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1.
Korean Circ J ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model. METHODS: Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment. RESULTS: Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase⁺ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the added value of diffusion weighted image (DWI) including volumetric analysis to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting poor responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma at 3-Tesla. METHODS: 3-Tesla Standard MRI and DWI in 17 patients were reviewed by two independent readers. Standard MRI was reviewed using a five-level-confidence score. Two-dimensional (2D) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)mean and 2D ADCminimum were measured from a single-section region of interest. An ADC histogram derived from whole-tumor volume was generated including 3D ADCmean, 3D ADCskewness, and 3D ADCkurtosis. The Mann-Whitney-U test, receiver operating characteristic curve with area under the curve (AUC) analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: There were 13 poor responders and 4 good responders. Statistical differences were found in posttreatment and percent change of both 2D ADCmean and 2D ADCminimum, posttreatment 3D ADCmean, and posttreatment 3D ADCskewness between two groups. The best predictors of poor responders were posttreatment 2D ADCmean and posttreatment 3D ADCskewness. Sensitivity and specificity of the 1st model (standard MRI alone), 2nd model (standard MRI+posttreatment 2D ADCmean), and 3rd model (standard MRI+posttreatment 2D ADCmean+posttreatment 3D ADCskewness) were 85% and 25%, 85% and 75%, and 85% and 100% for reader 1 and 77% and 25%, 77% and 50%, and 85% and 100% for reader 2, respectively. The AUC of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd models were 0.548, 0.798, and 0.923 for reader 1 and 0.510, 0.635, and 0.923 for reader 2, respectively. CONCLUSION: The addition of DWI including volumetric analysis to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for predicting poor responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma at 3-Tesla.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155987

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the association between family dinners involving the participation of both mother and her adolescent child and depressive symptoms within the adolescents. Data from 2183 mother-child pairs obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-VI (2010-2013, and 2015) were employed in the analysis. The dependent variable of this study was depressive symptom of adolescents. Maternal accompaniment at family dinners was the variable of interest. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to analyze the association between family dinners including both mother and adolescent and depressive symptoms within the adolescent. According to the results, maternal absence in family dinners was significantly associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms in adolescents (OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.01-1.99). In particular, the association was strong among adolescents aged 12-15, female adolescents, those with mothers without depressive symptoms, and city dwellers. This study showed that maternal absence at family dinners was strongly associated with depressive symptoms of adolescents. For the sake of adolescent mental health, it may be necessary to consider the implementation of policies that emphasize the importance of maternal accompaniment at family dinners and encourage the presence of mothers at the dinner table.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between digital peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) and major-nerve PNST. METHODS: A total 36 cases with benign PNSTs (16 digital, 20 major-nerve) were enrolled. Chief complaint and Tinel sign were reviewed. Five classic MRI features of PNST, the signal intensity (SI), the enhancement, and the shape of tumor were evaluated on MRI. RESULTS: Half of each group showed tenderness. Tinel sign was less frequent in digital PNST (12.5%) than major-nerve PNST (95.0%, P < 0.001). Split fat sign, entering and exiting nerve, target sign, and thin hyperintense rim were only observed in major-nerve PNST (P = <0.001, <0.001, 0.492, and 0.002, respectively). Fascicular sign was found in digital PNSTs (31.3%), but more frequent in major-nerve PNST (P < 0.001). In digital PNSTs, mild hyperintense SIs (56.2%) on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) was noted, but none in major-nerve PNST (P < 0.001). Both groups showed hyperintense SIs on T2-WI (P = 0.371). Homogeneity on T2-WI was noted in 43.8% of digital PNSTs, but none in major-nerve PNSTs (P = 0.004). Both groups showed heterogeneous enhancement (P = 0.066), but four (25%) digital PNSTs showed homogeneous enhancement. Lobulated shape was noted in 50% of digital PNSTs but none of major-nerve PNSTs (P = 0.001). Digital nerve was involved at 81.3% of digital PNSTs. Three foot cases showed unusual manifestations: bone destruction, skin thickening, and subungual location. CONCLUSION: In digital PNSTs, Tinel sign is not commonly found and classic MRI findings is insufficient. In addition, some digital PNSTs show different SI and enhancement from major-nerve PNSTs. However, digital soft tissue tumor involving digital neurovascular bundle and especially representing a fascicular sign should be considered the possibility of a digital PNST.

5.
Langmuir ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216352

RESUMO

Zinc sulfide (ZnS) was deposited onto the surface of mesoporous TiO2 film by a typical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. By inducing a spontaneous cation exchange between ZnS and a target cation (Pb2+, Cu2+, Ag+, or Bi3+) dissolved in chemical bath when they are in contact, it was demonstrated successfully that white translucent ZnS on the substrate could be changed to brown-colored new metal chalcogenides and the amount of ZnS deposited originally by different conditions could be compared in a qualitative way with the degree of the color change. By utilizing this simple but effective process, the evolution of well-known ZnS passivation layer prepared from different chemical baths in quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells could be tracked visually via checking the degree of color change of TiO2/ZnS electrodes after the induced specific cation exchange. When applied to representative CdS QD-sensitized solar cells, it was revealed clearly how the different degree and rate of ZnS deposition could affect the overall power conversion efficiency while finding an optimized passivation layer over TiO2/CdS electrode. Acetate anion-coupled Zn2+ source was observed to give a much faster deposition of ZnS passivation layer than nitrate anion one due to its higher pH-induced more favorable adsorption of Zn2+ on the surface of TiO2. As another useful application of the ZnS-based cation exchange, as-deposited ZnS was used as a template for preparing a more complex metal chalcogenide onto mesoporous TiO2 film. The ZnS-derived Sb2S3-sensitized electrode showed a promising initial result of over 1.0 % overall power conversion efficiency with a very thin ZrO2 passivation layer between TiO2 and Sb2S3.

6.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202374

RESUMO

A general and straightforward way of preparing few nanometer-sized well-separated MAPbI x Br 3-x perovskite photosensitizers on the surface of ~1 µm thick mesoporous TiO 2 photoanode was suggested via a two-step sequential deposition of low-concentrated lead halides (0.10 ~ 0.30 M PbI 2 or PbBr 2 ) and methylammonium iodide/bromide (MAI/MABr). When those nanoscale MAPbI x Br 3-x perovskites are incorporated as a photosensitizer in typical solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs), it could be verified clearly by the capacitance analysis that nano-particulate MAPbI 3 perovskites are playing the same role as that of a typical dye sensitizer (MK-2 molecule) though their size, composition and structure are different.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19037, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049800

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We present a rare case of a traumatic intradural ruptured disc associated with a mild vertebral body compression fracture along with a review of the relevant medical literature. An intradural ruptured disc often occurs due to chronic degenerative diseases and is rarely due to trauma. It can cause irreversible neurological complications if the appropriate treatment is not planned. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old male presented with motor paraparesis (grade 3/5), right ankle dorsiflexion, and great toe dorsiflexion (grade 1/5), along with radiating pain at his right L4 and L5 sensory dermatome following a fall. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography revealed a compression fracture of the L2 body. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradural mass-like lesion on the ventral side of his spinal cord and an epidural mass-like lesion on the dorsal side of his spinal cord, indicating a hematoma. INTERVENTIONS: An emergency L2 laminectomy was performed to remove the space-occupying lesions and to decompress the cauda equina and nerve root. The mass-like lesion was removed. No other lesions were found in the spinal canal. OUTCOMES: Pathologic examination of the intradural mass lesion revealed fibrocartilage similar to that found in disc material. The patient still continued to experience motor weakness at the 1-year follow-up examination. LESSONS: We report a rare case of a traumatic lumbar disc rupture into the dural sac associated with a mild vertebral body compression fracture. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention are essential, as is performing a magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography myelogram promptly to evaluate the spinal canal when there are unexplained neurologic symptoms. An intraspinal canal evaluation should be completed before the postural reduction of the vertebral body fracture to prevent any neurological complications.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Fraturas por Compressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Laminectomia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Control Release ; 321: 174-183, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035908

RESUMO

High rates of restenosis and neointimal formation have driven increasing interest in the application of drug eluting balloons (DEB) as counteractive measures for intraluminal drug delivery. The use of DEBs eliminates the need for stents so that serious side effects including in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis can be avoided and long-term medication of anti-platelet agent is not needed. Despite their benefits, DEBs have poor drug delivery efficiency due to short balloon inflation times (30-60 s) that limit the passive drug diffusion from the balloon surface to the luminal lesion. To increase drug delivery efficiency, a microneedle DEB (MNDEB) was developed by a conformal transfer molding process using a thin polydimethylsiloxane mold bearing a negative array of MNs of 200 µm in height. A MN array composed of UV curable resin was formed onto the surface of DEB, and drugs were coated onto the structure. The mechanical properties of the MN array were investigated and MN penetration into luminal vasculature was confirmed in vivo. An increase in drug delivery efficiency compared to a standard DEB was demonstrated in an in vivo test in a rabbit aorta. Finally, the superior therapeutic efficacy of MNDEBs was evaluated using an atherosclerosis rabbit model.

9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 9358080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047580

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. Interleukin-1ß is the key player in the pathogenesis of OA, which induces the expression of various catabolic factors that contribute to cartilage degradation. Cynaroside (luteolin-7-O-glucoside or luteoloside) is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological properties, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the chondroprotective effects of cynaroside on IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and organ explants. The production of nitrite, PGE2, collagen type II, and aggrecan was measured by a Griess reagent and ELISAs, and the production of ROS was measured by H2DCF-DA fluorescence. The protein levels of iNOS, Cox-2, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, MAPKs, and the NF-κB p65 subunit were measured by western blot. Proteoglycan analysis was performed by Alcian Blue staining (in vitro) and Safranin O staining (ex vivo). Cynaroside inhibited IL-1ß-induced expression of catabolic factors (nitrite, iNOS, ROS, PGE2, Cox-2, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4) and degradation of anabolic factors (collagen type II and aggrecan). Furthermore, cynaroside suppressed IL-1ß-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus. Collectively, these results suggest that cynaroside may be a potential candidate for the development of new therapeutic drugs for the alleviation of OA progression.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 56, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911612

RESUMO

Synthesis of a polymer composed of a large discrete number of chemically distinct monomers in an absolutely defined aperiodic sequence remains a challenge in polymer chemistry. The synthesis has largely been limited to oligomers having a limited number of repeating units due to the difficulties associated with the step-by-step addition of individual monomers to achieve high molecular weights. Here we report the copolymers of α-hydroxy acids, poly(phenyllactic-co-lactic acid) (PcL) built via the cross-convergent method from four dyads of monomers as constituent units. Our proposed method allows scalable synthesis of sequence-defined PcL in a minimal number of coupling steps from reagents in stoichiometric amounts. Digital information can be stored in an aperiodic sequence of PcL, which can be fully retrieved as binary code by mass spectrometry sequencing. The information storage density (bit/Da) of PcL is 50% higher than DNA, and the storage capacity of PcL can also be increased by adjusting the molecular weight (~38 kDa).

11.
Eur Radiol ; 30(4): 2270-2279, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Radiating pain in degenerative scoliosis is primary indication for surgery. However, axial and sagittal MR images are limited for identifying nerve root compromise. Therefore, we aimed to assess the value of coronal images for evaluating nerve root compromise in degenerative scoliosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (mean 70 years; range 41-91 years; 8 men) with degenerative scoliosis were enrolled. Coronal images were added to routine MRI. Two radiologists independently reviewed 350 nerve roots in two MRI sets: sagittal images alone (set 1) and coronal and sagittal images combined (set 2). The following features were evaluated: interpedicular height, lateral osteophyte, asymmetric bulging disc, lateral listhesis, anterolisthesis, axial rotation angle, facet arthrosis, ligamentum flavum thickening, and pseudoarticulation. Symptomatic levels were determined by transforaminal selective nerve root block. RESULTS: There were 80 symptomatic and 270 asymptomatic nerve roots. The sensitivity (86%) and accuracy (93%) of set 2 were significantly higher than set 1 (53% and 87%) for radiculopathy, while specificity was similar between two sets (set 1, 97%; set 2, 95%). The AUC was significantly different between two sets (set 1, 0.853; set 2, 0.942). The negative interpedicular height difference, longer lateral osteophyte, asymmetric bulging disc, lateral listhesis, negative axial rotation angle difference, and pseudoarticulation were associated with change of grades between set 1 and set 2. CONCLUSION: Coronal images are helpful for diagnosing nerve root compromise in patients with degenerative scoliosis. KEY POINTS: • Sagittal and axial images have low sensitivity for detection of extraforaminal nerve root compromise in degenerative scoliosis. • Addition of coronal images may improve the sensitivity in nerve root compromise. • The structural changes that may contribute to nerve root compromise can also be easily assessed with coronal images.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(5): 3246-3251, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970886

RESUMO

We aimed to discover cell line-specific overexpressed HOX genes responsible for chemoresistance and to identify the mechanisms behind HOX-induced cell line-specific chemoresistance in EOC. Ten HOX genes and eight EOC cell lines were tested for any cell line-specific overexpression that presents a mutually exclusive pattern. Cell viability was evaluated after treatment with cisplatin and/or siRNA for cell line-specific overexpressed HOX genes. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HOXB9 was performed in 84 human EOC tissues. HOXA10 and HOXB9 were identified as cell line-specific overexpressed HOX genes for SKOV-3 and RMUG-S, respectively. Inhibiting the expression of cell line-specific HOX genes, but not of other HOX genes, significantly decreased cell viability. In SKOV-3 cells, cell viability decreased to 46.5% after initial 10 µM cisplatin treatment; however, there was no further decrease upon additional treatment with HOXA10 siRNA. In contrast, cell viability did not significantly decrease upon cisplatin treatment in RMUG-S cells, but decreased to 65.5% after additional treatment with HOXB9 siRNA. In both cell lines, inhibiting cell line-specific HOX expression enhanced apoptosis but suppressed the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as vimentin, MMP9, and Oct4. IHC analysis showed that platinum-resistant cancer tissues more frequently had high HOXB9 expression than platinum-sensitive cancer tissues. HOXB9, which is overexpressed in RMUG-S but not in SKOV-3 cells, appeared to be associated with cell line-specific platinum resistance in RMUG-S. Inhibiting HOXB9 overexpression in RMUG-S cells may effectively eliminate platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells by facilitating apoptosis and inhibiting EMT.

13.
Skeletal Radiol ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of classic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intramuscular peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), including schwannoma, ancient schwannoma, and neurofibroma. METHOD: Thirty pathologically confirmed benign intramuscular PNSTs (24 schwannomas, 3 ancient schwannomas, and 3 neurofibromas) were retrospectively reviewed. Classic MRI findings of PNSTs including split fat sign, fascicular sign, target sign, entering and exiting nerve, and thin hyperintense rim were assessed for each intramuscular PNST. Denervation change of the affected muscle was also assessed. In ancient schwannoma and neurofibroma, the signal intensity (SI) and enhancement pattern were analyzed. RESULTS: All intramuscular schwannomas revealed two more classic MRI findings. Eight of the 24 intramuscular schwannomas revealed affected muscle denervation change. All intramuscular ancient schwannomas showed only split fat sign. All intramuscular ancient schwannomas showed denervation change of the associated muscle. All intramuscular neurofibroma showed split fat sign and one case with target sign was detected. Ancient schwannomas were isointense SI on T1-weighted image (T1WI) and one case had hyperintense foci. They showed heterogeneously hyperintense SI on T2-weighted image (T2WI) with heterogeneous enhancement. Neurofibromas were isointense SI (2/3) and slight hyperintense SI (1/3) on T1WI and heterogeneously hyperintense SI on T2WI with heterogeneous enhancement. One ancient schwannoma showed conglomerated calcifications. CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular schwannomas were easily diagnosed based on MRI. In the case of intramuscular ancient schwannoma and neurofibroma with only split fat sign among the classic MRI findings, they might be distinguished from other intramuscular soft tissue tumors based on muscle denervation change or typical crescent split fat sign.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 135-142, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805326

RESUMO

Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite films were fabricated with graphene oxide (GO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as a hybrid-co-filler with GOCNT fraction varying from 0.05 to 0.4% by weight. The effect of the GOCNT on the physical, thermal, morphological, gas permeation, and optical properties was investigated. The X-ray diffraction test reveals no restacking and coagulation of GOCNT in the composite films. Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis shows an insignificant shift of glass transition and melting temperature but enhanced crystallization resulting from the existence of GOCNT as a nucleating agent. Scanning Electron Microscope scans indicate GOCNT embedded homogeneously without considerable aggregates in the PLA. Transmission of ultraviolet-visible radiation decreases to 30% with increasing fraction of GOCNT while Oxygen Transmission Rate diminishes to 67% in the film. These are attributed to the tortuous pathways provided by the well-dispersed hybrid GOCNT in the PLA. Compared to the pristine PLA film, the composite film shows an increase of 75% and 130% in the tensile strength and Young's modulus, respectively. Taken together, all of these improvements observed in the hybrid GOCNT-PLA composites should provide useful guidelines in customizing designs for applications across a range of fields including packaging, life sciences, cosmetics, and conventional synthetic plastics.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642491

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adrenomedullin 2 (AM2) plays protective roles in the renal and cardiovascular systems. Recent studies in experimental animals demonstrated that AM2 is an adipokine with beneficial effects on energy metabolism. However, there is little information regarding AM2 expression in human adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern and regulation of the expression of AM2 and its receptor component in human adipose tissue, in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured metabolic parameters, serum AM2, and expression of ADM2 and its receptor component genes in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in obese (with or without type 2 diabetes) and normal-weight women. Serum AM2 was assessed before and 6 to 9 months after bariatric surgery. Expression/secretion of AM2 and its receptor were assessed in human adipocytes. RESULTS: ADM2 mRNA in both fat depots was higher in obese patients, whether diabetic or not. Although serum AM2 was significantly lower in obese patients, it was not changed after bariatric surgery. AM2 and its receptor complex were predominantly expressed by adipocytes, and the expression of CALCRL, encoding a component of the AM2 receptor complex, was lower in both fat depots of obese patients. Incubating adipocytes with substances mimicking the microenvironment of obese adipose tissue increased ADM2 mRNA but reduced both AM2 secretion into culture media and CALCRL mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that AM2 signaling is suppressed in adipose tissue in obesity, involving lower receptor expression and ligand availability, likely contributing to insulin resistance and other aspects of the pathophysiology associated with obesity.

16.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(2): 263-271, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the best-suited method for fat quantification of lumbar multifidus to demonstrate its relationship to herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) using T2-weighted Dixon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eight patients who underwent MRI for low back pain were enrolled. Two readers independently analyzed the fat fraction (Ff) using axial two-dimensional (D), coronal 2-D, and coronal 3-D measurement. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between age, body mass index (BMI), and the Ff, and age, sex, BMI, and Ff were compared between 'HNP group' and 'no HNP group'. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with HNP. RESULTS: Coronal 2-D Ff showed the highest correlation with age (r = 0.536, P < 0.001). Coronal 2-D Ff, and coronal 3-D Ff were significantly higher in those with HNP (coronal 2-D: 18.9 ± 2.9, coronal 3-D: 19.7 ± 2.6, respectively) than those without HNP (coronal 2-D: 17.2 ± 3.2, coronal 3-D: 17.4 ± 3.2, respectively). Ff of all three measurements were significantly higher in those with HNP ≥ 3 levels (axial 2-D: 20.7 ± 3.0, coronal 2-D: 21.1 ± 2.7, coronal 3-D: 21.6 ± 2.5, respectively) than those with HNP <3 levels (axial 2-D: 17.5 ± 4.3, coronal 2-D: 18.5 ± 2.7, coronal 3-D: 19.3 ± 2.5). The BMI was an independent predisposing factor to HNP (P = 0.011). Age and coronal 2-D Ff were significant predictors for multilevel HNP (P = 0.028 and 0.040, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The Ff of the multifidus muscle on T2-weighted Dixon was associated with age, sex, and HNP. The coronal 2-D measurement was the best suited for fat quantification in multifidus muscle among three measurement methods.

17.
World Neurosurg ; 134: 540-543, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intradural disk herniation (IDH) is defined as the displacement of the intervertebral disk nucleus pulposus into the dural sac. In this lumbar lesion, the affected level differs from that of a traditional extradural herniation: 55% of cases occur at the level of L4-5, 16% at L3-4, and 10% at L5-S1. Upper lumbar IDH is extremely rare. We present a case of an IDH at the level of L2-3 that was diagnosed during endoscopic surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old male patient presented with severe radiating pain in the anterior right thigh that was accompanied by a tingling sensation in the right calf and difficulty in walking. Physical examination showed normal strength. Bladder and bowel function was normal, but mild hypesthesia of the L3 sensory dermatome was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a herniated disk at the level of L2-L3 that was compressing the right side of the dura. A percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar diskectomy was planned. After foraminoplasty, no ruptured disk fragments could be found. During dissection of the adhesion between the dura and protruded disk, the dura was torn. Interestingly, through this dural opening, multiple fragmented disk portions were visualized among the nerve rootlets. We removed some of the soft disk material; however, complete removal of the disk fragments was predicted to damage the rootlets, and we decided to convert to microscopic surgery. The disk fragments were successfully removed via durotomy under microscopic assistance. The incised dorsal dura was primarily sutured with continuous stitches, and the defect on the ventrolateral side of the dura was patched and sealed using a harvested inner ligamentum flavum and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, New York, USA). After the operation, the patient's symptoms improved. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage. CONCLUSIONS: If there is any preoperative clinical or radiologic suspicion of IDH, a microscopic surgical approach should be considered to be the first-line option, as this is a safe and effective method for achieving IDH removal and dura repair without a postoperative neurologic deficit. Even during endoscopic surgery, if the surgeon expects even minor complications, we suggest converting to open surgery. In addition, the adequate sealing of the dura may be sufficient to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage, without the need for dural suture and lumbar drainage.

18.
Biomater Sci ; 8(3): 937-948, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833498

RESUMO

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used as a biomaterial for pharmaceutical and medical applications. However, the decomposition products of PLGA are known to acidify the surrounding tissue of the implanted site, causing an inflammatory response. Previously, we developed PLGA/inorganic nanocomposites and optimized the amounts of inorganic compounds, ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2], in terms of osteogenesis of normal human osteoblasts and anti-inflammatory responses of preosteoclastic cells in vitro. In this study, the potential of the optimized PLGA/ß-TCP/Mg(OH)2 nanocomposite (TCP/MH) to promote bone repair through osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and anti-inflammatory abilities was assessed using a bone defect in a rat humeral defect model. PLGA nanocomposites with or without inorganic compounds, PLGA, ß-TCP, MH, and TCP/MH were prepared through one-step bulk modification using a twin-screw extruder. The resulting TCP/MH nanocomposite successfully enhanced the bone regeneration rate for allowing complete bone defect healing with significantly suppressed inflammatory responses. Taken together, the organic and inorganic bioactive nanocomposite developed in this study, TCP/MH, is a promising material in orthopedic implantation.

19.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 126(1): 74-81, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320514

RESUMO

This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of a 40% prethanol extract of Trifolium pratense leaves (40% PeTP) using in vitro (RAW264.7 cells) and in vivo (carrageenan-induced inflammation model) experiments. Pretreatment with 40% PeTP significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells, without inducing cytotoxicity. The inhibitory effects of 40% PeTP are mediated through suppression of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Oral administration of 40% PeTP at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of body weight suppressed carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggested that 40% PeTP exerts potential anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in vitro, and by reducing carrageenan-induced paw oedema in vivo.

20.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 206-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of gallbladder polyp measurements using transabdominal US and the factors that affect reliability. METHODS: From November 2017 to February 2018, two radiologists measured the maximum diameter of 91 gallbladder polyps using transabdominal US. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were determined using 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The effects of image settings, polyp location, and polyp size were evaluated by comparing ICCs using z tests. RESULTS: The intraobserver agreement rates were 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.939-0.973) for observer 1 and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.943-0.975) for observer 2. The ICCs between the two observers were 0.963 (95% CI, 0.926-0.979) for the first measurement and 0.973 (95% CI, 0.950-0.984) for the second measurement. The 95% limits of agreement on repeated measurements were 22.3-25.2% of the mean, and those between the two observers were 25.5-34.2% of the mean. ICCs for large polyps (≥ 5 mm) were significantly higher than those for small polyps (< 5 mm). There were no significant differences in the ICCs between image settings and polyp location. CONCLUSIONS: Polyp size measurements using transabdominal US are highly repeatable and reproducible. Polyp size significantly affects the reliability of measurement. Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% may fall within the measurement error; this should be considered while interpreting the change in size during follow-up US, especially for small polyps. KEY POINTS: • Gallbladder polyp size measurement using transabdominal US is highly repeatable and reproducible. • Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% should be interpreted carefully, especially in small polyps.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
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