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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a clinical pathway (CP) for enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in gastric cancer patients, including early oral feeding and discharge on postoperative day 4. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-center, phase II clinical trial. Based on proposed indications for an ERAS CP in our retrospective study, we enrolled 133 patients younger than 65 years who were undergoing minimally invasive subtotal gastrectomy. The primary endpoint was the ERAS CP completion rate. Secondary endpoints included complication, mortality, hospital stay, and readmission. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, six patients were dropped out from this study. The ERAS CP completion rate (77.2%, 98 of 127) was comparable to the historical control group that completed a conventional CP (85.4%, P = .085). The postoperative complication incidence (13.4%, 15 of 127) was also similar to that of the conventional CP group (9.5%, P = .174). We identified reduced hospital stays (4.7 ± 1.3 vs 7.2±2.3 days; P < .001) and lower hospital costs ($7771 vs 8539; P < .001) in the ERAS CP group compared with the conventional CP group. CONCLUSIONS: An ERAS CP can be safely and effectively adopted for patients with gastric cancer without increasing the complication rate and could shorten hospital stays. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01642953).

2.
J Wildl Dis ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917638

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a genus of parasitic protozoans that live in humans, mammals, and birds and which has been widely studied due to its low host specificity. Limited data are available, however, regarding its presence in wildlife, particularly in South Korea. Contact between wild boars (Sus scrofa) and livestock or humans has steadily increased as wild boars venture down from the mountains to farms and residential areas. In this study, we examined the status and subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis in wild boars in South Korea and confirmed its zoonotic potential. From March 2016 to November 2018, we collected 433 fecal samples throughout the country from trapped or road-killed wild boars. The 18S rRNA gene was used for molecular identification and subtyping and the proportion of PCR-positive samples was 10.4%. We then assessed positive samples for associations with sex, region, and seasonal infection; however, no statistical significance was observed for any variable other than season. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all sequences belonged to subtype 5 and had 99.5-99.9% identity with sequences obtained from Japanese cattle (Bos taurus) and 97.1% identity with sequences obtained from Chinese. Subtype 5 has been implicated in zoonoses, indicating that Korean wild boars could transmit Blastocystis to humans and other livestock. Our results, in accordance with the One Health concept, strongly support continued interest and efforts by public health and disease control organizations toward transmission prevention.

3.
J Asthma ; 57(1): 11-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634874

RESUMO

Objective: New treatments are needed for cases of asthma that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we examined the effect of oral nintedanib, an intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, on airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airway smooth muscle cells, using a mouse model of experimental asthma. Methods: Asthma was experimentally induced in mice via subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA). A group of saline-injected mice served as a control group. The OVA mice were then divided into four treatment groups according to the dose of nintedanib. AHR was examined via exposure to vaporized methacholine. Airway inflammation was assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts and Th2 cytokine concentrations. Results: Baseline levels of AHR and airway inflammation were higher in OVA mice than in the control group. Treatment with nintedanib lowered AHR, BALF cell counts and BALF cytokine levels in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of nintedanib was comparable to that of dexamethasone. In particular, treatment with nintedanib lowered the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 and inhibited the expression and phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGFR2, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), FGFR3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Conclusions: Nintedanib lowered AHR and the expression of factors associated with airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of experimental asthma. Our results suggest that nintedanib may be useful in the treatment of asthma.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18233, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852086

RESUMO

Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is an effective interventional treatment for radicular pain. However, in some cases, contrast runoff to the spinal nerve root does not occur. We investigated whether contrast runoff to the spinal nerve root affects the success rate of PEN and whether additional transforaminal epidural blocks for intentional contrast runoff affect the success rate of PEN in cases in which contrast runoff is absent.This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03867630) in March 2019. We reviewed the medical records of 112 patients who underwent PEN with a wire-type catheter from May 2016 to August 2018. Patients were divided in 3 groups (Runoff group, Non-runoff group, Transforaminal group).Patients with low back pain and leg radicular pain who did not respond to lumbar epidural steroid injectionsPEN was performed in 112 patients with a wire-type catheter in target segment. We compared the success rate of PEN betweenThe success rate was significantly different between the Runoff group and the Non-runoff group (P < .0007) and between the Non-runoff group and the Transforaminal group (P = .0047), but not between the Runoff group and the Transforaminal group (P = .57).Contrast runoff influenced the success rate of PEN. In cases without contrast runoff, additional transforaminal epidural blocks for intentional contrast runoff increased the success rate of PEN with a wire-type catheter.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/instrumentação , Cateteres , Dor Lombar/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17699, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776400

RESUMO

The increasing use of new and emerging tobacco products has raised public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between tobacco product use and the risk of allergic diseases. We used cross-sectional data of 58,336 students aged 12-18 years from the 2018 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. This study considered three tobacco products, namely cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and heated tobacco products. Descriptive analyses, as well as simple and multinomial logistic regression analyses with a complex sampling design, were performed. Multiple tobacco use had an association with the risk of each allergic disease. Use of each tobacco product was significantly associated with an increased risk of multi-morbidity of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, lifetime use of each tobacco product was associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis. This highlights the importance of paying close attention to smoking by adolescents and its association with allergy epidemics. Future research should consider intensity of smoking and/or severity of allergic symptoms.

6.
Exp Lung Res ; 45(9-10): 275-287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608695

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is one of the factors associated with severe, uncontrolled asthma. The effect of pravastatin on asthmatic airway inflammation in obesity has not been evaluated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity with or without ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Pravastatin was administered intraperitoneally during the OVA treatment. Airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) were analyzed and lung tissues were examined. The changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways were measured in the lung tissues. Results: HFD with OVA sensitization and challenge exacerbated eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and increased AHR compared to lean asthma mice. The levels of cytokines examined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed that the expressions of IL-4, 5, and 17 were elevated in the obese asthmatic group and decreased after pravastatin treatment, indicating that both the Th2 and Th17 pathways were stimulated by HFD-induced obesity and OVA challenge and suppressed by pravastatin treatment. Moreover, the serum leptin and adiponectin ratio was elevated only in obese asthmatic mice and decreased with pravastatin administration. Pravastatin successfully alleviated the airway inflammation of lung tissues and AHR in both obese and lean asthmatic mice, however, treatment with pravastatin had no effects on BALF cell counts and cytokines in lean asthma mice. In lung tissues, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly decreased in lean as well as obese asthmatic mice. Conclusions: Pravastatin treatment in obese asthmatic mice suppressed allergic airway infiltration and AHR by inhibition of Th2 and Th17-associated signaling pathways, decreasing the leptin expression and downstream p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The effect on lean asthmatic mice was different, independent of airway cell counts and cytokines.

7.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(31)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371552

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is tick-borne and causes this disease (SFTS) in humans. We determined the complete genome sequences of two SFTSV strains isolated from serum from a human with SFTS and a dog with asymptomatic infection using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295896

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to be one of the most disabling diseases. The intra-articular opioid injection has been widely studied for its simplicity, safety, and efficacy in OA. In this study, however, we suggest a novel method of buprenorphine transdermal patch (BTDP) to painful knee joints of OA patients, instead of intra-articular opioid injection, and subsequently compared the knee application with conventional chest application. We retrospectively enrolled 213 patients with knee OA who did not respond to conventional therapy. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), adverse effects, and compliance were recorded before and after the application of the BTDP. All parameters were compared between the knee applied group and the chest applied group. After the BTDP application, the NRS score in the knee applied group was lower than that of the chest applied group (p = 0.007). NRS scores after buprenorphine patch decreased to 2.21 ± 0.77, and 2.55 ± 0.71 in the chest applied group and the knee applied group, respectively. The adverse effects were 19.32% in the knee applied group, and 64.00% in the chest applied group. The compliances were 82.95% and 37.60% in the knee applied group and chest applied group, respectively. This novel application of BTDP directly to the painful knee joint of knee OA patients led to a decrease in the NRS score, adverse effects, and an increase in compliance compared with the chest application method.

9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3499-3506, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of phenformin, a therapeutic agent for diabetes, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT and live/dead cell assay. Phenformin-induced apoptotic FaDu cell death and its associated cellular signaling pathways were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, caspase-3 activity assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and western blotting. RESULTS: Phenformin promoted death of and apoptotic processes in FaDu cells, including morphological alterations and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, treatment with phenformin increased caspase-3 activity and apoptotic populations via the caspase cascade through cleavage of capspase-8, -9, and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in FaDu cells. Moreover, phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and AKT were down-regulated in FaDu cells by phenformin. CONCLUSION: Phenformin induced death of FaDu cells via caspase-dependent extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways and is a promising novel therapeutic agent for HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Fenformin/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Humanos
10.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 11(4): 508-518, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the Phase III SIROCCO trial (NCT01928771), benralizumab significantly reduced asthma exacerbations and improved lung function and symptoms for patients with severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. The aim of this subgroup analysis was to evaluate efficacy and safety of benralizumab for Korean patients in SIROCCO. METHODS: SIROCCO was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 1,204 patients aged 12-75 years with severe asthma uncontrolled by high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting ß2-agonists (ICS/LABA). Patients received benralizumab 30 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 8 weeks (Q8W; first 3 doses Q4W) or placebo Q4W for 48 weeks. The primary analysis population comprised patients with blood eosinophil counts ≥ 300 cells/µL. This subgroup analysis evaluated Korean patients from this group. RESULTS: Of 122 Korean patients randomized, 86 had blood eosinophil counts ≥ 300 cells/µL. Benralizumab reduced the annual asthma exacerbation rate by 70% (Q4W: rate estimate 0.79, rate ratio 0.30 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.13-0.65], nominal P = 0.003; n = 28) and 85% (Q8W: rate estimate 0.40, rate ratio 0.15 [95% CI, 0.06-0.36], nominal P < 0.001; n = 30) vs. placebo (rate estimate 2.67, n = 28). Prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second was increased with benralizumab treatment by 0.270 L (Q4W: 95% CI, 0.039-0.500, nominal P = 0.023; n = 28) and 0.362 L (Q8W: 95% CI, 0.143-0.582, nominal P = 0.002; n = 30) vs. placebo (n = 27). Total asthma symptom score was similar for patients receiving either benralizumab Q4W (-0.27 [95% CI, -0.83 to 0.30], nominal P = 0.356; n = 27) or benralizumab Q8W (0.10 [95% CI, -0.44 to 0.65], nominal P = 0.708; n = 30) vs. placebo (n = 28). Drug-related adverse events were experienced by 2%, 8%, and 5% of patients in the placebo, benralizumab Q4W, and benralizumab Q8W arms. CONCLUSIONS: Benralizumab reduced annual asthma exacerbation rates, increased lung function, and was well-tolerated by Korean patients with severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma.

11.
Virus Genes ; 55(4): 545-549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076983

RESUMO

Bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). In the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a SARS-like bat CoV (16BO133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% G+C content. Phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the ORF 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16BO133 was grouped with the Beta-CoV lineage B and was closely related to the JTMC15 strain isolated from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in China. However, 16BO133 was distinctly located in the phylogenetic topology of the human SARS CoV strain (Tor2). Interestingly, 16BO133 showed complete elimination of ORF8 regions induced by a frame shift of the stop codon in ORF7b. The lowest amino acid identity of 16BO133 was identified at the spike region among various ORFs. The spike region of 16BO133 showed 84.7% and 75.2% amino acid identity with Rf1 (SARS-like bat CoV) and Tor2 (human SARS CoV), respectively. In addition, the S gene of 16BO133 was found to contain the amino acid substitution of two critical residues (N479S and T487 V) associated with human infection. In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviruses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Foods ; 8(5)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064158

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of jasmonic acid (JA), chitosan, and salicylic acid (SA) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in germinated buckwheat. A total of six phenolics were detected in the buckwheat treated with different concentrations of SA (50, 100, and 150 mg/L), JA (50, 100, and 150 µM), and chitosan (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5%) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The treatment with 0.1% chitosan resulted in an accumulation of the highest levels of phenolic compounds as compared with the control and the 0.01 and 0.5% chitosan treatments. The treatment with 150 µM JA enhanced the levels of phenolics in buckwheat sprouts as compared with those observed in the control and the 50 and 100 µM JA-treated sprouts. However, the SA treatment did not affect the production of phenolic compounds. After optimizing the treatment concentrations of elicitors (chitosan and JA), a time-course analysis of the phenolic compounds detected in the germinated buckwheat treated with 0.1% chitosan and 150 µM JA was performed. Buckwheat treated with 0.1% chitosan for 72 h showed higher levels of phenolic compounds than all control samples. Similarly, the germinated buckwheat treated with JA for 48 and 72 h produced higher amounts of phenolic compounds than all control samples. This study elucidates the influence of SA, JA, and chitosan on the production of phenolic compounds and suggests that the treatment with optimal concentrations of chitosan and JA for an optimal time period improved the production of phenolic compounds in germinated buckwheat.

13.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(8): 775-782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124740

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are sulfur- and nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that function in plant defense and provide benefits to human health. In this study, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, green and red kale hairy roots were established. The expression levels of GSLs biosynthesis genes and their accumulation in both kale hairy roots were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and HPLC. The results showed that the expression of most indolic GSLs biosynthesis genes was higher in the hairy roots of green kale than in that of red kale. In contrast, the expression of BoCYP83A1 and BoSUR1 encoding key enzymes aromatic GSL biosynthesis was significantly higher in red kale hairy root. The HPLC analysis identified six GSLs. The levels of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin were 6.21, 5.98, and 2 times higher, respectively, in green kale than in red kale, whereas the levels of neoglucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin were 16.2 and 3.48 times higher, respectively, in red kale than in green kale. Our study provides insights into the underlying mechanisms of GSLs biosynthesis in kale hairy roots and can be potentially used as "biological factories" for producing bioactive substances such as GSLs.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/genética , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
14.
Inflammation ; 42(4): 1426-1440, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937838

RESUMO

In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-catabolic effects of formononetin, a phytoestrogen derived from herbal plants, against interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)-induced severe catabolic effects in primary rat chondrocytes and articular cartilage. Formononetin did not affect the viability of primary rat chondrocytes in both short- (24 h) and long-term (21 days) treatment periods. Furthermore, formononetin effectively antagonized the IL-1ß-induced catabolic effects including the decrease in proteoglycan content, suppression of pericellular matrix formation, and loss of proteoglycan through the decreased expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes like matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in primary rat chondrocytes. Moreover, catabolic oxidative stress mediators like nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2 were significantly downregulated by formononetin in primary rat chondrocytes treated with IL-1ß. Sequentially, the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (like IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), chemokines (like fractalkine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α), and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly downregulated by formononetin in primary rat chondrocytes treated with IL-1ß. These data suggest that formononetin may suppress IL-1ß-induced severe catabolic effects and osteoarthritic condition. Furthermore, formononetin may be a promising candidate for the treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , Antagonismo de Drogas , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoflavonas/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Ratos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15084, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985662

RESUMO

Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) is a technique developed in the 1990s for the management of head and neck pain patients. Recently, transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (TN-SPGB) has been widely used for these patients; however, no objective methods exist for validating the success of TN-SPGB. In this study, we measured the changes in facial temperature before and 30 minutes after TN-SPGB by using digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to validate its success.The medical records of patients, who underwent TN-SPGB and facial DITI between January 2016 and December 2017, were reviewed. TN-SPGB and facial DITI were performed 36 times in 32 patients. The changes in facial temperatures measured at the forehead (V1), maxillary area (V2), and mandibular area (V3) by using DITI before and 30 minutes after TN-SPGB were recorded and compared. The temperatures on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of these areas were also compared. The comparison between pain relief group and pain maintenance group was analyzed.After TN-SPGB, the temperature decreased significantly on both sides of V1 (P = .0208, 0.0181). No significant differences were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides (P > .05). There was no correlation between changes in temperature and changes in pain score in the pain regions after the procedure (P > .05).The temperature decreased significantly in V1 area at 30 minutes after TN-SPGB compared with the temperature before TN-SPGB. Based on these results, we propose using DITI to measure temperature changes as an objective method for verifying the success of TN-SPGB.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Bloqueio do Gânglio Esfenopalatino , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Termografia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(3)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917545

RESUMO

Traditionally, Agastache rugosa (Korean mint) has been widely used to treat various infectious diseases. The aims of this study were to: (i) determine the phenylpropanoid content of the plant using high-performance liquid chromatography; (ii) undertake total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and phenolic assays; (iii) and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts from the stem, leaves, and flowers of Korean mint. The total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and phenolic content assays showed that the flowers had higher phenolic levels than the stem and leaves. The reducing power, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl superoxide radical scavenging abilities, and the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities were also evaluated so that the antioxidant activities of the extracts from the different plant parts could be evaluated. The flower extracts revealed higher antioxidant properties than the other parts. The antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts from A. rugosa were analyzed by the disc diffusion method, and the flower extracts had higher antibacterial activities against the six bacterial strains used in the study than the other parts. This study provides information on the synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenolics derived from the different parts of Korean mint.

17.
Metabolites ; 9(3)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917595

RESUMO

Liriope platyphylla (Liliaceae), a medical plant distributed mainly in China, Taiwan, and Korea, has been used traditionally for the treatment of cough, sputum, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study involved the metabolic profiling of this plant and reports spicatoside A accumulation in four different varieties of L. platyphylla (Cheongyangjaerae, Seongsoo, Cheongsim, and Liriope Tuber No. 1) using HPLC and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC⁻TOFMS). A total of 47 metabolites were detected in the different cultivars using GC⁻TOFMS-based metabolic profiling. The resulting data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for determining the whole experimental variation, and the different cultivars were separated by score plots. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering, Pearson's correlation, and partial least-squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were subsequently performed to determine significant differences in the various metabolites of the cultivars. The HPLC data revealed that the presence of spicatoside A was detected in all four cultivars, with the amount of spicatoside A varying among them. Among the cultivars, Liriope Tuber No. 1 contained the highest amount of spicatoside A (1.83 ± 0.13 mg/g dry weight), followed by Cheongyangjaerae (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/g dry weight), Cheongsim (1.09 ± 0.04 mg/g dry weight), and Seongsoo (1.01 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). The identification of spicatoside A was confirmed by comparing the retention time of the sample with the retention time of the standard. Moreover, the Cheongsim cultivar contained higher levels of phenolic compounds-including vanillic acid, quinic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and benzoic acid-than those of the other two cultivars. On the other hand, the levels of amino acids were higher in the Seongsoo cultivar. Therefore, this study may help breeders produce new varieties with improved nutraceutical and nutritional qualities.

18.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 63(7): 853-858, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentax Airway Scope (AWS) is a recently developed videolaryngoscope for use in both normal and difficult airways, yet its use in paediatric patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Pentax AWS regarding intubation time, laryngeal view and ease of intubation in paediatric patients with normal airway, compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. METHOD: A total of 136 paediatric patients aged 1-10 with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: Macintosh laryngoscope (n = 68) and Pentax Airway Scope (n = 68). Primary outcome was intubation time. Cormack-Lehane laryngeal view grade, application of optimal laryngeal external manipulation, intubation difficulty scale, intubation failure rate and adverse events were also measured. RESULT: No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding intubation time (P = 0.713). As for the laryngeal view grade, the Pentax group resulted in lower graded cases compared to the Macintosh group (P = 0.000). No optimal laryngeal external manipulation application was required in the Pentax group. Intubation difficulty scale resulted in lower values for Pentax group (P = 0.001). Failure rate was not different between the two groups (P = 0.619). There were significantly more teeth injury cases in the Pentax group than Macintosh group (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Pentax Airway Scope provided similar intubation time and success rate, while improving laryngeal view, compared to Macintosh laryngoscopy in children with normal airway. When using Pentax AWS in children, however, the risk of teeth injury may increase.

19.
Foods ; 8(2)2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791403

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated optimal light conditions for enhancement of the growth and accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics in the sprouts of canola (Brassica napus L.). We found that the shoot lengths and fresh weights of red light-irradiated sprouts were higher than those of sprouts exposed to white, blue, and blue + red light, whereas root length was not notably different among red, blue, white, and blue + red light treatments. The accumulations of total glucosinolates in plants irradiated with white, blue, and red lights were not significantly different (19.32 ± 0.13, 20.69 ± 0.05, and 20.65 ± 1.70 mg/g dry weight (wt.), respectively). However, sprouts exposed to blue + red light contained the lowest levels of total glucosinolates (17.08 ± 0.28 mg/g dry wt.). The accumulation of total phenolic compounds was the highest in plants irradiated with blue light (3.81 ± 0.08 mg/g dry wt.), 1.33 times higher than the lowest level in plants irradiated with red light (2.87 ± 0.05 mg/g dry wt.). These results demonstrate that red light-emitting diode (LED) light is suitable for sprout growth and that blue LED light is effective in increasing the accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics in B. napus sprouts.

20.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(2): 512-515, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289334

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected in three of 136 samples from dead raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during 2016-17. By sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP2 gene, the strain belonged to CPV-2 and would be distinct from the previous reported CPV-2a and CPV-2b strains from Korean domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris). The results indicated that the CPV strains from raccoon dogs and domestic dogs might be not circulated between wild and domestic carnivores in Korea.

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