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1.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; : 1-17, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794118

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to improve the measurement of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) in adults with obesity. To accomplish this objective, a latent variable approach was used to explore dimensionality, temporal invariance, and external validity of responses to a newly developed battery of PASE scales. Data (Nbaseline = 461 and N30 days postbaseline = 427) from the Well-Being and Physical Activity Study (ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03194854), which deployed the Fun For Wellness intervention, were analyzed. A two-dimensional factor structure explained responses to each PASE scale at baseline. There was strong evidence for at least partial temporal measurement invariance for this two-dimensional structure in each PASE scale. There was mixed evidence that the effectiveness of the Fun For Wellness intervention exerted a direct effect on latent PASE in adults with obesity at 30 days postbaseline (i.e., external validity) of this two-dimensional structure.

2.
J Vet Sci ; 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841749

RESUMO

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common heart disease in small-breed dogs. Mitral repair, which comprise artificial chorda tendineae implantation and mitral annuloplasty, has become the mainstay of treatment in the veterinary field. We report on two small dogs who underwent mitral repair surgery for MR. A Hegar dilator was used during mitral annuloplasty for accurate and reproducible surgery. In both cases, mitral regurgitant flow almost disappeared after surgery, and clinical signs improved. The treatment regimen was terminated 3 months after the surgery. We concluded that using a Hegar dilator may facilitate mitral valve repair surgery.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19476, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593925

RESUMO

Variant prioritization of exome sequencing (ES) data for molecular diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with extreme etiologic heterogeneity poses a significant challenge. This study used an automated variant prioritization system ("EVIDENCE") to analyze SNHL patient data and assess its diagnostic accuracy. We performed ES of 263 probands manifesting mild to moderate or higher degrees of SNHL. Candidate variants were classified according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics guidelines, and we compared the accuracy, call rates, and efficiency of variant prioritizations performed manually by humans or using EVIDENCE. In our in silico panel, 21 synthetic cases were successfully analyzed by EVIDENCE. In our cohort, the ES diagnostic yield for SNHL by manual analysis was 50.19% (132/263) and 50.95% (134/263) by EVIDENCE. EVIDENCE processed ES data 24-fold faster than humans, and the concordant call rate between humans and EVIDENCE was 97.72% (257/263). Additionally, EVIDENCE outperformed human accuracy, especially at discovering causative variants of rare syndromic deafness, whereas flexible interpretations that required predefined specific genotype-phenotype correlations were possible only by manual prioritization. The automated variant prioritization system remarkably facilitated the molecular diagnosis of hearing loss with high accuracy and efficiency, fostering the popularization of molecular genetic diagnosis of SNHL.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640693

RESUMO

Existing image dehazing algorithms typically rely on a two-stage procedure. The medium transmittance and lightness are estimated in the first stage, and the scene radiance is recovered in the second by applying the simplified Koschmieder model. However, this type of unconstrained dehazing is only applicable to hazy images, and leads to untoward artifacts in haze-free images. Moreover, no algorithm that can automatically detect the haze density and perform dehazing on an arbitrary image has been reported in the literature to date. Therefore, this paper presents an automated dehazing system capable of producing satisfactory results regardless of the presence of haze. In the proposed system, the input image simultaneously undergoes multiscale fusion-based dehazing and haze-density-estimating processes. A subsequent image blending step then judiciously combines the dehazed result with the original input based on the estimated haze density. Finally, tone remapping post-processes the blended result to satisfactorily restore the scene radiance quality. The self-calibration capability on haze conditions lies in using haze density estimate to jointly guide image blending and tone remapping processes. We performed extensive experiments to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed system over state-of-the-art benchmark methods.

5.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3395-3402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522166

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the main diagnositic tools for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To document the chest CT findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their association with the clinical severity, we searched related literatures through PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (inception to May 4, 2020) and reviewed reference lists of previous systematic reviews. A total of 31 case reports (3768 patients) on CT findings of COVID-19 were included. The most common comorbid conditions were hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes mellitus (8.3%). The most common symptom was fever (78.7%), followed by cough (60.2%). It took an average of 5.6 days from symptom onset to admission. The most common chest CT finding was vascular enlargement (84.8%), followed by ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.1%), air-bronchogram (47.8%), and consolidation (41.4%). Most lung lesions were located in the lung periphery (72.2%) and involved bilateral lung (76%). Most patients showed normal range of laboratory findings such as white blood cell count (96.4%) and lymphocyte (87.2%). Compared to previous published meta-analyses, our study is the first to summarize the different radiologic characteristics of chest CT in a total of 3768 COVID-19 patients by compiling case series studies. A comprehensive diagnostic approach should be adopted for patients with known COVID-19, suspected cases, and for exposed individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 21009-21028, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492635

RESUMO

The ability to maintain systemic metabolic homeostasis through various mechanisms represents a crucial strength of kidneys in the study of metabolic syndrome or aging. Moreover, age-associated kidney failure has been widely accepted. However, efforts to demonstrate aging-dependent renal metabolic rewiring have been limited. In the present study, we investigated aging-related renal metabolic determinants by integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic data sets from kidneys of young (3 months, n = 7 and 3 for respectively) and old (24 months, n = 8 and 3 for respectively) naive C57BL/6 male mice. Metabolite profiling analysis was conducted, followed by data processing via network and pathway analyses, to identify differential metabolites. In the aged group, the levels of glutathione and oxidized glutathione were significantly increased, but the levels of gamma-glutamyl amino acids, amino acids combined with the gamma-glutamyl moiety from glutathione by membrane transpeptidases, and circulating glutathione levels were decreased. In transcriptomic analysis, differential expression of metabolic enzymes is consistent with the hypothesis of aging-dependent rewiring in renal glutathione metabolism; pathway and network analyses further revealed the increased expression of immune-related genes in the aged group. Collectively, our integrative analysis results revealed that defective renal glutathione metabolism is a signature of renal aging. Therefore, we hypothesize that restraining renal glutathione metabolism might alleviate or delay age-associated renal metabolic deterioration, and aberrant activation of the renal immune system.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009822, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570766

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) neurons of the midbrain are at risk to become affected by mitochondrial damage over time and mitochondrial defects have been frequently reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, the causal contribution of adult-onset mitochondrial dysfunction to PD remains uncertain. Here, we developed a mouse model lacking Mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a key regulator of mitochondrial network homeostasis, in adult midbrain DA neurons. The knockout mice develop severe and progressive DA neuron-specific mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in neurodegeneration and parkinsonism. To gain further insights into pathophysiological events, we performed transcriptomic analyses of isolated DA neurons and found that mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an early onset immune response, which precedes mitochondrial swelling, mtDNA depletion, respiratory chain deficiency and cell death. Our experiments show that the immune response is an early pathological event when mitochondrial dysfunction is induced in adult midbrain DA neurons and that neuronal death may be promoted non-cell autonomously by the cross-talk and activation of surrounding glial cells.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502333

RESUMO

Plants produce a wide variety of natural volatile organic compounds (NVOCs), many of which are unique to each species. These compounds serve many purposes, such as fending off herbivores and adapting to changes in temperature and water supply. Interestingly, although NVOCs are synthesized to deter herbivores, many of these compounds have been found to possess several therapeutic qualities, such as promoting nerve stability, enhancing sleep, and suppressing hyperresponsiveness, in addition to acting as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. Therefore, many NVOCs are promising drug candidates for disease treatment and prevention. Given their volatile nature, these compounds can be administered to patients through inhalation, which is often more comfortable and convenient than other administration routes. However, the development of NVOC-based drug candidates requires a careful evaluation of the molecular mechanisms that drive their therapeutic properties to avoid potential adverse effects. Furthermore, even compounds that appear generally safe might have toxic effects depending on their dose, and therefore their toxicological assessment is also critical. In order to enhance the usage of NVOCs this short review focuses not only on the biological activities and therapeutic mode of action of representative NVOCs but also their toxic effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578808

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to re-validate the changes in natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and cytokines related to T cells after Sil-Q1 (SQ; silk peptide) supplementation in a larger pool of Korean adults with minimized daily dose of SQ and controlling seasonal influence compared to the previous study. A total of 130 subjects were randomly assigned (1:1) to consume either 7.5 g of SQ or placebo for 8 weeks. NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokines were measured at T0 (baseline) and T8 (follow-up). Comparing the NK cell cytotoxicity values at T0 and T8 within each group, the cytotoxicity at all effector cell (E) to target cell (T) ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 was significantly increased in the SQ group at T8. Additionally, significant differences in the changed value (Δ, subtract baseline values from follow-up values) comparison between the groups at E:T = 10:1, 5:1, and 2.5:1 were found. As a secondary endpoint, the interleukin (IL)-12 level in the SQ group was significantly increased for 8 weeks, and Δ IL-12 in the SQ group was greater than in the placebo group. In conclusion, the present study showed considerable practical implications of SQ supplementation. Thus, SQ is an effective and safe functional food supplement for enhancing immune function.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Seda/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Interleucina-12/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Seda/química , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579131

RESUMO

In our previous study, intravenous (IV) injection of selenium alleviated breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). This secondary analysis aimed to explore the metabolic effects of selenium on patients with BCRL. Serum samples of the selenium-treated (SE, n = 15) or the placebo-controlled (CTRL, n = 14) groups were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with Q-Exactive Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS). The SE group showed a lower ratio of extracellular water to segmental water (ECW/SW) in the affected arm to ECW/SW in the unaffected arm (arm ECW/SW ratio) than the CTRL group. Metabolomics analysis showed a valid classification at 2-weeks and 107 differential metabolites were identified. Among them, the levels of corticosterone, LTB4-DMA, and PGE3-which are known anti-inflammatory compounds-were elevated in the SE group. Pathway analysis demonstrated that lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, or arachidonic acid metabolism), nucleotide metabolism (pyrimidine or purine metabolism), and vitamin metabolism (pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism) were altered in the SE group compared to the CTRL group. In addition, xanthurenic acid levels were negatively associated with whole blood selenium level (WBSe) and positively associated with the arm ECW/SW. In conclusion, selenium IV injection improved the arm ECW/SW ratio and altered the serum metabolic profiles in patients with BCRL, and improved the anti-inflammatory process in lipid, nucleotide and vitamin pathways, which might alleviate the symptoms of BCRL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Linfedema/sangue , Linfedema/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolômica/métodos , Selenito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Alprostadil/análogos & derivados , Alprostadil/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Leucotrieno B4/sangue , Linfedema/etiologia , Placebos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 650042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366971

RESUMO

The present study monitored changes in beliefs about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, depressive symptoms, and preventive motives between the first and second waves in South Korea using an online survey administered to 1,144 individuals nationally representative for age, gender, and areas of residence. While participants correctly updated their beliefs about the worsening pandemic situations, the perceived importance of social distancing did not change, and their motives to follow prevention measures shifted toward compulsory rather than voluntary motives. This inconsistency appeared to be mediated by depressive symptoms, such that negative belief changes followed by increased depressive symptoms were associated with the decreased perceived importance of social distancing and decreased voluntary motives. Our data highlights the importance of psychological responses to the dynamically evolving pandemic situations in promoting preventive behaviors.

12.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440555

RESUMO

(1) Background: Nutrition is a key determinant of sarcopenia in later life. (2) Methods: A systematic review of prospective cohort studies examining association of diet quality with muscle mass (MM), muscle strength (MS) or physical performance (PP) among older adults was conducted. A total of 22,885 results were obtained from a literature search in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE up to November 2020. Inclusion criteria included diet quality assessment via dietary indices or statistical approaches, a sample of adults aged 45 years and over at baseline in a longitudinal study design. (3) Results: Of the 22,885 cohort studies, 14 studies were eligible. Meaningful results were obtained for the Mediterranean diet and Nordic diet regarding the decrease of sarcopenia risk, however results from non-European countries were inconsistent. In addition, due to the insufficient number of studies on Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST), dietary variety score (DVS), and dietary quality index-international (DQI-I), effectiveness was difficult to prove. Studies using factor analysis to examine dietary patterns suggested that the risk of sarcopenia is increased with a high in saturated fat diet such as westernized pattern etc. (4) Conclusion: In this systematic review it was found that various diet qualities are meaningful to a decreased risk of sarcopenia.

13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443842

RESUMO

The crystalline quality of ZnO NR (nanorod) as a sensing material for visible blind ultraviolet PDs (photodetectors) critically depends on the SL (seed layer) material of properties, which is a key to high-quality nanocrystallite growth, more so than the synthesis method. In this study, we fabricated two different device structures of a gateless AlGaN/GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) and a photoconductive PD structure with an IDE (interdigitated electrode) pattern implemented on a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) flexible substrate, and investigated the impact on device performance through the SL N2O plasma treatment. In case of HEMT-based PD, the highest current on-off ratio (~7) and spectral responsivity R (~1.5 × 105 A/W) were obtained from the treatment for 6 min, whereas the IDE pattern-based PD showed the best performance (on-off ratio = ~44, R = ~69 A/W) from the treatment for 3 min and above, during which a significant etch damage on PET substrates was produced. This improvement in device performance was due to the enhancement in NR crystalline quality as revealed by our X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and microanalysis.

14.
Appl Microsc ; 51(1): 11, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255203

RESUMO

Spider capture silk is a natural scaffolding material that outperforms most synthetic materials in terms of its combination of strength and elasticity. Among the various kinds of silk threads, cribellar thread is the most primitive prey-capturing type of spider web material. We analyzed the functional organization of the sieve-like cribellum spigots and specialized calamistral comb bristles for capture thread production by the titanoecid spider Nurscia albofasciata. The outer cribellar surface is covered with thousands of tiny spigots, and the cribellar plate produces non-sticky threads composed of thousands of fine nanofibers. N. albofasciata cribellar spigots are typically about 10 µm long, and each spigot appears as a long individual shaft with a pagoda-like tiered tip. The five distinct segments comprising each spigot is a defining characteristic of this spider. This segmented and flexible structure not only allows for spigots to bend individually and join with adjacent spigots, but it also enables spigots to draw the silk fibrils from their cribella with rows of calamistral leg bristles to form cribellar prey-capture threads.

15.
Prev Sci ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173135

RESUMO

Fun For Wellness (FFW) is a self-efficacy theory-based online behavioral intervention that aims to promote growth in physical activity and well-being. The FFW conceptual model for the promotion of subjective well-being posits that FFW exerts both a positive direct effect, and a positive indirect effect through well-being self-efficacy, on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is defined in FFW as an individual's satisfaction with their status in seven key domains of their life. Well-being self-efficacy is defined in FFW as the degree to which an individual perceives that they have the capability to attain a positive status in seven key domains of their life. The objective of this study was to use baseline target moderation to assess variation in the impact of FFW on subjective well-being dimensions in adults with obesity. Data (N = 667) from the Well-Being and Physical Activity Study (ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03194854) were reanalyzed. There was evidence that well-being self-efficacy at baseline moderated the direct effect of FFW on well-being self-efficacy at 30 days post-baseline for the occupational and psychological dimensions. Both of these findings suggest a "compensatory" effect. Similarly, there was evidence that well-being self-efficacy at baseline moderated the indirect effect of FFW on subjective well-being at 60 days post-baseline through well-being self-efficacy at 30 days post-baseline for the occupational and psychological dimensions. Both of these findings suggest a "compensatory" effect. Finally, there was evidence that well-being self-efficacy at baseline moderated the direct effect of FFW on subjective well-being at 60 days post-baseline for the community, occupational, and physical dimensions. Each of these three findings suggests some version of a "rich-get-richer" effect. In summary, results provide both supportive and unsupportive (i.e., interpersonal, economic, and overall dimensions) evidence regarding variation in the impact of the FFW intervention and should impact the design of future FFW trials.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067560

RESUMO

Aging has been implicated in the alteration of taste acuity. Diet can affect taste sensitivity. We aimed to investigate the types of tastes altered in elderly Korean people and factors associated with taste alteration in relation to dietary intake and other factors. Elderly participants (≥65 years) and young adults were assessed to determine their recognition thresholds (RT) for sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami tastes. Elderly participants were further surveyed for dietary intake and non-nutritional factors. Five taste RTs were correlated with age, but only four taste RTs, except sweetness, differed between the elderly participants and young adults. Inadequate intake of iron, thiamin, folic acid, zinc, and phosphorus among the elderly participants was related to elevated taste RT levels, except for bitter taste. In both correlation and regression analyses, only salty and sour RTs were associated with energy, iron, thiamin, fiber, vitamin C, and riboflavin levels in the elderly participants. The elderly participants' taste RTs exhibited strong associations with quality of life (QOL) but showed partial relationships with physical activity, number of medicine intakes, social gatherings, and education. Taste sensitivity may decrease with age, which is further influenced by insufficient dietary intake, especially iron and thiamin, and QOL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Paladar , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050020

RESUMO

Genes that are primarily expressed in cochlear glia-like supporting cells (GLSs) have not been clearly associated with progressive deafness. Herein, we present a deafness locus mapped to chromosome 3p25.1 and an auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) gene, TMEM43, mainly expressed in GLSs. We identify p.(Arg372Ter) of TMEM43 by linkage analysis and exome sequencing in two large Asian families segregating ANSD, which is characterized by inability to discriminate speech despite preserved sensitivity to sound. The knock-in mouse with the p.(Arg372Ter) variant recapitulates a progressive hearing loss with histological abnormalities in GLSs. Mechanistically, TMEM43 interacts with the Connexin26 and Connexin30 gap junction channels, disrupting the passive conductance current in GLSs in a dominant-negative fashion when the p.(Arg372Ter) variant is introduced. Based on these mechanistic insights, cochlear implant was performed on three subjects, and speech discrimination was successfully restored. Our study highlights a pathological role of cochlear GLSs by identifying a deafness gene and its causal relationship with ANSD.

18.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 17(2): 131-137, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012939

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether postural control would differ under various gaze tasks while standing in a wide or narrow stance between healthy young and old people, and also investigate whether postural sway and cognitive workload are affected by dual-task balance. Ten young and 10 healthy old people participated in this study. Each participant stood upright under four gaze conditions (fixation, saccade, pursuit, vestibular-ocular reflex) and two stance conditions (wide and narrow stance) in a total of 16 trials. Postural sway was measured by the mean sway amplitude of the center of pressure in the medial-lateral and anteriorposterior directions. Cognitive workload was measured through pupil response as an index of cognitive activity (ICA) by using Eye tracking system and Eyeworks. The results showed that postural sway significantly reduced when performing saccadic eye movement in both groups but greater postural sway was evoked in vestibular-ocular reflex condition. In addition, although old people had a significant increase in ICA compared to the young, there were no significant differences among all the gaze conditions in old people. These results confirmed that saccadic eye movements are the most beneficial for reducing postural sway regardless of aging and also provide some insight that pupil response represents an indicator of cognitive workload during dual-task balance context. These findings suggest that eye movement exercises may be considered as an effective intervention to improve postural control so a fall prevention program applying eye movement should be extended to individuals who are at risk of falling.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918021

RESUMO

Image acquisition is a complex process that is affected by a wide variety of internal and environmental factors. Hence, visibility restoration is crucial for many high-level applications in photography and computer vision. This paper provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of visibility restoration algorithms with a focus on those that are pertinent to poor weather conditions. This paper starts with an introduction to optical image formation and then provides a comprehensive description of existing algorithms as well as a comparative evaluation. Subsequently, there is a thorough discussion on current difficulties that are worthy of a scientific effort. Moreover, this paper proposes a general framework for visibility restoration in hazy weather conditions while using haze-relevant features and maximum likelihood estimates. Finally, a discussion on the findings and future developments concludes this paper.

20.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803122

RESUMO

Organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) has been recognized as an eco-friendly separation system owing to its excellent cost and energy saving efficiency, easy scale-up in the narrow area and mild operation conditions. Membrane properties are the key part in terms of determining the separation efficiency in the OSN system. In this review paper, the recently reported OSN thin-film composite (TFC) membranes were investigated to understand insight of membrane materials and performance. Especially, we highlighted the representative study concepts and materials of the selective layer of OSN TFC membranes for non-polar solvents. The proper choice of monomers and additives for the selective layer forms much more interconnected voids and the enhanced microporosity, which can improve membrane performance of the OSN TFC membrane with reducing the transport resistance. Therefore, this review paper could be an important bridge to connect with the next-generation OSN TFC membranes for non-polar solvents.

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