Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of rotator cuff disease is still controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fully characterized allogeneic pure PRP injection into the subacromial space of patients with rotator cuff disease in comparison with corticosteroid injection. METHODS: A 2-group, parallel, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 60 patients with clinically and structurally diagnosed rotator cuff disease were randomly assigned to receive a subacromial injection of either 4 mL of allogeneic pure PRP or a 4-mL mixture of 1 mL of 40-mg/mL triamcinolone acetonide and 3 mL of 2% lidocaine under ultrasonographic guidance. The primary outcomes were safety and the Constant score at 1 month. The secondary outcomes were pain, range of motion, muscle strength, functional scores, and overall satisfaction and function. RESULTS: There were no treatment-related adverse events. The Constant score at 1 month did not significantly differ between the PRP and corticosteroid groups. At 6 months, the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score, overall function, and external rotation were significantly better in the PRP group than in the corticosteroid group, and the other clinical outcomes did not show significant differences. All pain measurements, the strength of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, and 5 functional scores also improved slowly and steadily after injection, becoming significantly better at 6 months compared with those before the injection, whereas those in the corticosteroid group responded promptly but did not further improve. CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic PRP injections for the treatment of rotator cuff disease are safe but are not definitely superior to corticosteroid injections with respect to pain relief and functional improvement during 6 months. The DASH score, overall function, and external rotation were significantly better in the PRP group than in the steroid group at 6 months. Generally, PRP slowly but steadily reduced pain and improved function of the shoulder until 6 months, whereas corticosteroid did not. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

3.
Langmuir ; 36(11): 2823-2828, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101012

RESUMO

l-tryptophan (TrP) was investigated as a functional film-forming additive on a lithium-rich layered oxide cathode because it has a much lower oxidation potential than other common carbonate-based electrolytes. Owing to its prior oxidation to a base electrolyte, an artificial cathode-electrolyte interphase (CEI) was formed on the cathode surface, which could be confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy and verified through density functional theory calculations. The functional film formed on the cathode surface suppressed the side reactions between the cathode and electrolyte during cell cycling. As a result, the film prevented CEI thickening and performance deterioration. The optimum weight of TrP was determined to be 0.4 wt % for obtaining the best performance.

4.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 52(5): 492-502, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Explore the availability of food options and nutrition education at food pantries and identify the barriers to offering them to pantry clients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. SETTING: Food pantry, Cincinnati, OH. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 41 food pantry coordinators (aged 63.4 ± 9.1 years), recruited by e-mail/phone in an urban area. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Availability of food options and nutrition education and barriers to improving food options and providing nutrition education at food pantries. ANALYSIS: Survey data were collected using Qualtrics and analyzed using SPSS software. In-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim, transcripts were independently coded, and codes and themes were discussed until a consensus was reached. RESULTS: The availability of fresh produce, dairy, low-sodium canned vegetables, and whole grains were limited, and 10 food pantries (24%) offered nutrition education to their clients. Challenges to improving food options were lack of space and equipment for storage and transportation. Identified barriers to providing nutrition education included the lack of space, funding, personnel with nutrition expertise, and clients' low interest in nutrition education. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The availability of healthy food choices and nutrition education were limited at local food pantries. Collaborative efforts with community partners and nutrition experts may be necessary to overcome those barriers.

5.
J Neurosci ; 40(11): 2200-2214, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047055

RESUMO

The dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus may play key roles in remembering distinct episodes through pattern separation, which may be subserved by the sparse firing properties of granule cells (GCs) in the DG. Low intrinsic excitability is characteristic of mature GCs, but ion channel mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated ionic channel mechanisms for firing frequency regulation in hippocampal GCs using male and female mice, and identified Kv4.1 as a key player. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Kv4.1 was preferentially expressed in the DG, and its expression level determined by Western blot analysis was higher at 8-week than 3-week-old mice, suggesting a developmental regulation of Kv4.1 expression. With respect to firing frequency, GCs are categorized into two distinctive groups: low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) firing GCs. Input resistance (R in) of most LF-GCs is lower than 200 MΩ, suggesting that LF-GCs are fully mature GCs. Kv4.1 channel inhibition by intracellular perfusion of Kv4.1 antibody increased firing rates and gain of the input-output relationship selectively in LF-GCs with no significant effect on resting membrane potential and R in, but had no effect in HF-GCs. Importantly, mature GCs from mice depleted of Kv4.1 transcripts in the DG showed increased firing frequency, and these mice showed an impairment in contextual discrimination task. Our findings suggest that Kv4.1 expression occurring at late stage of GC maturation is essential for low excitability of DG networks and thereby contributes to pattern separation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The sparse activity of dentate granule cells (GCs), which is essential for pattern separation, is supported by high inhibitory inputs and low intrinsic excitability of GCs. Low excitability of GCs is thought to be attributable to a high K+ conductance at resting membrane potentials, but this study identifies Kv4.1, a depolarization-activated K+ channel, as a key ion channel that regulates firing of GCs without affecting resting membrane potentials. Kv4.1 expression is developmentally regulated and Kv4.1 currents are detected only in mature GCs that show low-frequency firing, but not in less mature high-frequency firing GCs. Furthermore, mice depleted of Kv4.1 transcripts in the dentate gyrus show impaired pattern separation, suggesting that Kv4.1 is crucial for sparse coding and pattern separation.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Giro Denteado/citologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio Shal/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico , Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Eletrochoque , Feminino , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/classificação , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Shal/biossíntese , Canais de Potássio Shal/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
6.
Korean J Fam Med ; 41(6): 422-426, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the association between sitting time and handgrip strength in healthy Korean women. METHODS: A total of 5,437 participants were included from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2016. The overall daily sitting time was estimated using health interview surveys, and handgrip strength was assessed using a digital hand dynamometer. The relationship between sitting time and handgrip strength was calculated with a weighted analysis of covariance after adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: Participants in each age group (19-39, 40-64, ≥65 years) were divided into three categories according to sitting time: ≤5, 6-9, and ≥10 h/d. The handgrip strength tended to decrease as sitting time increased after adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, resistance exercise, aerobic physical activity, household income, education level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and depression in all age groups (all P<0.001). CONCLUSION: We observed the inverse relationship between sitting time and handgrip strength in healthy Korean women.

7.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(1): 61-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to address the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia and similar psychosis in South Korea with Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) database. METHODS: We used HIRA database, which includes diagnostic information of nearly all Korean nationals to collect number of cases with diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-similar disorders (SSP), including schizophreniform, acute/transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other/unspecific nonorganic psychosis (ICD-10 codes F20/23/25/28/29) between 2010 and 2015. The annual prevalence and incidence were calculated using the population data from the Korean Statistical Office. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of SSP of Korea between 2010 and 2015 were 0.48-0.66%. The 12-month prevalence of schizophrenia were 0.40-0.52%; The annual incidence rates (IR) of SSP between 2010 and 2015 were 118.8-148.7 per 100,000 person-year (PY). For schizophrenia, IR per 100,000 PY were 77.6-88.5 between 2010 and 2015. CONCLUSION: The 12-month prevalence found in the present study was higher than that reported in community-based epidemiologic studies in South Korea but similar to those from other countries. The annual incidence of SSP and schizophrenia was found to steadily increase and was higher than that of other countries. The high incidence rate observed in the current study needs to be studied further.

8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101865, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493721

RESUMO

375 case studies from 120 publications published over the last three decades on forensic entomology were reviewed to determine how many carcass-associated insects have been described globally and which species are relatively important among carcass-associated insects. A total of 1213 carcass-associated insects belonging to 91 families of 10 orders were described from 375 case studies in nine habitat types of 30 countries with 24 subjects including humans and non-human animals. There were 564 and 515 species from the orders Diptera and Coleoptera, respectively, which was almost 90% of the total species recorded. The richness and distribution of dead body-associated insects considerably differed among countries, habitats, and dead body types. We propose some species based on criteria including distribution, occurrence frequency, and resource preference.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Entomologia Forense , Insetos/fisiologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos
9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319836572, 2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of extended thromboprophylaxis is established for surgical patients, but not yet for hospitalised medical patients. DESIGN: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to explore the role of extended thromboprophylaxis for medically ill hospitalised patients. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were searched and five randomised controlled trials were identified, comprising 20,046 extended and 20,078 standard duration thromboprophylaxis patients. RESULTS: Allocation to extended treatment, compared with standard duration therapy, significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (relative risk (RR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78, P = 0.003) and non-fatal pulmonary embolism (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.91, P = 0.02). The risk of venous thromboembolism-related death was comparable between the extended and standard duration treatment groups (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.6-1.09, P = 0.16). Extended treatment also doubled the risk of major bleeding (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.42-2.91, P < 0.001), without significantly affecting the risk of intracranial bleeding or bleeding-associated death. The cost of preventing one symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism was found to be £24,972 (€27,969) and £45,148 (€50,566), respectively, which outweigh the direct cost of managing established venous thromboembolism as previously reported. CONCLUSIONS: Extended duration thromboprophylaxis caused a reduction in the risk of venous thromboembolic events, but also a numerically comparable increase in major bleeding. Further trials are required in high-risk subpopulations who may derive mortality benefits from treatment. Only then could a change in current policy and practice be supported.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 40(3): 335-346, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556268

RESUMO

Mutations in potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 4 (KCNQ4) are etiologically linked to nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL), deafness nonsyndromic autosomal dominant 2 (DFNA2). To identify causative mutations of hearing loss in 98 Korean families, we performed whole exome sequencing. In four independent families with NSHL, we identified a cosegregating heterozygous missense mutation, c.140T>C (p.Leu47Pro), in KCNQ4. Individuals with the c.140T>C KCNQ4 mutation shared a haplotype flanking the mutated nucleotide, suggesting that this mutation may have arisen from a common ancestor in Korea. The mutant KCNQ4 protein could reach the plasma membrane and interact with wild-type (WT) KCNQ4, excluding a trafficking defect; however, it exhibited significantly decreased voltage-gated potassium channel activity and fast deactivation kinetics compared with WT KCNQ4. In addition, when co-expressed with WT KCNQ4, mutant KCNQ4 protein exerted a dominant-negative effect. Interestingly, the channel activity of the p.Leu47Pro KCNQ4 protein was rescued by the KCNQ activators MaxiPost and zinc pyrithione. The c.140T>C (p.Leu47Pro) mutation in KCNQ4 causes progressive NSHL; however, the defective channel activity of the mutant protein can be rescued using channel activators. Hence, in individuals with the c.140T>C mutation, NSHL is potentially treatable, or its progression may be delayed by KCNQ activators.


Assuntos
Surdez/genética , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CHO , Pré-Escolar , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , República da Coreia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1325, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524282

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinal disorder that afflicts mainly women of childbearing age. The symptoms of PCOS are irregular menstrual cycles, weight gain, subfertility and infertility. However, because the etiology is unclear, management and treatment methods for PCOS are not well established. Recently, natural substances have been used for PCOS therapy. Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is a well-known natural substance that attenuates the effects of inflammation, allergies, and cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of E. cava extract in rats with PCOS. When rats with letrozole-induced PCOS were exposed to the E. cava extract, the regular estrus cycle was restored, similar to that in placebo rats. Hormone levels, including the levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), were restored to their normal states. Histological analysis revealed that the polycystic ovary symptoms were significantly decreased in the E. cava-treated rats and were comparable to those of normal ovaries. At the transcriptional and translational levels, Ar, and Esr2 levels were markedly increased in the E. cava-treated rats with PCOS compared with the rats with letrozole-induced PCOS. These results suggest that the E. cava extract inhibits the symptoms of PCOS by restoring imbalanced hormonal levels and irregular ovarian cycles in letrozole-induced female rats.

12.
Am J Sports Med ; 46(13): 3142-3154, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a popular option for rotator cuff disease, the underlying mechanism of PRP and its clinical indications are unclear. Further, some kinds of PRP might be detrimental to patients. Allogenic PRP prepared through a standardized process and fully characterized could eliminate variations in PRP as well as uncertainties regarding its use in each patient, which could provide clues about its mechanism of action and indications for its use. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of pure PRP on tenocytes with or without inflammation in an in vitro study and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fully characterized pure PRP injection in patients with rotator cuff disease in a clinical study. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: For the in vitro study, tenocytes were enzymatically isolated and cultured from patients with rotator cuff tear and treated with or without interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and PRP. Gene expression and protein synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes and their inhibitors, matrix synthesis, and cell viability were evaluated. For the clinical study, a total of 17 patients with rotator cuff disease received ultrasonography-guided subacromial PRP injection and were followed for 6 months. Pain, range of motion, muscle strength, shoulder function, and overall satisfaction in patients were compared with the results in a propensity score-matched control group who received corticosteroid (triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg). RESULTS: PRP induced inflammation in the absence of inflammation and ameliorated inflammation in IL-1ß-induced tendinopathic conditions by regulation of cytokines such as IL-1ß, cyclooxygenase 2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and downstream matrix metalloproteinases. No general or local adverse events were noted with regard to allogenic PRP injection. Whereas steroid injection showed earlier improvement in some kinds of pain and functional scores, PRP generally showed comparable effects with steroid injection in all clinical outcomes at 6 months. CONCLUSION: This study showed that allogenic pure PRP had pleiotropic effects on tenocytes depending on inflammation and that it did not cause adverse events but rather decreased pain and improved shoulder function to a degree comparable with steroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Allogenic PRP could be a treatment option for rotator cuff disease.


Assuntos
Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/fisiologia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/terapia , Tenócitos/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções , Interleucina-1beta , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/química , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/citologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Manguito Rotador/fisiologia , Dor de Ombro/terapia , Transplante Homólogo
13.
Int J Mol Med ; 42(5): 2881-2890, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226623

RESUMO

Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) regulates the expression of molecules associated with dentinogenesis, including bone sialoprotein (BSP). BSP regulates the initiation of mineralization and the direction of dentin growth. However, the association between Tß4 signaling and BSP expression in odontoblasts remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate Tß4 mRNA expression in odontoblasts during dentinogenesis and the association between the Tß4 signaling pathway and BSP expression in MDPC­23 odontoblastic cells. Expression and localization of Tß4 mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization during mouse tooth development. The effect of Tß4 signaling on BSP expression was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and a luciferase reporter assay in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (PD98059) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3; SIS3) in MDPC­23 cells. The expression of Tß4 mRNA in the odontoblast layer was highest at postnatal day 5, known as the advanced bell stage, when odontoblasts actively secrete dentin matrix proteins. Tß4 increased BSP mRNA and protein levels in MDPC­23 cells, but this was inhibited by PD98059 or SIS3 treatment. Tß4 increased levels of phosphorylated (p) extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, pSmad3, pß­catenin, and runt­related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) protein, but these effects were inhibited by PD98059 or SIS3. Tß4 induced the nuclear translocation of Runx2 and pSmad3, while nuclear translocation of ß­catenin was decreased. Tß4 significantly increased BSP promoter activity, which was decreased by PD98059 or SIS3 treatment. Tß4 induced BSP expression in MDPC­23 cells via ERK and Smad3 signaling pathways, suggesting its role as a signaling molecule in odontoblasts for regulating BSP secretion during dentinogenesis.


Assuntos
Sialoproteína de Ligação à Integrina/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Odontoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Timosina/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Timosina/genética
14.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 115(11): 2817-2827, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981260

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis is a process of abnormal lipid deposition within the liver cells, often caused by excessive alcohol uptake or obesity. A conventional in vitro model for hepatic steatosis uses a liver cell culture, treated with fatty acids and measures accumulation of lipids within the cells. This model does not recapitulate the complex process of absorption and metabolism of digestive lipids. Here, we introduce a gut-liver chip, which mimics the gut absorption and hepatic metabolism in a microfluidic chip. Absorption of fatty acids through gut layer and subsequent deposition within liver cells was demonstrated. Tumor necrosis factor-α, butyrate, and α-lipoic acid were chosen as model molecules that can affect hepatic steatosis via different mechanisms, and their effects were evaluated. Our results suggest that the gut-liver chip can mimic the absorption and accumulation of fatty acids in the gut and the liver.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Microfluídica/métodos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Ácido Tióctico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(29): 24499-24507, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962200

RESUMO

Hydrogen production by water electrolysis has been regarded as a promising approach to wean away from sourcing energy through fossil fuels, as the produced hydrogen gas can be converted to electrical or thermal energy without any harmful byproducts. However, an efficient hydrogen production is restricted by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the counter anode. Therefore, the development of new OER catalysts with high catalytic activities is crucial for high performance water splitting. Here, we report a novel sloughing method for the fabrication of an efficient OER catalyst on a stainless steel (SS) surface. A chalcogenide (Fe-S) overlayer generated by sulfurization on the SS surface is found to play a critical role as a precursor layer in the formation of an active surface during water oxidation. Interestingly, a newly exposed catalytic layer after sloughing off the Fe-S overlayer has a nanoporous structure with changed elemental composition, resulting in a significant improvement in OER performance with an overpotential value of 267 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 (in 1 M KOH). Our novel method for the preparation of OER catalyst provides an important insight into designing an efficient and stable electrocatalyst for the water splitting community.

16.
Heart Asia ; 10(1): e010999, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765464

RESUMO

The benefits of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are well established for left ventricular dysfunction, but remain unknown for right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to investigate the role of RAAS inhibition on RV function in those with or at risk of RV dysfunction. Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched and 12 studies were included for statistical synthesis, comprising 265 RAAS inhibition treatment patients and 265 placebo control patients. The treatment arm showed a trend towards increased RV ejection fraction (weighted mean difference (WMD)=0.95, 95% CI -0.12 to 2.02, p=0.08) compared with the control arm. Subgroup analysis demonstrated a trend towards improvement in RV ejection fraction in patients receiving angiotensin receptor blockers compared with control (WMD=1.11, 95% CI -0.02 to 2.26, p=0.06), but not in the respective comparison for ACE inhibitors (WMD=0.07, 95% CI -2.74 to 2.87, p>0.05). No differences were shown between the two groups with regard to maximal oxygen consumption, RV end-systolic volume, RV end-diastolic volume, duration of cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and resting and maximal heart rate. Mild adverse drug reactions were common but evenly distributed between the treatment and control groups. The current meta-analysis highlights that there may be a role for RAAS inhibition, particularly treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers, in those with or at risk of RV dysfunction. However, further confirmation will be required by larger prospective trials.

17.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 9(2): 224-233, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544421

RESUMO

The hybrid strategy is an alternative to the traditional Norwood procedure for initial palliation of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who are deemed to be at high surgical risk. Numerous single-center studies have compared the two procedures, showing similar early outcomes, although the cohort sizes are likely insufficiently powered to detect significant differences. The current meta-analysis aims to explore the early morbidity and mortality associated with the hybrid compared to the Norwood procedure. MEDLINE, Cochrane Libraries, and Embase were systematically searched, and 14 studies were included for statistical synthesis, comprising 263 hybrid and 426 Norwood patients. Early mortality was significantly higher in the hybrid patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.54, P < .05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.34), whereas interstage mortality was comparable between the two groups (RR = 0.88, P > .05, 95% CI: 0.46-1.70). Six-month (RR = 0.89, P < .05, 95% CI: 0.80-1.00) and one-year (RR = 0.88, P < .05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.00) transplant-free survival was also inferior among the hybrid patients. Furthermore, the hybrid patients required more reinterventions following initial surgical palliation (RR = 1.48, P < .05, 95% CI: 1.09-2.01), although the two groups had comparable length of hospital and intensive care unit stay postoperatively. In conclusion, our results suggest that the hybrid procedure is associated with worse early survival compared to the traditional Norwood when used for initial palliation of infants with HLHS. However, due to the hybrid being used preferentially for high-risk patients, definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of the procedure cannot be drawn.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Procedimentos de Norwood/métodos , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599811

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the clinical practice states on the diagnosis and treatment for insomnia between Korean medical general practitioners (KMGPs) and Korean medical neuropsychiatry specialists (KMNPSs). Methods: We distributed questionnaires via email or in person to 1,017 KMGPs and via email to 165 KMNPSs. We collected and analyzed responses from 305 (30.00%) KMGPs and 53 (32.12%) KMNPSs. Results: Most KMGPs and KMNPSs responded that the number of new patients visiting the clinic for treatment of insomnia was less than 10 per month (78.2%). Frequently utilized therapies for insomnia are acupuncture and herbal decoctions. Particularly acupoint GV20 and Guipi decoction were chosen with the highest response rate. There was no difference between KMNPSs and KMGPs in the traditional Korean medical diagnosis methods. However, KMNPSs utilized more various methods to diagnose, treat, and evaluate insomnia and educated more actively sleep hygiene compared to KMGPs. Conclusions: This survey showed how insomnia is currently diagnosed and treated in Korean medical care settings. Moreover, we identified some differences between KMNPSs and KMGPs. Further research is required to explore the underlying reasons for these discrepancies among KMDs and to improve the quality of Korean medical clinical practice in treating insomnia.

19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(3): 182-188, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482742

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined associations of functional limitation due to any health problems and six chronic diseases (arthritis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart attack, hypertension, and stroke) with food security among U.S. adults. METHODS: The 2011 National Health Interview Survey data for 30,010 adults (≥18 years) were used. Adults were categorized into food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for having functional limitation and chronic diseases while adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of functional limitation and the chronic diseases were higher in low-food-secure and very low-food-secure than food-secure adults. The adjusted ORs were significant in both low food secure and very low food secure, respectively, for functional limitation (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.14), (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.91, 2.52), inflammatory diseases or joint/muscular pain (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.68), (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04), diabetes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.51), (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.48), and hypertension (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35), (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.65) when compared with food-secure adults. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that food insecurity is associated with functional limitation and chronic diseases, whereas directionality is unknown. Besides the traditional food assistance program for food-insecure populations, interventions to prevent or manage chronic diseases may be necessary to help them reduce the risk of the diseases and manage their conditions.


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 893-897, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448512

RESUMO

Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) is known to inhibit an inflammatory response and to increase the survival of osteoblasts on titanium (Ti) surfaces. Ti is the most widely used graft material in dentistry; however, an inflammatory response induced following implant placement results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The oxidative stress from the production of ROS such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can damage surrounding cells, resulting in implant failure by decreasing cell viability. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the biological effects of Tß4 on the oxidative stress induced to MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts on the Ti surface. Based on an MTT assay and bromodeoxyuridine immunofluorescence staining, Tß4 was found to increase the proliferation of the H2O2-exposed MC3T3-E1 cells on Ti discs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that Tß4 decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in H2O2-exposed MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti discs. Tß4 inhibited the synthesis of intracellular ROS and the secretion of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from H2O2-exposed MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti discs. In conclusion, Tß4 inhibits H2O2-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression with a decrease in ROS, NO, and PGE2 synthesis, which leads to improved cell survival with low cytotoxicity under an oxidative stress condition in MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti surface. This suggests that Tß4 may be a crucial molecule to reduce oxidative stress-induced cell damage or hypoxia, leading to promoted osseointegration on the Ti surface during implant placement.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Osteoblastos , Estresse Oxidativo , Timosina/farmacologia , Titânio , Hipóxia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...