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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20403, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650076

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate a deep learning model for generating synthetic contrast-enhanced CT (sCECT) from non-contrast chest CT (NCCT). A deep learning model was applied to generate sCECT from NCCT. We collected three separate data sets, the development set (n = 25) for model training and tuning, test set 1 (n = 25) for technical evaluation, and test set 2 (n = 12) for clinical utility evaluation. In test set 1, image similarity metrics were calculated. In test set 2, the lesion contrast-to-noise ratio of the mediastinal lymph nodes was measured, and an observer study was conducted to compare lesion conspicuity. Comparisons were performed using the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In test set 1, sCECT showed a lower mean absolute error (41.72 vs 48.74; P < .001), higher peak signal-to-noise ratio (17.44 vs 15.97; P < .001), higher multiscale structural similarity index measurement (0.84 vs 0.81; P < .001), and lower learned perceptual image patch similarity metric (0.14 vs 0.15; P < .001) than NCCT. In test set 2, the contrast-to-noise ratio of the mediastinal lymph nodes was higher in the sCECT group than in the NCCT group (6.15 ± 5.18 vs 0.74 ± 0.69; P < .001). The observer study showed for all reviewers higher lesion conspicuity in NCCT with sCECT than in NCCT alone (P ≤ .001). Synthetic CECT generated from NCCT improves the depiction of mediastinal lymph nodes.

2.
Microbiol Immunol ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516008

RESUMO

The performance of the ASTA MicroIDSys system (ASTA, Suwon, South Korea), a new matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system, was evaluated for the identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) and compared with the results obtained with the Bruker Biotyper system (Bruker Daltonics, Hamburg, Germany). A total of 106 Streptococcus reference strains belonging to 24 species from the bacterial strain bank was analyzed using the two MALDI-TOF MS systems. Of the 106 reference strains tested, ASTA MicroIDSys and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 84.9% and 81.1% at the species level, 100% and 97.2% at the group level and 100% and 98.1% at the genus level, respectively. The difference between the two systems was not statistically significant (P = 0.289). Out of 24 species, 13 species were accurately identified to the species level with 100% accurate identification rates with both systems. The accurate identification rates at the species level of ASTA MicroIDSys and Bruker Biotyper were 100% and 87.5% for the S. anginosus group; 78.4% and 73.5% for the S. mitis group; 91.7% and 91.7% for the S. mutans group; and 100% and 100% for the S. salivarius group, respectively. The ASTA MicroIDSys showed an identification performance equivalent to that of the Bruker Biotyper for VGS. Therefore, it would be useful for the identification of VGS strains in clinical microbiology laboratories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4645-4650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous reports have indicated that increased expression of Jagged-1 (JAG1) may predict chemotherapy response and poor prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of JAG1 expression level in patients with CRC, including recurrence, especially in those diagnosed with lymph node-positive stage III CRC who underwent complete resection and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients were enrolled through a retrospective chart review, and only those for whom the clinical course and all clinical information were adequately determined according to the inclusion criteria were selected for retrospective review through medical records. Immunohistochemical staining of JAG1 was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue. JAG1 expression was determined by scoring for staining intensity and percentage of positively stained cells; the final JAG1 score was determined as the sum of both scores. RESULTS: Sixteen patients who experienced relapse and 15 without (for over 3 years) were selected. The protein expression level of JAG1 showed a tendency for being lower in the group without recurrence, although not statistically significantly (p=0.083); however, the mean JAG1 expression score was significantly lower in the group without recurrence (1.53 vs. 3.19; p=0.004). The patients were divided into two groups with low and high JAG1 expression. The results showed that high JAG1 expression was significantly associated with recurrence of stage III CRC (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The expression of JAG1 may be a potential novel biomarker for predicting CRC recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(9): 1537-1546, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI in identifying cerebral perfusion changes after indirect revascularization in children with moyamoya disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included pre- and postoperative perfusion MRI data of 30 children with moyamoya disease (13 boys and 17 girls; mean age ± standard deviation, 6.3 ± 3.0 years) who underwent indirect revascularization between June 2016 and August 2017. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and qualitative perfusion scores for arterial transit time (ATT) effects were evaluated in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory on ASL perfusion MRI. The rCBF and relative time-to-peak (rTTP) values were also measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI. Each perfusion change on ASL and DSC perfusion MRI was analyzed using the paired t test. We analyzed the correlation between perfusion changes on ASL and DSC images using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The ASL rCBF values improved at both the ganglionic and supraganglionic levels of the MCA territory after surgery (p = 0.040 and p = 0.003, respectively). The ATT perfusion scores also improved at both levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The rCBF and rTTP values on DSC MRI showed significant improvement at both levels of the MCA territory of the operated side (all p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the improvements in rCBF values on the two perfusion images (r = 0.195, p = 0.303); however, there was a correlation between the change in perfusion scores on ASL and rTTP on DSC MRI (r = 0.701, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Recognizing the effects of ATT on ASL perfusion MRI may help monitor cerebral perfusion changes and complement quantitative rCBF assessment using ASL perfusion MRI in patients with moyamoya disease after indirect revascularization.


Assuntos
Doença de Moyamoya , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Perfusão , Marcadores de Spin
5.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117353, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052652

RESUMO

Excessive nutrient balance is a very crucial issue for environmental hazards. The constant addition of high-amounts of nutrient sources in agricultural production generates negative environmental conditions in Korea and Japan yet to be resolved. Therefore, it is obligatory to comprehend the nutrient (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) balance that is assessed by the difference between nutrient input and output in the soil surface in Korea and Japan. Among 34 Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, Korea and Japan had the highest N and P balances and thus both countries are primarily responsible for severe environmental pollution via nutrient release. The cultivable land area in both countries has constantly decreased during 1990-2017 at approximately 20 and 15% in Korea and Japan, respectively. Even N and P use efficiency sharply decreased with increasing N and P balance in both targeted countries. Japanese P balance, Korean N and P balances were decreased after the mid-1990s whereas, Japanese N balance almost unchanged for the last 28 years. Unlike chemical fertilizer input, Korean manure input level significantly increased from 78 kg N ha-1 in 1990 to 157 kg N ha-1 in 2017. Japanese manure input level was higher than that of chemical fertilizer without any big change for the last 28 years. The lion share of high N and P balance in both countries could generate from manure inputs, therefore, the number of livestock and their produced debris need to be used with more cautious for the reduction of national N and P surpluses at a benchmark level. These findings ensure to make a more environment friendly policy that can further reduce nutrient balance as well as improve soil health.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise , Japão , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fósforo/análise , República da Coreia
6.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 68, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with liver disease require noninvasive monitoring to evaluate the risk of fibrosis progression. This study aimed to identify the significant factors affecting liver stiffness values using two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE), and determine whether liver stiffness can predict the fibrosis stage of various childhood liver diseases. METHODS: This study included 30 children (22 boys and 8 girls; mean age, 5.1 ± 6.1 years; range, 7 days-17.9 years) who had undergone biochemical evaluation, 2D-SWE examination, histopathologic analysis of fibrosis grade (F0 to F3), assessment of necroinflammatory activity, and steatosis grading between August 2016 and March 2020. The liver stiffness from 2D-SWE was compared between fibrosis stages using Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Factors that significantly affected liver stiffness were evaluated using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The diagnostic performance was determined from the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) values of 2D-SWE liver stiffness. RESULTS: Liver stiffness at the F0-1, F2, and F3 stages were 7.9, 13.2, and 21.7 kPa, respectively (P < 0.001). Both fibrosis stage and necroinflammatory grade were significantly associated with liver stiffness (P < 0.001 and P = 0.021, respectively). However, in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels below 200 IU/L, the only factor affecting liver stiffness was fibrosis stage (P = 0.030). The liver stiffness value could distinguish significant fibrosis (≥ F2) with an AUC of 0.950 (cutoff value, 11.3 kPa) and severe fibrosis (F3 stage) with an AUC of 0.924 (cutoff value, 18.1 kPa). The 2D-SWE values for differentiating significant fibrosis were 10.5 kPa (≥ F2) and 18.1 kPa (F3) in patients with ALT levels below 200 IU/L. CONCLUSION: The liver stiffness values on 2D-SWE can be affected by both fibrosis and necroinflammatory grade and can provide excellent diagnostic performance in evaluating the fibrosis stage in various pediatric liver diseases. However, clinicians should be mindful of potential confounders, such as necroinflammatory activity or transaminase level, when performing 2D-SWE measurements for liver fibrosis staging.

7.
Eur Radiol ; 31(4): 2218-2226, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the image quality of low iodine concentration, dual-energy CT (DECT) combined with a deep learning-based noise reduction technique for pediatric abdominal CT, compared with standard iodine concentration single-energy polychromatic CT (SECT). METHODS: From December 2016 to May 2017, DECT with 300 mg•I/mL contrast medium was performed in 29 pediatric patients (17 boys, 12 girls; age, 2-19 years). The DECT images were reconstructed using a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction image (VMI) with and without a deep learning method. SECT images with 350 mg•I/mL contrast medium, performed within the last 3 months before the DECT, served as reference images. The quantitative and qualitative parameters were compared using paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and the differences in radiation dose and total iodine administration were assessed. RESULTS: The linearly blended DECT showed lower attenuation and higher noise than SECT. The 60-keV VMI showed an increase in attenuation and higher noise than SECT. The combined 60-keV VMI plus deep learning images showed low noise, no difference in contrast-to-noise ratios, and overall image quality or diagnostic image quality, but showed a higher signal-to-noise ratio in the liver and lower enhancement of lesions than SECT. The overall image and diagnostic quality of lesions were maintained on the combined noise reduction approach. The CT dose index volume and total iodine administration in DECT were respectively 19.6% and 14.3% lower than those in SECT. CONCLUSION: Low iodine concentration DECT, combined with deep learning in pediatric abdominal CT, can maintain image quality while reducing the radiation dose and iodine load, compared with standard SECT. KEY POINTS: • An image noise reduction approach combining deep learning and noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic image reconstruction can maintain image quality while reducing radiation dose and iodine load. • The 60-keV virtual monoenergetic image reconstruction plus deep learning images showed low noise, no difference in contrast-to-noise ratio, and overall image quality, but showed a higher signal-to-noise ratio in the liver and a lower enhancement of lesion than single-energy polychromatic CT. • This combination could offer a 19.6% reduction in radiation dose and a 14.3% reduction in iodine load, in comparison with a control group that underwent single-energy polychromatic CT with the standard protocol.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Imagem Radiográfica a Partir de Emissão de Duplo Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(1): 223-234, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a leading cause of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy in children. The diagnosis is clinically important because most patients with HS have good postsurgical outcomes. OBJECTIVE. This study aimed to compare the performance of a fully automated brain MRI volumetric tool and readers of varying experience in the diagnosis of pediatric HS. METHODS. This retrospective study included 22 children with HS diagnosed between January 2009 and January 2020 who underwent surgery and an age- and sex-matched control group of 44 patients with normal MRI findings and extratemporal epilepsy diagnosed between January 2009 and January 2020. Regional brain MRI volumes were calculated from a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted sequence using an automated volumetric tool. Four readers (two pediatric radiologists [experienced] and two radiology residents [inexperienced]) visually assessed each MRI examination to score the likelihood of HS. One inexperienced reader repeated the evaluations using the volumetric tool. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC), sensitivity, and specificity for HS were computed for the volumetric tool and the readers. Diagnostic performances were compared using McNemar tests. RESULTS. In the HS group, the hippocampal volume (affected vs unaffected, 3.54 vs 4.59 cm3) and temporal lobe volume (affected vs unaffected, 5.66 vs 6.89 cm3) on the affected side were significantly lower than on the unaffected side (p < .001) using the volu-metric tool. AUROCs of the volumetric tool were 0.813-0.842 in patients with left HS and 0.857-0.980 in patients with right HS (sensitivity, 81.8-90.9%; specificity, 70.5-95.5%). No significant difference (p = .63 to > .99) was observed between the performance of the volumetric tool and the performance of the two experienced readers as well as one inexperienced reader (AUROCs for these three readers, 0.968-0.999; sensitivity, 86.4-90.9%; specificity, 100.0%). The volumetric tool had better performance (p < .001) than the other inexperienced reader (AUROC, 0.806; sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 47.7%). With subsequent use of the tool, this inexperienced reader showed a nonsignificant increase (p = .10) in AUROC (0.912) as well as in sensitivity (86.4%) and specificity (84.1%). CONCLUSION. A fully automated volumetric brain MRI tool outperformed one of two inexperienced readers and performed as well as two experienced readers in identifying and lateralizing HS in pediatric patients. The tool improved the performance of an inexperienced reader. CLINICAL IMPACT. A fully automated volumetric tool facilitates diagnosis of HS in pediatric patients, especially for an inexperienced reader.

9.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(4): 612-623, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a deep learning algorithm for the automated detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 2601 hip AP radiographs, 5076 cropped unilateral hip joint images were used to construct a dataset that was further divided into training (80%), validation (10%), or test sets (10%). Three radiologists were asked to label the hip images as normal or DDH. To investigate the diagnostic performance of the deep learning algorithm, we calculated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC), precision-recall curve (PRC) plots, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) and compared them with the performance of radiologists with different levels of experience. RESULTS: The area under the ROC plot generated by the deep learning algorithm and radiologists was 0.988 and 0.988-0.919, respectively. The area under the PRC plot generated by the deep learning algorithm and radiologists was 0.973 and 0.618-0.958, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the proposed deep learning algorithm were 98.0, 98.1, 84.5, and 99.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the diagnosis of DDH by the algorithm and the radiologist with experience in pediatric radiology (p = 0.180). However, the proposed model showed higher sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, compared to the radiologist without experience in pediatric radiology (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The proposed deep learning algorithm provided an accurate diagnosis of DDH on hip radiographs, which was comparable to the diagnosis by an experienced radiologist.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18390, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110134

RESUMO

We investigated the feasibility of free-breathing modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for measuring hepatic T1 values in children and young adults. To investigate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the T1 maps, a phantom study was performed with 12 different gadoterate meglumine concentrations and the T1 relaxation times of phantoms measured with the MOLLI sequence were compared against those measured with three different sequences: spin-echo inversion recovery, variable flip angle (VFA), and VFA with B1 correction. To evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing MOLLI sequence, hepatic T1 relaxation times obtained by free-breathing and breath-hold technique in twenty patients were compared. The phantom study revealed the excellent accuracy and reproducibility of MOLLI. In twenty patients, the mean value of hepatic T1 values obtained by free-breathing (606.7 ± 64.5 ms) and breath-hold (609.8 ± 64.0 ms) techniques showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The Bland-Altman plot between the free-breathing and breath-hold revealed that the mean difference of T1 values was - 3.0 ms (- 0.5%). Therefore, T1 relaxation times obtained by MOLLI were comparable to the values obtained using the standard inversion recovery method. The hepatic T1 relaxation times measured by MOLLI technique with free-breathing were comparable to those obtained with breath-hold in children and young adults.


Assuntos
Suspensão da Respiração , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Respiração , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Imagens de Fantasmas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(10): 1178-1186, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of emetic complications associated with the intravenous administration of low-osmolality iodinated contrast media (ICM) in children undergoing computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children who underwent contrast-enhanced CT between April 2017 and July 2019 were included. Pediatric patients were instructed on the preparative dietary protocol at our institution. Experienced nurses in the radiology department monitored the children during the CT scans and recorded any emetic complications in their electronic medical records. These data were used to calculate the incidence of emetic complications. Various patient factors and technical factors, including fasting duration, the type and volume of ICM, and ongoing chemotherapy, were evaluated to identify risk factors for emetic complications using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among the 864 children (mean age, 8.4 ± 5.7 years) evaluated, 18 (2.1%) experienced emetic complications (6 experienced nausea only and 12 experienced nausea and vomiting). None of the children developed aspiration pneumonia. The mean fasting duration of patients with emesis was 7.9 ± 5.7 hours (range, 3-21 hours), whereas that of patients without nausea was 8.7 ± 5.7 hours (range, 0-24 hours). Fasting duration was not associated with the development of nausea and vomiting (p = 0.634). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ongoing chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.323; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.430-13.064; p = 0.009), iomeprol use (OR = 7.219; 95% CI = 1.442-36.146; p = 0.016), and iohexol use (OR = 5.241; 95% CI = 1.350-20.346; p = 0.017) were independent risk factors for emetic complications. CONCLUSION: Only a small proportion (2.1%) of children experienced nausea or vomiting after exposure to low-osmolality ICM. Many children underwent excessive fasting; however, fasting duration was not associated with nausea and vomiting. Moreover, ongoing chemotherapy and the use of iomeprol or iohexol were identified as potential risk factors for emetic complications in children.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Náusea/etiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste/química , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Concentração Osmolar , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 206-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of gallbladder polyp measurements using transabdominal US and the factors that affect reliability. METHODS: From November 2017 to February 2018, two radiologists measured the maximum diameter of 91 gallbladder polyps using transabdominal US. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were determined using 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The effects of image settings, polyp location, and polyp size were evaluated by comparing ICCs using z tests. RESULTS: The intraobserver agreement rates were 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.939-0.973) for observer 1 and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.943-0.975) for observer 2. The ICCs between the two observers were 0.963 (95% CI, 0.926-0.979) for the first measurement and 0.973 (95% CI, 0.950-0.984) for the second measurement. The 95% limits of agreement on repeated measurements were 22.3-25.2% of the mean, and those between the two observers were 25.5-34.2% of the mean. ICCs for large polyps (≥ 5 mm) were significantly higher than those for small polyps (< 5 mm). There were no significant differences in the ICCs between image settings and polyp location. CONCLUSIONS: Polyp size measurements using transabdominal US are highly repeatable and reproducible. Polyp size significantly affects the reliability of measurement. Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% may fall within the measurement error; this should be considered while interpreting the change in size during follow-up US, especially for small polyps. KEY POINTS: • Gallbladder polyp size measurement using transabdominal US is highly repeatable and reproducible. • Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% should be interpreted carefully, especially in small polyps.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Neuroradiol ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a frequency-selective non-linear blending (BC) technique can improve tissue contrast and infarct detection on non-enhanced brain CT (NECT) in postoperative Moyamoya (MMD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2017, 33 children (13boys and 20girls; mean age 9.1±3.4 years) with MMD postoperatively underwent NECT followed by diffusion MRI. We compared the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in NECT and BC images and the CNR between the infarct lesion and adjacent normal-appearing brain in NECT and BC images using a paired t-test. We assessed image noise, GM-WM differentiation, artifacts, and overall quality using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. A McNemar two-tailed test was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of infarct detection. RESULTS: The CNR between GM and WM and the CNR of the infarct was better in BC images than in NECT images (3.9±1.0 vs. 1.8±0.6, P<0.001 and 3.6±0.3 vs. 1.9±0.2, P<0.001), with no difference in overall image quality observed. The sensitivity and specificity of infarct detection were 55.0% and 76.9% using NECT, and 70.0% and 69.2% using BC technique. The diagnostic accuracy of NECT and BC technique was 63.6% (21/33) and 69.7% (23/33), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the BC technique improved CNR and maintained image quality. This technique may also be used to identify ischemic brain changes in postoperative MMD patients by improving the CNR of the infarct lesion.

14.
Br J Radiol ; 90(1080): 20170352, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare small bowel distension and bowel wall visualization among three different patients' positions (supine, sitting and right decubitus) during administration of oral contrast media in preparation for CT enterography (CTE). METHODS: A total of 150 consecutive patients (104 males and 46 females; mean age 34.6 years, range 15-78 years) who were scheduled to undergo CTE were recruited. Patients were randomly allocated into the three position groups during oral contrast media administration, and there were 50 patients in each group. Two blinded radiologists independently scored the luminal distension and visualization of the bowel wall using a continuous 5-point scale (1: worst and 5: best) at the jejunum and ileum. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between any two groups among the three positions for bowel distension and wall visualization. RESULTS: For ileal distension, the supine and sitting positions performed better than the right decubitus position [for reader 1, mean: 3.4/3.2/2.9 (hereafter, supine/sitting/right decubitus in order), p = 0.002/0.033; for reader 2, 3.3/3.0/2.6, p < 0.001/0.027]. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups for jejunal distension (for reader 1, 2.4/2.3/2.2; for reader 2, 2.4/2.4/2.2, p > 0.05, respectively). For bowel wall visualization, the supine and sitting positions were superior to the right decubitus position for the ileum when scored by one reader (4.0/3.8/3.4, p = 0.001/0.015). CONCLUSION: Supine and sitting positions during the administration of oral contrast media provided better ileal distension than the right decubitus position in obtaining CTE. Advances in knowledge: The performance of CTE largely depends on adequate luminal distension and wall visualization. As the terminal ileum is the predominant site of small bowel pathology for inflammatory bowel disease, the supine or sitting position would be preferable for patients who are suspected of having small bowel pathology.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Bário/administração & dosagem , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Posicionamento do Paciente , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 11(2): 72-9, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24023551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole with that of other atypical antipsychotics by examining patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) at a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in a university hospital in Korea. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 127 pediatric patients with bipolar disorder aged 4-18 years treated at Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric, Yonsei University Severance Hospital between January 2010 and October 2011 to collect demographic and clinical data. Using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales, we evaluated levels of severity of and improvements in symptoms at the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth hospital visits. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 12.29±3.47 years. The sample included 91 (71.7%) male and 36 (28.3%) female patients. Aripiprazole was prescribed to 62 (48.8%) patients, risperidone to 52 (40.9%), quetiapine to 11 (8.7%), and paliperidone to two (1.6%). Patients treated with aripiprazole had lower CGI-Severity (CGI-S) scores than did patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics at the second and third visits. The CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) scores of patients treated with aripiprazole were lower at the second visit. Treatment with atypical antipsychotics was well tolerated, and no serious or fatal side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: The present retrospective chart review suggests that atypical antipsychotics may be effective and safe for the treatment of patients with PBD. In particular, treatment with aripiprazole may be more effective than treatment with other atypical antipsychotics in the early phase. These results should be verified in future multi-center controlled studies.

16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 375076, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23509715

RESUMO

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) ligand, is a member of the nuclear receptor family and is probably involved in regulating the cellular activities of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Recently, although it was reported that the FXR ligand can mediate differentiation, apoptosis, and/or growth arrest in several cell types, it is still not well known how CDCA mediates effects in ES cells. Therefore, we investigated the direct effect of CDCA on mES cells. Feeder-free mES cells were treated in a dose-dependent manner with CDCA (50, 100, and 200 µM) for 72 h, and then a 100 µM CDCA treatment was performed for an additional 72 h. We analyzed the morphology, cell growth, cell characteristics, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. In CDCA-treated cells, we observed the disappearance of pluripotent stem cell markers including alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, and Nanog and a time- and dose-dependent increase in expression of nestin, PAX6, and α-smooth muscle actin, but not α-fetoprotein. The 100 µM CDCA-treated cells in their second passage continued this differentiation pattern similar to those in the controls. In conclusion, these results suggest that CDCA can guide mES cells by an FXR-independent pathway to differentiate into ectoderm and/or mesoderm, but not endoderm.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Camundongos
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 93(2): 362-7, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22777867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of tea seed extract (TSE) has been widely investigated owing to its biological activities. In this paper, two flavonol triglycosides found in TSE, camelliaside A (CamA) and camelliaside B (CamB), were subjected to hydrolysis in the presence of three commercial enzyme complexes of the Pectinex® series, 5XL, XXL and Ultra SP-L (Ultra). RESULTS: XXL and 5XL induced stepwise deglycosylation of CamA and CamB to yield kaempferol diglycoside (nicotiflorin), kaempferol monoglycoside (astragalin) and kaempferol, while Ultra produced an additional new compound (1) that had not been observed in earlier studies. Upon hydrolysis of isolated CamA and CamB, compound (1) was obtained only from CamB. Both the molecular ion peak in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the ¹H and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of (1) isolated by Ultra-induced hydrolysis of TSE indicated that (1) was kaempferol 3-O-ß-xylopyranosyl (1 → 2)-ß-glucopyranoside (leucoside), formed by selective hydrolysis of the rhamnosyl moiety of CamB. CONCLUSION: Pure leucoside can be prepared by enzymatic partial hydrolysis of TSE. This is the first study to address the synthesis of pure leucoside from a natural source.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Fenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
18.
Int J Stem Cells ; 4(2): 116-22, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24298344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to the shortage of human donors for transplantation, the use of animal organs for xenotransplantation has come into great interest. Xeno-derived vessels and cardiac valves would be possible alternatives for the patient suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we established in vitro culture system of a porcine vessel that could be helpful for the research of xenograft and stem cell research. METHODS AND RESULTS: We primarily isolated porcine thoracic aorta, cultured square-shaped pieces up to 17 days and analyzed its morphology and characters. The endothelial cells were primarily isolated from cultured porcine aortic pieces and their morphology, function and character were analyzed in order to confirm them as endothelial cells at day 3, 4, 8, 10 and 17. Even at day 17, the morphology exhibited the intact endothelial layer as well as specifically expressed CD31 and von Willebrand factor. The morphology of primarily isolated cells from cultured tissues was identical as an endothelial cell. By flow cytometry analysis, more than 80% of the isolated cells expressed CD31 and up to 80% took up acetyl low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL) until day 10 of tissue culture period even though it decreased to about 50% at day 17 that means they not only showed typical endothelial cell characters but also functioned properly. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully established and optimized a porcine vascular tissue in vitro culture system that could be a valuable model for in vitro study of xenotransplantation and stem cell research.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 99(13): 5928-32, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18194862

RESUMO

Fly ash has a high content of plant available silicate which is strongly needed for rice cultivation in Korea. One concern for plants grown on soils amended with fly ash is boron (B) toxicity because most of the fresh fly ash contains considerable B. This study was conducted in paddy soil to determine B uptake by rice and characteristics of B accumulation in soil after fly ash application (0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg fly ash ha(-1)). In all fly ash treatments, B content in rice leaves and available B in soil at all growing stage were higher than those of control, but were not exceeded a toxicity levels. Boron occluded in amorphous Fe and Al oxides comprised ca. 20-39% of total B and was not affected by fly ash application. Most of the B was accumulated by fly ash application as a residual B which is plant-unavailable form, comprised >60% of the total B in soil. Thus, fly ash can be a good soil amendment for rice production without B toxicity.


Assuntos
Boro/análise , Carbono , Resíduos Industriais , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Material Particulado , Boro/isolamento & purificação , Cinza de Carvão , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Coreia (Geográfico) , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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