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1.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445832

RESUMO

Background: An adequate large-scale pediatric cohort based on nationwide administrative data is lacking in Korea. Purpose: This study established the National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008) based on data from a nationwide population-based health screening program and data on healthcare utilization for children. Methods: The NICKs-2008 study consisted of the Korean National Health Insurance System (NHIS) and the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children (NHSPIC) databases comprising children born in 2008 (n = 469,248) and 2009 (n = 448,459) in the Republic of Korea. The NHIS database contains data on age, sex, residential area, income, healthcare utilization (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes, procedure codes, and drug classification codes), and healthcare providers. The NHSPIC consists of seven screening rounds. These screening sessions comprised physical examination, developmental screening (rounds 2-7), a general health questionnaire, and age-specific anticipatory guidance. Results: During the 10-year follow-up, 2,718 children (0.3%) died, including more boys than girls (hazard ratio = 1.145, p < 0.001). A total of 848,048 children participated in at least one of the seven rounds of the NHSPIC, while 96,046 participated in all seven screening programs. A total of 823 infants (0.1%) weighed less than 1000 g, 3177 (0.4%) weighed 1000-1499 g, 37,166 (4.4%) weighed 1500-2499 g, 773,081 (91.4%) weighed 2500-4000 g, and 32,016 (5.1%) weighed over 4000 g. There were 23,404 (5.5%) premature babies in 2008 compared to 23,368 (5.6%) in 2009. The developmental screening test indicated appropriate development in 95-98% of children, follow-up requirements for 1-4% of children, and recommendations for further evaluation for 1% of children. Conclusion: The NICKs-2008, which integrates data from the NHIS and NHSPIC databases, can be used to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111393, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075655

RESUMO

Among the input data of the watershed model for simulating changes of flowrate in the watershed, weather input data, especially input data related to rainfall, are the most important. Therefore, it is important to ensure the accuracy of rainfall input data to increase the accuracy of the watershed model results. Securing rainfall measurements with finer spatial and temporal resolutions is important in predicting flowrate variations at a sub-catchment, especially as they relate to global and local climate changes in weather conditions such as rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, etc. In this study, adjusted radar-rainfall estimates were suggested as alternative input data for watershed modeling. Through a statistical analysis of the representativeness of a ground rainfall measurement (10 km × 10 km grid), the necessity of radar-rainfall estimates (2 km × 2 km grid) was identified. By applying calibration factors to initial radar-rainfall estimates and comparing adjusted radar-rainfall estimates with ground rainfall measurements, it was proven that adjusted radar-rainfall estimates could be used as input data for watershed simulations (NSE > 0.92; n = 12). Adjusted radar-rainfall estimates and ground rainfall measurements were used as input data of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model to predict flowrate variations at the outlets of a tributary and the entire watershed. As a result, the accuracies of the simulation results were improved for the outlets of a tributary and the entire watershed (NSE: 0.33 to 0.48 and 0.19 to 0.55, respectively). To obtain more reliable rainfall data, radar images easily accessible to users were applied, and the accuracy of the data was increased by applying simple equations to numerical data extracted from radar image processing. Additionally, the applicability of the adjusted radar-rainfall estimates was demonstrated by comparing the modeling results using the suggested rainfall data and existing ground-based rainfall data. The suggested methodologies are expected to contribute to more accurately predict the possibility of flood disasters in other regions and countries lacking infrastructure related to rainfall measurements and to establish appropriate countermeasures.


Assuntos
Radar , Chuva , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Meteorologia , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Gut ; 70(1): 76-84, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been documented for pneumonia; however, there is no consensus regarding whether the use of PPIs might be harmful regarding the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this regard, we aimed to measure the potential associations of the current use of PPIs with the infection rates of COVID-19 among patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: Data were derived from a Korean nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching. We included 132 316 patients older than 18 years who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 January and 15 May 2020. Endpoints were SARS-CoV-2 positivity (primary) and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (secondary: admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation or death). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 111 911 non-users, 14 163 current PPI users and 6242 past PPI users. After propensity score matching, the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with the current or past use of PPIs. Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, the current use of PPIs conferred a 79% greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while the relationship with the past use of PPIs remained insignificant. Current PPI use starting within the previous 30 days was associated with a 90% increased risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients taking PPIs are at increased risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 but not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that physicians need to assess benefit-risk assessments in the management of acid-related diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastropatias , /complicações , /terapia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gastropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastropatias/epidemiologia
4.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255360

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the usefulness of serum glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) as a biomarker of lung cancer recurrence after complete resection. We prospectively collected serial serum samples at the baseline, as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery from complete resection cases in 2013. GPx3 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests including t-tests and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. Totally, 135 patients were enrolled, and 39 (28.9%) showed relapse during the median follow-up period (63.60 months; range, 0.167-81.867). The mean GPx3 change was significantly higher in the recurrence group at 6 months (0.32 ± 0.38 vs. 0.15 ± 0.29, p = 0.016) and 12 months (0.40 ± 0.37 vs. 0.13 ± 0.28, p = 0.001). The high GPx3 change group showed significantly higher 60-months recurrence rates than the low group (48.1% vs. 25.2% at 3 months, p = 0.005; 54.5% vs. 28.9% at 6 months, p = 0.018; 38.3% vs. 18.3% at 12 months, p = 0.035). High GPx3 change at 3 months were independent risk factors of recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) 3.318, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.582-6.960, p = 0.002) and survival (HR 3.150, 95% CI, 1.301-7.628, p = 0.011). Therefore, serum GPx3 changes after surgery may be useful predictive biomarkers for recurrence in lung cancer. Larger-scale validation studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6072, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247086

RESUMO

Development of a human-interactive display enabling the simultaneous sensing, visualisation, and memorisation of a magnetic field remains a challenge. Here we report a skin-patchable magneto-interactive electroluminescent display, which is capable of sensing, visualising, and storing magnetic field information, thereby enabling 3D motion tracking. A magnetic field-dependent conductive gate is employed in an alternating current electroluminescent display, which is used to produce non-volatile and rewritable magnetic field-dependent display. By constructing mechanically flexible arrays of magneto-interactive displays, a spin-patchable and pixelated platform is realised. The magnetic field varying along the z-axis enables the 3D motion tracking (monitoring and memorisation) on 2D pixelated display. This 3D motion tracking display is successfully used as a non-destructive surgery-path guiding, wherein a pathway for a surgical robotic arm with a magnetic probe is visualised and recorded on a display patched on the abdominal skin of a rat, thereby helping the robotic arm to find an optimal pathway.

7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(6): 428-435, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109308

RESUMO

Background: It is widely acknowledged that food sensitization is related to atopic dermatitis in infants and young children. Objective: To investigate the association of aeroallergen sensitization with increased rates and severity of atopic dermatitis in school children. Methods: We enrolled 576 children (mean age, 9.4 ± 1.8 years) from six elementary schools. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by questionnaires, and severity was rated by physical examinations graded by using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Skin-prick tests to 22 common allergens (6 aeroallergens and 16 food allergens) were conducted. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed by using two models: model I adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index z score; and model II adjusted for all model I factors plus asthma and allergic rhinitis. Results: We diagnosed atopic dermatitis in 22.4% (n = 129) of the children, sensitization to foods in 48.3% (n = 278), and sensitization to aeroallergens in 11.3% (n = 65). A total of 26.2% of the children (n = 149) had mild and 6.5% had moderate-to-severe symptoms and signs of atopic dermatitis (n = 37). Atopic dermatitis was associated with sensitization to aeroallergens and eosinophilia (model I), but this risk was no longer significant after additional adjustment for current allergic status (model II). However, the relationship of the total SCORAD score with aeroallergen sensitization and eosinophilia was significant in model I and model II. Conclusion: The severity of atopic dermatitis correlated with the extent of allergic sensitization and eosinophilia. Analysis of our results suggests that more sensitization to dust mites and eosinophilia are related to increased rates and high severity scores of atopic dermatitis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between dyslipidemia and atopic dermatitis in children is unclear. This study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and atopic dermatitis in children by analysis of disease onset, risk factors, and disease severity. METHODS: Subset I examined 7-year-old children in elementary school (n = 248), and Subset II was a retrospective long-term follow-up hospital-based study (n = 52 725) conducted from 1986 to 2016 that used propensity score matching. In the Subset I study, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined, and the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index was determined. In the Subset II study, the time of atopic dermatitis onset was determined for asymptomatic subjects whose TC levels were below or above 170 mg/dL. RESULTS: Our Subset I study indicated that children with atopic dermatitis (n = 69, 27.8%) had significantly higher levels of TC and TG, and that the SCORAD index had significant associations with high levels of TC and TG, and a low level of HDL-C. Our Subset II study (1722 with high TC and 6735 with normal TC after propensity score matching) indicated the high TC group had a greater hazard ratio (HR) for the onset of atopic dermatitis (consensus-based HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.23, 5.06, P = .012) during 5 years. CONCLUSION: An abnormal blood lipid profile in children is associated with the presence of atopic dermatitis and the SCORAD index. The risk of atopic dermatitis onset was significantly greater with high levels of TC.

9.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 150: 12-22, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011158

RESUMO

Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) is a trait carrying strong prognostic implications for various cardiovascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that excessive maternal salt intake causes SSBP in offspring through a mechanism dependent upon arginine-vasopressin (AVP), we performed a series of experiments using offspring of the rat dams salt-loaded during pregnancy and lactation with 1.5% saline drink ("experimental offspring") and those with normal perinatal salt exposure ("control offspring"). Salt challenge, given at 7-8 weeks of age with either 2% saline drink (3 days) or 8% NaCl-containing chow (4 weeks), had little or no effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in female offspring, whereas the salt challenge significantly raised SBP in male offspring, with the magnitude of increase being greater in experimental, than control, rats. Furthermore, the salt challenge not only raised plasma AVP level more and caused greater depressor responses to V1a and V2 AVP receptor antagonists to occur in experimental, than control, males, but it also made GABA excitatory in a significant proportion of magnocellular AVP neurons of experimental males by depolarizing GABA equilibrium potential. The effect of the maternal salt loading on the salt challenge-elicited SBP response in male offspring was precluded by maternal conivaptan treatment (non-selective AVP receptor antagonist) during the salt-loading period, whereas it was mimicked by neonatal AVP treatment. These results suggest that the excessive maternal salt intake brings about SSBP in male offspring, both the programming and the expression of which depend on increased AVP secretion that may partly result from excitatory GABAergic action.

10.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol ; 13(4): 340-360, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877965

RESUMO

The Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics appointed a task force to establish clinical practice guidelines for the management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). These guidelines cover a comprehensive range of management-related factors, including the diagnosis and treatment of UVFP, and provide in-depth information based on current, up-to-date knowledge. Detailed evidence profiles are provided for each recommendation. The CORE databases, including OVID Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched to identify all relevant papers, using a predefined search strategy. When insufficient evidence existed, expert opinions and Delphi questionnaires were used to fill the evidence gap. The committee developed 16 evidence-based recommendations in six categories: initial evaluation (R1-4), spontaneous recovery (R5), medical treatment (R6), surgical treatment (R7-14), voice therapy (R15), and aspiration prevention (R16). The goal of these guidelines is to assist general otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists who are primarily responsible for treating patients with UVFP. These guidelines are also intended to facilitate understanding of the condition among other health-care providers, including primary care physicians, nurses, and policy-makers.

11.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(12): 3279-3286, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the response of airway mechanics and the changes in asthma symptoms to stepping down of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) therapy. METHODS: Thirty children (mean age: 7.1 years) with mild, well-controlled, and persistent asthma who took LTRA as maintenance treatment were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each group received an LTRA (montelukast) or placebo daily for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout period, and then the alternate treatment for 2 weeks. Spirometry and impulse oscillation system (IOS) measurements before and after four puffs of salbutamol inhalation, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) were evaluated at baseline, the end of placebo treatment, and the end of LTRA treatment. RESULTS: Changes of FEV1 /FVC (p = .113) and FEV1 (p = .109) from baseline to posttreatment did not differ significantly between the placebo and montelukast groups. In the placebo group, prebronchodilator (pre-) FEV1 /FVC was decreased (83% vs. 86%) and bronchodilator response (BDR) in FEV1 was diminished (10.7% vs. 6.4%) at posttreatment compared with baseline. However, the montelukast group had no significant changes in pre-FEV1 /FVC (p = .865) and BDR in FEV1 (p = .461). In addition, compared with the montelukast group, the placebo group showed no significant changes in Rrs5 (total airway resistance), Rrs5-20 (peripheral airway resistance), FeNO, and symptoms by the C-ACT. CONCLUSION: In children with well-controlled mild persistent asthma, changes in spirometry, IOS, FeNO, and C-ACT results did not differ between the placebo and montelukast groups within 2 weeks.

13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1025-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3·3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3·0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2·9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8·3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9·7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1·27, 95% CI 1·01-1·66). INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

14.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eabb5769, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832673

RESUMO

The development of a lightweight, low-power, user-interactive three-dimensional (3D) touchless display in which a human stimulus can be detected and simultaneously visualized in noncontact mode is of great interest. Here, we present a user-interactive 3D touchless sensing display based on multiorder reflection structural colors (SCs) of a thin, solid-state block copolymer (BCP) photonic crystal (PC). Full-visible-range SCs are developed in a BCP PC consisting of alternating lamellae, one of which contains a chemically cross-linked, interpenetrated hydrogel network. The absorption of a nonvolatile ionic liquid into the domains of the interpenetrated network allows for further manipulation of SC by using multiple-order photonic reflections, giving rise to unprecedented visible SCs arising from reflective color mixing. Furthermore, by using a hygroscopic ionic liquid ink, a printable 3D touchless interactive display is created where 3D position of a human finger is efficiently visualized in different SCs as a function of finger-to-display distance.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smell dysfunction is highly prevalent worldwide and has adverse effects on quality of life. Smell loss in rhinitis subjects is mainly caused by mechanical obstruction of odorant transmission due to mucosal type 2 inflammation. We determined the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels with the severity of smell dysfunction in children. METHODS: We measured the olfactory threshold score in a total of 518 children (10-12 years old, 264 boys) using the Sniffin' Sticks kit, and the children were divided into tertiles according to olfactory threshold score. We also assessed serum 25[OH]D level, common aeroallergen-specific immunoglobulin E, rhinitis severity with visual analog scale, and the Total Four Symptom Score, and pre- and post-decongestant nasal patency with acoustic rhinometry. RESULTS: The children with 25(OH)D deficiency had significantly reduced mean olfactory threshold scores when compared to those with 25(OH)D levels of ≥20.0 ng/mL (6.56 ± 3.54 and 7.28 ± 3.87, respectively, P = .036). The proportion of loss of smell function and pre-decongestant nasal patency significantly associated with low 25(OH)D levels (chi-square trend test, P for trend = .007). Likewise, after adjustment for confounders, children with smell loss (third tertile) were significantly associated with low 25(OH)D level (aß=-0.062, 95% CI=-0.064 to -0.060, P = .009) independent of aeroallergen sensitization, and a low pre-decongestant nasal patency. CONCLUSIONS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D is significantly associated with smell dysfunction independent of aeroallergen sensitization, nasal obstruction, and the presence of allergic rhinitis. This finding may provide insight into the mechanisms involved in the development of olfactory dysfunction.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4281, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855416

RESUMO

Controlling efficiency and fidelity in the early stage of mitochondrial DNA transcription is crucial for regulating cellular energy metabolism. Conformational transitions of the transcription initiation complex must be central for such control, but how the conformational dynamics progress throughout transcription initiation remains unknown. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques to examine the conformational dynamics of the transcriptional system of yeast mitochondria with single-base resolution. We show that the yeast mitochondrial transcriptional complex dynamically transitions among closed, open, and scrunched states throughout the initiation stage. Then abruptly at position +8, the dynamic states of initiation make a sharp irreversible transition to an unbent conformation with associated promoter release. Remarkably, stalled initiation complexes remain in dynamic scrunching and unscrunching states without dissociating the RNA transcript, implying the existence of backtracking transitions with possible regulatory roles. The dynamic landscape of transcription initiation suggests a kinetically driven regulation of mitochondrial transcription.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina , DNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(8): e20992, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of contact tracing of COVID-19 and the related social distancing is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in South Korea and evaluate whether a social distancing campaign is effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We used contract tracing data to investigate the epidemic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in South Korea and evaluate whether a social distancing campaign was effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. We calculated the mortality rate for COVID-19 by infection type (cluster vs noncluster) and tested whether new confirmed COVID-19 trends changed after a social distancing campaign. RESULTS: There were 2537 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who completed the epidemiologic survey: 1305 (51.4%) cluster cases and 1232 (48.6%) noncluster cases. The mortality rate was significantly higher in cluster cases linked to medical facilities (11/143, 7.70% vs 5/1232, 0.41%; adjusted percentage difference 7.99%; 95% CI 5.83 to 10.14) and long-term care facilities (19/221, 8.60% vs 5/1232, 0.41%; adjusted percentage difference 7.56%; 95% CI 5.66 to 9.47) than in noncluster cases. The change in trends of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases before and after the social distancing campaign was significantly negative in the entire cohort (adjusted trend difference -2.28; 95% CI -3.88 to -0.68) and the cluster infection group (adjusted trend difference -0.96; 95% CI -1.83 to -0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide contact tracing study in South Korea, COVID-19 linked to medical and long-term care facilities significantly increased the risk of mortality compared to noncluster COVID-19. A social distancing campaign decreased the spread of COVID-19 in South Korea and differentially affected cluster infections of SARS-CoV-2.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 790-798, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive and controversial evidence of the association between allergic diseases and the risk of adverse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of allergic disorders with the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, and death). METHODS: A propensity-score-matched nationwide cohort study was performed in South Korea. Data obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea from all adult patients (age, >20 years) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, were analyzed. The association of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and allergic diseases in the entire cohort (n = 219,959) and the difference in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 were evaluated in patients with allergic diseases and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (n = 7,340). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing were evaluated to ascertain whether asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with an increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. After propensity score matching, we found that asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. Patients with nonallergic asthma had a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients with allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, allergic rhinitis and asthma, especially nonallergic asthma, confers a greater risk of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/imunologia , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
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