

RESUMO

Exosuits have the potential to assist locomotion in both healthy and pathological populations, but the effect of exosuit assistance on the underlying muscle-tendon tissue loading is not yet understood. In this study, we used shear wave tensiometers to characterize the modulation of Achilles tendon force with load carriage and exosuit assistance at the ankle. When walking (1.25 m/s) unassisted on a treadmill with load carriage weights of 15 and 30% of body weight, peak Achilles tendon force increased by 11 and 23%, respectively. Ankle exosuit assistance significantly reduced peak Achilles tendon force relative to unassisted, although the magnitude of change was variable across participants. Peak Achilles tendon force was significantly correlated with peak ankle torque for unassisted walking across load carriage conditions. However, when ankle plantarflexor assistance was applied, the relationship between peak tendon force and peak biological ankle torque was no longer significant. An outdoor pilot study was conducted in which a wearable shear wave tensiometer was used to measure Achilles tendon wave speed and compare across an array of assistance loading profiles. Reductions in tendon loading varied depending on the profile, highlighting the importance of in vivo measurements of muscle and tendon forces when studying and optimizing exoskeletons and exosuits.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Humanos , Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Projetos Piloto , Caminhada/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia
13.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(19)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233898

RESUMO

The influence of cluster composition and the addition of vacancies on the decomposition behavior of clusters during artificial aging in Al-Si-Mg alloys were analyzed according to the kinetic Montel Carlo model. Clusters with a balanced composition (Mg/(Mg + Si) = 0.5) were the most difficult to decompose. In addition, the cluster decomposition was slower when more vacancies were added to the cluster. Among Si, Mg, and vacancies, vacancies most significantly affect decomposition. The clusters with Mg/(Mg + Si) ≤ 0.4 strongly trap vacancies, which can be classified as hardly decomposable vacancy-rich clusters. The clustering behavior during natural aging and the effect of pre-aging were analyzed using the Kinetic Monte Carlo model. Pre-aging slows down cluster formation due to the lowered vacancy concentration. In addition, the overall composition of the clusters changes to easily decomposable clusters after pre-aging. Thus, not only is the number of clusters reduced but also the clusters are more easily decomposable when pre-aging is performed.

14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18050, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302817

RESUMO

Amblyopia is a common visual disorder that causes significant vision problems globally. Most non-ocular risk factors for amblyopia are closely related to the intrauterine environment, and are strongly influenced by parent-origin effects. Parent-origin perinatal factors may have a direct causal inference on amblyopia development; therefore, we investigated the causal association between perinatal factors and amblyopia risk using a one-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) with data from the UK Biobank Cohort Data (UKBB). Four distinct MR methods were employed to analyze the association between three perinatal factors (birth weight [BW], maternal smoking, and breastfeeding) and amblyopia risk, based on the summary statistics of genome-wide association studies in the European population. The inverse variance weighting method showed an inverse causal association between BW and amblyopia risk (odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.29-0.80]; p = 0.004). Maternal smoking and breastfeeding were not causally associated with amblyopia risk. Our findings provided a possible evidence of a significant genetic causal association between low BW and increased amblyopia risk. This evidence may highlight the potential of BW as a predictive factor for visual maldevelopment and the need for careful management of amblyopia risk in patients with low BW.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ambliopia/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it has been more than ten years since its first introduction, single-incision distal gastrectomy (SIDG) still lacks solid evidence and there are also no reports on patient quality of life (QOL). This study evaluates the postoperative outcomes and patient QOL of SIDG compared to multiport laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (MLDG). METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective phase II randomized controlled study. Patients diagnosed with early gastric cancer in the distal 2/3rd of the stomach were randomized to either multiport or single-port group. Primary endpoint was pain using the visual analogue scale on postoperative day (POD) 1. Other outcomes include operative data, complications, and patient QOL using the EORTC C30 and STO22 modules. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients in the SIDG group and 40 patients in the MLDG group were enrolled from September 2017 to February 2020. Mean operation time was 154.3 ± 53.3 min in the MLDG group and 148.9 ± 50.1 min in the SIDG group (p = 0.631). There was no difference in POD1 pain scores between the two groups (MLDG = 4.0 ± 1.3, SIDG = 4.3 ± 1.3, p = 0.372). Mean hospital stay was 5.5 (range 4-12) days in the MLDG group and 5 (range 4-17) days in the SIDG group (p = 0.993). There was no statistical significance in postoperative QOL scores. CONCLUSION: Unlike previous reports, there was no difference in POD1 pain scores between SIDG and MLDG. Nevertheless, SIDG did not increase short-term morbidity compared to MLDG and had similar outcomes in QOL.

16.
J Neural Eng ; 19(5)2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066021

RESUMO

Objective. Temporal interference stimulation (TIS) has shown the potential as a new method for selective stimulation of deep brain structures in small animal experiments. However, it is challenging to deliver a sufficient temporal interference (TI) current to directly induce an action potential in the deep area of the human brain when electrodes are attached to the scalp because the amount of injection current is generally limited due to safety issues. Thus, we propose a novel method called epidural TIS (eTIS) to address this issue; in this method, the electrodes are attached to the epidural surface under the skull.Approach. We employed finite element method (FEM)-based electric field simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of eTIS. We first optimized the electrode conditions to deliver maximum TI currents to each of the three different targets (anterior hippocampus, subthalamic nucleus, and ventral intermediate nucleus) based on FEM, and compared the stimulation focality between eTIS and transcranial TIS (tTIS). Moreover, we conducted realistic skull-phantom experiments for validating the accuracy of the computational simulation for eTIS.Main results. Our simulation results showed that eTIS has the advantage of avoiding the delivery of TI currents over unwanted neocortical regions compared with tTIS for all three targets. It was shown that the optimized eTIS could induce neural action potentials at each of the three targets when a sufficiently large current equivalent to that for epidural cortical stimulation is injected. Additionally, the simulated results and measured results via the phantom experiments were in good agreement.Significance. We demonstrated the feasibility of eTIS, facilitating more focalized and stronger electrical stimulation of deep brain regions than tTIS, with the relatively less invasive placement of electrodes than conventional deep brain stimulation via computational simulation and realistic skull phantom experiments.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
17.
Front Genet ; 13: 928783, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081994

RESUMO

Objective: Despite being a powerful tool to identify novel variants, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are not sufficient to explain the biological function of variants. In this study, we aimed to elucidate at the gene level the biological mechanisms involved in gastric cancer (GC) development and to identify candidate drug target genes. Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review for GWAS on GC following the PRISMA guidelines. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-level meta-analysis and gene-based analysis (GBA) were performed to identify SNPs and genes significantly associated with GC. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), disease network, pathway enrichment, gene ontology, gene-drug, and chemical interaction analyses were conducted to elucidate the function of the genes identified by GBA. Results: A review of GWAS on GC identified 226 SNPs located in 91 genes. In the comprehensive GBA, 44 genes associated with GC were identified, among which 12 genes (THBS3, GBAP1, KRTCAP2, TRIM46, HCN3, MUC1, DAP3, EFNA1, MTX1, PRKAA1, PSCA, and ABO) were eQTL. Using disease network and pathway analyses, we identified that PRKAA, THBS3, and EFNA1 were significantly associated with the PI3K-Alt-mTOR-signaling pathway, which is involved in various oncogenic processes, and that MUC1 acts as a regulator in both the PI3K-Alt-mTOR and P53 signaling pathways. Furthermore, RPKAA1 had the highest number of interactions with drugs and chemicals. Conclusion: Our study suggests that PRKAA1, a gene in the PI3K-Alt-mTOR-signaling pathway, could be a potential target gene for drug development associated with GC in the future. Systematic Review Registration: website, identifier registration number.

18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13762, 2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962011

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) is a complex cognitive function involved in the temporary storage and manipulation of information, which has been one of the target cognitive functions to be restored in neurorehabilitation. WM capacity is known to be proportional to the number of gamma cycles nested in a single theta cycle. Therefore, gamma-band transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) should be dependent of the stimulation frequency; however, the results of previous studies that employed 40 Hz tACS have not been consistent. The optimal locations and injection currents of multiple scalp electrodes were determined based on numerical simulations of electric field. Experiments were conducted with 20 healthy participants. The order of three stimulation conditions (40 Hz tACS, 80 Hz tACS, and sham stimulation) were randomized but counterbalanced. Visual hemifield-specific visual WM capacity was assessed using a delayed visual match to the sample task. High gamma tACS significantly increased WM capacity, while low gamma tACS had no significant effect. Notably, 80 Hz tACS increased WM capacity on both the left and right visual hemifields, while previous tACS studies only reported the effects of tACS on contralateral hemifields. This is the first study to investigate the frequency-dependent effect of gamma-band tACS on WM capacity. Our findings also suggest that high gamma tACS might influence not only WM capacity but also communication between interhemispheric cortical regions. It is expected that high gamma tACS could be a promising neurorehabilitation method to enhance higher-order cognitive functions with similar mechanisms.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Cognição , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
19.
ACS Omega ; 7(29): 25219-25228, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910113

RESUMO

With the evolution of semiconducting industries, thermomechanical failure induced in a multilayered structure with a high aspect ratio during manufacturing and operation has become one of the critical reliability issues. In this work, the effect of thermomechanical stress on the failure of multilayered thin films on Si substrates was studied using analytical calculations and various thermomechanical tests. The residual stress induced during material processing was calculated based on plate bending theory. The calculations enabled the prediction of the weakest region of failure in the thin films. To verify our prediction, additional thermomechanical stress was applied to induce cracking and interfacial delamination by various tests. We assumed that, when accumulated thermomechanical-residual and externally applied mechanical stress becomes larger than a critical value the thin-film cracking or interfacial delamination will occur. The test results agreed well with the prediction based on the analytical calculation in that the film with maximum tensile residual stress is the most vulnerable to failure. These results will provide useful analytical and experimental prediction tools for the failure of multilayered thin films in the device design stage.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1727-1734, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and gastric cancer in East and Southeast Asia where most of gastric cancer is non-cardia gastric cancer. METHODS: On the basis of 8,997 gastric cancer cases among the Asia Cohort Consortium participants from China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore (N = 538,835), we assessed gastric cancer risk according to BMI by calculating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: A U-shaped associations between BMI and gastric cancer risk were observed. Gastric cancer risks in underweight group (<18.5 kg/m2) and in obesity group (≥27.5 kg/m2) were higher than reference BMI group (23-24.9 kg/m2; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25 for underweight; HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22 for obesity, respectively). The associations of underweight and obesity with gastric cancer risk were consistent in the analyses for non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. No significant association of underweight and obesity with the risk of cardia gastric cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and early-onset gastric cancer was observed. In addition, we found that the U-shaped association between BMI and gastric cancer risk remained in nonsmokers, while only underweight was related to increased gastric cancer risk in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: BMI has a U-shaped association with gastric cancer risk in East and Southeast Asian population, especially for the non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. IMPACT: Future studies with consideration of anatomic location and histology of gastric cancer are needed to establish the association of underweight as well as obesity with gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Magreza
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