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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 86, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). However, evidence is still insufficient about the association between dialysis parameters and VC. Thus, this study was to evaluate association of dialysis parameters with VC. METHODS: We enrolled 297 ESRD patients undergoing MHD at six distinct centers in Korea. Study participants were categorized into 3 groups by the scoring system of abdominal aortic calcification based on lateral lumbar radiography (no VC group: 0, mild VC group: 1-7 and advanced VC group: 8-24). We compared the features of dialysis parameters according to the severity of VC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mild and advanced VC in each haemodialysis parameter (adjusted OR [95% CI]). RESULTS: Pooled Kt/V (spKt/V), equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V), standard Kt/V (stdKt/V) and the proportion of haemodiafiltration were increased along with the severity of VC. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that advanced VC was positively associated with spKt/V (5.27 [1.51-18.41]), eKt/V (6.16 [1.45-26.10]), stdKt/V (10.67 [1.74-65.52]) and haemodiafiltration (3.27 [1.74 to 6.16]). CONCLUSION: High dose dialysis and haemodiafiltration were significantly associated with advanced VC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160696

RESUMO

Although the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an important pathogen in crop cultivation, few methods are available to control this parasitic nematode. In this study, the nematicidal effects of approximately 30 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil samples of Mt. Naejang (Korea) were tested against Meloidogyne incognita, and the culture broth of the strains KRA-24 and KRA-28 exhibited an approximately 75% and 85% insecticidal activity in in vitro assays. In in vivo pot experiments, theses strains reduced the number of nematodes in the soil and the number of egg masses in the roots of red peppers. The two strains also survived in the presence of insecticidal agents (0.1 to 3.0%) such as fosthiazate, ethoprophos and terbufos when they used in parallel. The mixture of KRA-24 or KRA-28 culture broth and fosthiazate exhibited nematicidal effects that were similar to those observed when KRA-24 or KRA-28 used alone. Our results clearly suggest that the Streptomyces strains KRA-24 and KRA-28 should be promote as a biocontrol agent against Meloidogyne incognita.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 83: 106398, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197228

RESUMO

The functional inhibition of mast cells, which serve as a key effector cells in allergic reactions may be a specific target for treating immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic reactions, which occur in various allergic diseases including anaphylaxis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of dabrafenib, a therapeutic agent used to treat metastatic melanoma, with a focus on mast cell activation and local cutaneous anaphylaxis. In two types of mast cells (RBL-2H3 and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells), dabrafenib (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM) pretreatment significantly decreased IgE-induced degranulation, intracellular calcium influx, and the activity of intracellular signaling molecules, such as Lyn, Syk, Akt, and PLCγ. Dabrafenib ameliorated mRNA and protein expression levels of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α by the reduction of nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, oral administration of dabrafenib (0.1, 1, 10 mg/kg) reduced local pigmentation and ear thickness in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that dabrafenib is a therapeutic drug candidate that controls IgE-mediated allergic inflammatory diseases through suppression of mast cell activity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036641

RESUMO

Background: Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) offers considerable advantages in clearance of molecules of various sizes. However, evidence of clinical effects of OL-HDF is scarce in Korea. In this study, we investigated changes in laboratory values over more than 12 months after switching to OL-HDF. Methods: Adult patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were prospectively enrolled in a K-cohort (CRIS no. KCT0003281) from 6 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We recruited 435 patients, 339 of whom were on HD at enrollment. One hundred eighty-two patients were followed for more than 24 months. Among them, 44 were switched to OL-HDF for more than 12 months without conversion to HD. We used a paired t test to compare baseline and 24-month follow-up results. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 61.2 ± 12.2 years, and 62.6% were male. The baseline hemoglobin level was not significantly different between HD and OL-HDF group (10.61 ± 1.15 vs. 10.46 ± 1.03 g/dL, P = 0.437). However, the baseline serum protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the OL-HDF group (6.82 ± 0.49 vs. 6.59 ± 0.48 g/dL, P = 0.006; 3.93 ± 0.28 vs. 3.73 ± 0.29 g/dL, P < 0.001). In patients switched to OL-HDF, levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin significantly increased (10.46 ± 1.03 vs. 11.08 ± 0.82 g/dL, P = 0.001; 3.73 ± 0.29 vs. 3.87 ± 0.30 g/dL, P = 0.001). The normalized protein catabolic rate decreased after 24 months, but the change was not significant (1.07 ± 0.25 vs. 1.03 ± 0.21 g/kg/day, P = 0.433). Although the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was lower in patients who converted to HDF, it was not significantly different (-115.7 ± 189.7 vs. -170.5 ± 257.1 P = 0.206). Conclusion: OL-HDF treatment over more than 12 months was associated with no harmful effects on anemia and nutritional status.

5.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mast cells are immune effector cells mediating allergic inflammation by the secretion of inflammatory mediators such as histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Orientin is a naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid that possesses diverse biological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, and cardio protection. The objective of this study was to rule out the effectiveness of orientin in mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. METHODS: In this study, in vitro effects of orientin were evaluated in RBL-2H3, mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, rat peritoneal mast cells, and in vivo effects were evaluated by inducing passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. RESULTS: Findings show that orientin suppressed the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mast cell degranulation by reducing intracellular calcium level in a concentration-dependent manner. Orientin suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. This inhibitory effects of orientin was through inhibition of FcεRI-mediated signaling proteins. In addition, oral administration of orientin suppressed the IgE-mediated PCA reactions in a dose-dependent manner, which was evidenced by reduced Evan's blue pigmentation and ear swelling. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we suggest that orientin might have potential to alleviate allergic reaction and mast cell-mediated allergic disease.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030736

RESUMO

We explored prognostic roles of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in multiple myeloma (MM) treated with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) following induction chemotherapy. In part I of the study (n = 40), we identified a decreasing dynamics of circulating miR-193a-5p expression from diagnosis to pre-ASCT. In patients who experienced early relapse within one year post ASCT (n = 9) these patterns were distinctive compared to those without early relapse in a 1:2 matched cohort (n = 18). In part II (n = 90), multivariate analyses showed that the International Staging System score and miR-193a-5p expression before ASCT were independent prognostic factors. Conclusively, expression of circulating miR-193a-5p before ASCT could be a prognostic biomarker for transplant-eligible MM.

7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 561-576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002946

RESUMO

Recent data has linked anxiety and its disorders in late life to increased morbidity and mortality, especially related to a higher cardiovascular burden and an increased cognitive decline. Clinically, anxiety symptoms may be more difficult to elicit in older adults who are less accurate in identifying anxiety symptoms and tend to minimize symptoms and to attribute symptoms to physical illness. Although SSRIs have proven more effective than psychotherapy in late-life anxiety, many elderly anxious subjects prefer psychotherapeutic interventions. These interventions appear to work best when tailored for the needs, expectations, and cultural background of older anxious subjects.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Idoso , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
8.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 1997-2007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104497

RESUMO

Rationale: Magnetic relaxation switching (MRSw) induced by target-triggered aggregation or dissociation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been utilized for detection of diverse biomarkers. However, an MRSw-based biosensor for reactive oxygen species (ROS) has never been documented. Methods: To this end, we constructed a biosensor for ROS detection based on PEGylated bilirubin (PEG-BR)-coated SPIONs (PEG-BR@SPIONs) that were prepared by simple sonication via ligand exchange. In addition, near infra-red (NIR) fluorescent dye was loaded onto PEG-BR@SPIONs as a secondary option for fluorescence-based ROS detection. Results: PEG-BR@SPIONs showed high colloidal stability under physiological conditions, but upon exposure to the model ROS, NaOCl, in vitro, they aggregated, causing a decrease in signal intensity in T2-weighted MR images. Furthermore, ROS-responsive PEG-BR@SPIONs were taken up by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages to a much greater extent than ROS-unresponsive control nanoparticles (PEG-DSPE@SPIONs). In a sepsis-mimetic clinical setting, PEG-BR@SPIONs were able to directly detect the concentrations of ROS in whole blood samples through a clear change in T2 MR signals and a 'turn-on' signal of fluorescence. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PEG-BR@SPIONs have the potential as a new type of dual mode (MRSw-based and fluorescence-based) biosensors for ROS detection and could be used to diagnose many diseases associated with ROS overproduction.

9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063904

RESUMO

Background: As the number of allergic disease increases, studies to identify new treatments take on new urgency. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammation and anti-viral infection. In previous study, gallic acid (GA), a part of EGCG, has shown anti-allergic inflammatory effect. To improve on preliminary evidence that GA has allergy mitigating effect, we designed SG-SP1 based on GA, and aimed to assess the effects of SG-SP1 on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation using various animal and in vitro models. Methods: For in vitro experiments, various types of IgE-stimulated mast cells (RBL-2H3: mast cell-like basophilic leukemia cells, and primary cultured peritoneal and bone marrow-derived mast cells) were used to determine the role of SG-SP1 (0.1-1 nM). Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and ovalbumin-induced systemic anaphylaxis, standard animal models for immediate-type hypersensitivity were also used. Results: For in vitro, SG-SP1 reduced degranulation of mast cells by down-regulating intracellular calcium levels in a concentration-dependent manner. SG-SP1 decreased expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in activated mast cells. This suppressive effect was associated with inhibition of the phosphorylation of Lyn, Syk and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Due to the strong inhibitory effect of SG-SP1 on Lyn, the known upstream signaling to FcεRI-dependent pathway, we confirmed the direct binding of SG-SP1 to FcεRI, a high affinity IgE receptor by surface plasmon resonance experiment. Oral administration of SG-SP1 hindered allergic symptoms of both anaphylaxis models evidenced by reduction of hypothermia, serum IgE, ear thickness, and tissue pigmentation. This inhibition was mediated by the reductions in serum histamine and interleukin-4. Conclusions: We determined that SG-SP1 directly interacts with FcεRI and propose SG-SP1 as a therapeutic candidate for mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory disorders via inhibition of FcεRI signaling.

10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 1-14, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are crucially involved in controlling signal transductions, and reverse ubiquitination by removing the ubiquitin from protein substrates. The Hippo signaling has an important role in tissue growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Since disruption of the Hippo signaling is associated with a number of diseases, it is imperative to investigate the molecular mechanism of the Hippo signaling. METHODS: DUB screening was performed using the kidney of the mouse unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) model to identify the cellular mechanism of the DUB-regulated Hippo signaling. In addition, kidney cells were used to confirm cell proliferation and protein levels in the Hippo signaling pathway. Densitometric analysis was conducted to compare the expression level of proteins using Image J. RESULTS: We found that YOD1, also known as OTU1, is downregulated in the mouse UUO model. We also demonstrated that YOD1 binds to and deubiquitinates neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4). Furthermore, we observed that YOD1 suppresses NEDD4-induced cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: YOD1 regulates the Hippo signaling pathway through NEDD4, and the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain of NEDD4 plays an important role. Also, our results indicate that YOD1 plays an important role in kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênese , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Tioléster Hidrolases/química , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 122: 109743, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918284

RESUMO

Polyozellus multiplex is an edible mushroom that offers beneficial pharmacological effects against intestinal inflammation and cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that polyozellin, a major component of P. multiplex, has therapeutic activities against inflammation, cancer, and oxidative stress-related disorders. This study aimed to determine the pharmacological effects of polyozellin on inflammatory and pruritic responses, the major symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD), and to define its underlying mechanism of action. Our results showed that polyozellin inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and nuclear factor-κB in activated keratinocytes, the major cells involved in AD progression. Based on the histological and immunological analyses, oral treatment with polyozellin attenuated the Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic inflammatory symptoms in the skin. Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation for AD patients that causes scratching behavior and ultimately exacerbates the severity of AD. To find a possible explanation for the anti-pruritic effects of polyozellin, we investigated its effects on mast cells and mast cell-derived histamines. Oral treatment with polyozellin reduced the DFE/DNCB-induced tissue infiltration of mast cells, the serum histamine levels, and the histaminergic scratching behaviors. Additionally, polyozellin decreased the immunoglobulin E-stimulated degranulation of mast cells. Taken together, the findings of this study provide us with novel insights into the potential pharmacological targets of polyozellin for treating AD by inhibiting the inflammatory and pruritic responses.

12.
Cancer Sci ; 111(1): 137-147, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724799

RESUMO

As a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, ERBB3 plays an essential role in development and disease independent of inherently inactive kinase domain. Recently, ERBB3 has been found to bind to ATP and has catalytic activity in vitro. However, the biological function of ERBB3 kinase activity remains elusive in vivo. Here we have identified the physiological function of inactivated ERBB3 kinase activity by creating Erbb3-K740M knockin mice in which ATP cannot bind to ERBB3. Unlike Erbb3 knockout mice, kinase-inactive Erbb3K740M homozygous mice were born in Mendelian ratios and showed normal development. After dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, the kinase-inactive Erbb3 mutant mice showed normal recovery. However, the outgrowth of ileal organoids by neuregulin-1 treatment was more attenuated in Erbb3 mutant mice than in WT mice. Moreover, in combination with the ApcMin mouse, the proportion of polyps less than 1 mm in diameter in mutant mice was higher than in control mice and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed in polyps from mutant mice compared with polyps from control mice. Taken together, the ERBB3 kinase activity contributes to the outgrowth of ileal organoids and intestinal tumorigenesis, and the development of ERBB3 kinase inhibitors, including epidermal growth factor receptor family members, can be a potential way to target colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Pólipos/tratamento farmacológico , Pólipos/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112484, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843576

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A promising approach to treat a variety of diseases are considered as complementary and alternative herbal medicines. Prunus serrulata var. spontanea L. (Rosaceae) is used as herbal medicine to treat allergic diseases according to the Donguibogam, a tradition medical book of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea. AIM OF THE STUDY: We prepared the aqueous extract of the bark of P. serrulata (AEBPS) and aimed to investigate the effects in mouse anaphylaxis models and various types of mast cells, including RBL-2H3, primary cultured peritoneal and bone marrow-derived mast cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models, in vivo. The control drug dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) was used to compare the effectiveness of AEBPS (1-100 mg/kg). In vitro, IgE-stimulated mast cells were used to confirm the role of AEBPS (1-100 µg/mL). For statistical analyses, p values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS: In ASA model, oral administration of AEBPS suppressed the hypothermia and increased level of serum histamine in a dose-dependent manner. AEBPS attenuated the serum IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and interleukin (IL)-4. Oral administration of AEBPS also blocked mast cell-dependent PCA. AEBPS suppressed degranulation of mast cells by reducing intracellular calcium level in mast cells. AEBPS inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-4 expression and secretion in a concentration-dependent manner through the reduction of nuclear factor-κB. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, AEBPS could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the management of mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and as a regulator of mast cell activation.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 142-150, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874244

RESUMO

A therapeutic strategy capable of skewing toward a Th1-type immune response is crucial for cancer treatment. Recently, we reported Mycobacterium paragordonae (Mpg) as a potential live vaccine for mycobacterium infections. In this study, we explored the immunotherapeutic potential of heat-killed Mpg (HK-Mpg) in a mouse tumor xenograft model and elucidated its underlying antitumor mechanisms. MC38 cells derived from murine colon adenocarcinoma were implanted by subcutaneously injecting mice. The anticancer effects of HK-Mpg therapy were compared with HK-M. bovis BCG, an effective adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. HK-Mpg treatment enhanced tumor reduction and mouse survival. Furthermore, HK-Mpg treatment synergistically enhanced the anticancer therapeutic effect of cisplatin. In addition, HK-Mpg enhanced inflammatory cytokine production and recruitment of immune cell into tumor-infiltrating sites and splenocytes in vaccinated mice. Our mechanistic study demonstrates that HK-Mpg therapy elicits a strong antitumor immune response in mice, mainly through natural killer cell-mediated oncolytic activity via the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and by enhancing inflammatory cytokines production such as IL-12 from DC. Hence, HK-Mpg can be a potential immunotherapy adjuvant, enhancing the effect of cancer chemotherapy.

15.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 35(1): 29-35, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714321

RESUMO

The purpose of the present double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effects of Passionflower on polysomnographic sleep parameters in subjects with insomnia disorder. A total number 110 adult participants (mean age = 40.47 ± 11.68, Female = 53.6%) met the inclusion criteria of insomnia disorder according to the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). After randomization, patients received either the Passionflower extract or the placebo for 2 weeks. Patients underwent an overnight polysomnography and completed sleep diaries, Insomnia Severity Index, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Within group comparisons were analyzed with paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed rank tests, and between-group comparisons were analyzed with independent t-tests or Mann-Whitney U Tests, as appropriate. Total sleep time (TST) was significantly increased in the Passionflower group compared with placebo (Passionflower vs placebo, 23.05 ± 54.26 vs -0.16 ± 53.12; P = 0.049). Sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset (WASO) significantly improved after 2 weeks in the Passionflower group but there was no difference compared with the placebo group. The current study demonstrated the positive effects of Passionflower on objective sleep parameters including TST on polysomnography in adults with insomnia disorder. Further study is needed to investigate the clinical efficacy of Passionflower on insomnia.

16.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(8): 1795-1814, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795744

RESUMO

Asthma is a common allergic airway inflammatory disease, characterized by abnormal breathing due to bronchial inflammation. Asthma aggravates the patient's quality of life and needs continuous pharmacological treatment. Therefore, discovery of drugs for the treatment of asthma is an important area of human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether Cynanchum atratum extract (CAE) modulates the asthma-like allergic airway inflammation and to study its possible mechanism of action using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, as well as a mast cell-based in vitro model. The histological analysis showed that CAE reduced the airway constriction and immune cell infiltration. CAE also inhibited release of ß-hexosaminidase and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues. In addition, CAE reduced the OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, total IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels in the serum. In the LPS-induced ALI model, CAE suppressed the LPS-induced lung barrier dysfunction and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Because allergic airway inflammatory responses are associated with the activation of mast cells, RBL-2H3 cells were used to evaluate the underlying mechanism of CAE effects. In RBL-2H3 cells, CAE down-regulated release of ß-hexosaminidase and histamine by reducing the intracellular calcium influx. In addition, CAE suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAE may help in the prevention or treatment of airway inflammatory diseases.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5805, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862882

RESUMO

The development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) negatively impacts both quality of life and survival in a high percentage of patients. Here, we show that RING finger protein 208 (RNF208) decreases the stability of soluble Vimentin protein through a polyubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway, thereby suppressing metastasis of TNBC cells. RNF208 was significantly lower in TNBC than the luminal type, and low expression of RNF208 was strongly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, RNF208 was induced by 17ß-estradiol (E2) treatment in an estrogen receptor alpha (ΕRα)-dependent manner. Overexpression of RNF208 suppresses tumor formation and lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Mechanistically, RNF208 specifically polyubiquitinated the Lys97 residue within the head domain of Vimentin through interaction with the Ser39 residue of phosphorylated Vimentin, which exists as a soluble form, eventually facilitating proteasomal degradation of Vimentin. Collectively, our findings define RNF208 as a negative regulator of soluble Vimentin and a prognostic biomarker for TNBC cells.

18.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694243

RESUMO

Oleanolic acid acetate (OAA), a major triterpenoid compound of Vigna angularis (azuki bean, V. angularis), has been shown to downregulate inflammatory responses in macrophages. Here, we show the molecular basis for the effect of OAA on Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream signaling. OAA treatment significantly inhibited the secretion of embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) induced by polyinosinic acid (poly(I), TLR3 ligand) in a dose-dependent manner and without cytotoxicity in THP1-XBlue cells. In addition, OAA downregulated the gene expression of poly(I) induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines genes such as MCP-1, IL-1ß, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition activity of OAA was accompanied by decreased activation of not only nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling but also mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling upon stimulation with the TLR3 agonist. Interestingly, the interaction of OAA with IκB kinase α/ß (IKKα/ß) strongly attenuated the production of certain proteins and inflammatory cytokines in the TLR3 signaling pathway, such as nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IkBα), extracellular regulated kinases (ERK), and p38, in an in vitro model. The action of OAA was regulated by TLR3, demonstrating that TLR3 plays a critical role in mediating the physiologically-relevant anti-inflammatory action of OAA and that the interaction with IKKα/ß is modulated through TLR3. These results reveal new insight into the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the downstream TLR3 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are involved in the development and progression of inflammatory diseases.

19.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 33(6): 977-987, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668215

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiation therapy (RT) involves the delivery of high dose-per-fraction treatments to small intracranial (stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS]) and extracranial (stereotactic body radiotherapy [SBRT]) sites. SRS and SBRT share several overarching principles that differentiate stereotactic RT from conventionally fractionated radiation techniques. This review describes historical aspects of SRS/SBRT and definitions thereof, and a comparison with more modern semantics. Key principles of the stereotactic radiotherapeutic modalities are discussed, followed by an overview of the technical considerations involved. Lastly, the accepted appropriate clinical indications for stereotactic RT are outlined, and the potential role of stereotactic treatment in future oncologic management are also discussed.

20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 411, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of technology, novel communication, and social networking can positively or negatively affect the therapeutic alliance between patients and psychiatrists. We conducted this study to identify Internet use patterns of psychiatrists and psychiatry residents in South Korea and to provide basic data for developing e-professionalism. METHODS: In this questionnaire survey included a total of 250 participants, of which 195 (78%) completed the questionnaire. Questions included demographics, use of email, web searches, personal and professional use of websites and social networking, and negative and positive experiences of electronic communication and social networking. We confirmed the correlation between experience and use patterns of psychiatrists' electronic communication and social networking. RESULTS: A total of 129 participants (66.2%) reported that they posted their personal or professional content online, 112 (57.9%) had received patients' requests through electronic communication or social networking, and 120 (61.4%) had communicated with patients via electronic communication or social networking. In total, 170 participants (87.2%) reported that they were worried about the negative consequences of using electronic communication and social networking, and 180 (92.3%) indicated they were not educated about electronic communication or social networking. CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the negative effects of electronic communication and social networking, we need guidelines that are appropriate for the situation in South Korea. Furthermore, future research will need to identify and suggest solutions for negative experiences of electronic communication and social networking that may affect the relationship between patients and physicians.

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