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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1802386, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023164

RESUMO

Hematologic malignancies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with unique illness trajectories, treatment paradigms, and potential for curability, which affect patients' palliative and end-of-life care needs. Patients with hematologic malignancies endure immense physical and psychological symptoms because of both their illness and often intensive treatments that result in significant toxicities and adverse effects. Compared with patients with solid tumors, those with hematologic malignancies also experience high rates of hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and in-hospital deaths and low rates of referral to hospice as well as shorter hospice length of stay. In addition, patients with hematologic malignancies harbor substantial misperceptions about treatment risks and benefits and frequently overestimate their prognosis. Even survivors of hematologic malignancies struggle with late effects, post-treatment complications, and post-traumatic stress symptoms that can significantly diminish their quality of life. Despite these substantial unmet needs, specialty palliative care services are infrequently consulted for the care of patients with hematologic malignancies. Several illness-specific, cultural, and system-based barriers to palliative care integration and optimal end-of-life care exist in this population. However, recent evidence has demonstrated the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of integrating palliative care to improve the quality of life and care of patients with hematologic malignancies and their caregivers. More research is needed to develop and test population-specific palliative and supportive care interventions to ensure generalizability and to define a sustainable clinical delivery model. Future work also should focus on identifying moderators and mediators of the effect of integrated palliative care models on patient-reported outcomes and on developing less resource-intensive integrated care models to address the diverse needs of this population.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 264-271, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004448

RESUMO

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplastic bone marrow and progressive pancytopenia. The etiology of acquired SAA is not understood but is likely related to abnormal immune responses and environmental exposures. We conducted a genome-wide association study of individuals with SAA genetically matched to healthy controls in discovery (359 cases, 1,396 controls) and validation sets (175 cases, 1,059 controls). Combined analyses identified linked SNPs in distinct blocks within the major histocompatibility complex on 6p21. The top SNP encodes p.Met76Val in the P4 binding pocket of the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 (rs1042151A>G, odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.03, p = 1.94 × 10-13) and was associated with HLA-DP cell surface expression in healthy individuals (p = 2.04 × 10-6). Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Val76 is not monophyletic and likely occurs in conjunction with different HLA-DP binding groove conformations. Imputation of HLA-DPB1 alleles revealed increased risk of SAA associated with Val76-encoding alleles DPB1∗03:01, (OR 1.66, p = 1.52 × 10-7), DPB1∗10:01 (OR 2.12, p = 0.0003), and DPB1∗01:01 (OR 1.60, p = 0.0008). A second SNP near HLA-B, rs28367832G>A, reached genome-wide significance (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.78, p = 7.27 × 10-9) in combined analyses; the association remained significant after excluding cases with clonal copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity affecting class I HLA genes (8.6% of cases and 0% of controls). SNPs in the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 and possibly class I (HLA-B) are associated with SAA. The replacement of Met76 to Val76 in certain HLA-DPB1 alleles might influence risk of SAA through mechanisms involving DP peptide binding specificity, expression, and/or other factors affecting DP function.

3.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(2): e100-e111, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials testing prevention strategies for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) have measured its cumulative incidence. In this trial of anti-thymocyte globulin, we measured treatment-independence at a long-term timepoint as the primary endpoint. METHODS: This was a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial done at ten centres in Canada and one in Australia. Eligible patients had a haematological malignancy (leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or lymphoma), were between 16 and 70 years of age, eligible for transplantation with a Karnofsky score of at least 60, and received an unrelated donor (fully matched or one-locus mismatched at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, or DRB1 loci) graft following myeloablative or non-myeloablative-reduced intensity conditioning. Patients were randomly assigned to receive anti-thymocyte globulin 4·5 mg/kg plus standard GVHD prophylaxis (cyclosporine or tacrolimus plus methotrexate or mycophenolate) or standard GVHD prophylaxis alone. The primary endpoint, freedom from immunosuppressive therapy without resumption at 12 months, was previously reported. Here we report on the prespecified 24-month analysis. Analyses were per-protocol, excluding those patients who did not proceed to transplantation. This trial is registered as ISRCTN 29899028 and NCT01217723, status completed. FINDINGS: Between June 9, 2010, and July 8, 2013, we recruited and randomly assigned 203 eligible patients to receive anti-thymocyte globulin (n=101) or no additional treatment (n=102) along with standard GVHD prophylaxis. 7 (3%) patients did not receive a transplant and were excluded from the analysis. 38 (38%) of 99 evaluable patients in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group were free from immunosuppressive therapy at 24 months compared with 18 (19%) of 97 patients in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·49 [95% CI 1·60­7·60]; p=0·0016). At 24 months, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 16·3% (95% CI 8·9­23·7) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group compared with 17·5 (9·9­25·1) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·73) and non-relapse mortality was 21·2% (95% CI 13·2­29·2) versus 31·3% (21·9­40·7; p=0·15). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 24 months was 26·3% (95% CI 17·5­35·1) in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and 41·3% (31·3­51·3) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·032). Overall survival at 24 months was 70·6% (95% CI 60·6­78·6) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group compared with 53·3% (42·8­62·8) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·56, 95% CI [0·35­0·90]; p=0·017). Symptoms of chronic GVHD by the Lee Scale were more prevalent in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, with scores of 13·27 (SD 10·94) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group and 20·38 (SD 14·68) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·040). Depressive symptoms were more prominent in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, the mean Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scores were 10·40 (SD 9·88) in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and 14·62 (SD 12·26) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·034). Serious adverse events (CTCAE grade 4 or 5) occurred in 38 (38%) patients in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and in 49 (51%) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, the most common being infection and GVHD. One patient in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group died of Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis, but no deaths were attributable to anti-thymocyte globulin. INTERPRETATION: The results of this prespecified 24-month analysis suggest that pretreatment with anti-thymocyte globulin provides clinically meaningful benefits when added to standard GVHD prophylaxis in patients undergoing unrelated donor transplantation, including decreases in use of immunosuppressive therapy, chronic GVHD and its symptoms, depressive symptoms, and improved overall survival. Anti-thymocyte globulin should be included in the preparative regimens of patients with haematological malignancies selected for unrelated donor transplantation. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Sanofi.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958813

RESUMO

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is indicated for refractory hematologic cancer and some nonmalignant disorders. Survival is limited by recurrent cancer and organ toxicity. Objective: To determine whether survival has improved over the past decade and note impediments to better outcomes. Design: The authors compared cohorts that had transplants during 2003 to 2007 versus 2013 to 2017. Survival outcome measures were analyzed, along with transplant-related complications. Setting: A center performing allogeneic transplant procedures. Participants: All recipients of a first allogeneic transplant during 2003 to 2007 and 2013 to 2017. Intervention: Patients received a conditioning regimen, infusion of donor hematopoietic cells, then immunosuppressive drugs and antimicrobial approaches to infection control. Measurements: Day-200 nonrelapse mortality (NRM), recurrence or progression of cancer, relapse-related mortality, and overall mortality, adjusted for comorbidity scores, source of donor cells, donor type, patient age, disease severity, conditioning regimen, patient and donor sex, and cytomegalovirus serostatus. Results: During the 2003-to-2007 and 2013-to-2017 periods, 1148 and 1131 patients, respectively, received their first transplant. Over the decade, decreases were seen in the adjusted hazards of day-200 NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89]), relapse of cancer (HR, 0.76 [CI, 0.61 to 0.94]), relapse-related mortality (HR, 0.69 [CI, 0.54 to 0.87]), and overall mortality (HR, 0.66 [CI, 0.56 to 0.78]). The degree of reduction in overall mortality was similar for patients who received myeloablative versus reduced-intensity conditioning, as well as for patients whose allograft came from a matched sibling versus an unrelated donor. Reductions were also seen in the frequency of jaundice, renal insufficiency, mechanical ventilation, high-level cytomegalovirus viremia, gram-negative bacteremia, invasive mold infection, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prednisone exposure. Limitation: Cohort studies cannot determine causality, and current disease severity criteria were not available for patients in the 2003-to-2007 cohort. Conclusion: Improvement in survival and reduction in complications were substantial after allogeneic transplant. Relapse of cancer remains the largest obstacle to better survival outcomes. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 40-46, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899796

RESUMO

Implementation of the 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) response algorithm for joint/fascia graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has identified real-world limits to its application. To refine the 2014 NIH response algorithm, we analyzed multicenter prospective observational data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The training cohort included 209 patients and the replication cohort included 191 patients with joint/fascia involvement during their course of chronic GVHD. Linear mixed models with random patient effect were used to evaluate correlations between response categories and clinician- or patient-perceived changes in joint status as an anchor of response. Analysis of the training cohort showed that a 2-point change in total photographic range of motion (P-ROM) score was clinically meaningful. The results also suggested that a change from 0 to 1 on the NIH joint/fascia score should not be considered as worsening and suggested that both the NIH joint/fascia score and total P-ROM score, but not individual P-ROM scores, should be used for response assessment. On the basis of these results, we developed an evidence-based refined algorithm, the utility of which was examined in an independent replication cohort. Using the refined algorithm, ∼40% of responses were reclassified, largely mitigating most divergent responses among individual joints and changes from 0 to 1 on the NIH joint/fascia score. The refined algorithm showed robust point estimates and tighter 95% confidence intervals associated with clinician- or patient-perceived changes, compared with the 2014 NIH algorithm. The refined algorithm provides a superior, evidence-based method for measuring therapeutic response in joint/fascia chronic GVHD.

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer has long-term financial consequences. Adolescent and young adult (AYA) and middle-aged cancer survivors may experience more financial toxicity than older adults. This study examined age differences in financial distress in hematopoietic cell transplant survivors and whether these differences result from measurement bias, more financial barriers to care, or an overall higher level of distress. METHODS: Hematologic malignancy survivors (n = 1135, 2-10 years post-transplant) completed the Cancer and Treatment Distress Scale (CTXD) and demographics as part of the baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial. The CTXD has seven subscales, but for this study, we examined the financial distress subscale and the overall score. Item response theory analyses tested for bias by age and gender. Multivariate linear regression tested the association of age and gender with the CTXD scores while controlling for financial barriers to care. RESULTS: No bias was found on the CTXD. AYA (p < 0.01) and middle-aged adults (p < 0.001) reported more financial and overall distress than older (age 65+) adults. The same association of age and financial distress was observed in women (p < 0.01). However, only middle-aged men (p < 0.01) reported more financial and overall distress than older men; AYA men did not (p > 0.18). Financial barriers to care were not associated with financial or overall distress. CONCLUSIONS: Part of the increase in financial distress with younger age may be due to a higher risk of general distress. Policy initiatives to control cancer costs should consider life stage and the unique financial challenges at different ages for men and women.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982544

RESUMO

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is most frequently immune-mediated; however, rare inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia (FA), may be causal and can present as aplastic anemia (AA). FA is primarily an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the presence of 2 pathogenic variants in a single FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway gene. Patients with SAA often undergo genetic testing during clinical evaluation that may identify single deleterious alleles in FA pathway genes. We quantified the rate of germline single deleterious alleles in 22 FA genes using both a general population database (3234 variants, 125,748 exomes) and in a cohort of patients with SAA undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) (21 variants in 730 patients). The variants were classified as deleterious using in silico tools (REVEL, MetaSVM, VEP) and database resources (ClinVar, LOVD-FA). We found similar rates of single deleterious alleles in FA genes in both groups (2.6% and 2.9%). The presence of a single deleterious variant in a gene for FA in SAA HCT recipients did not affect the overall survival after HCT (hazard ratio, .85; 95% CI, .37 to 1.95; P  = .71), or post-HCT cancer risk (P = .52). Our results demonstrate that the identification of a germline monoallelic deleterious variant in an FA gene in patients with idiopathic SAA does not influence the outcome of HCT. Our findings suggest that there is no need for special treatment considerations for patients with SAA and a single deleterious FA allele identified on genetic testing.

8.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909637

RESUMO

There is currently no validated quality of life (QOL) instrument specific to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A previous cross-sectional interview-based study elicited concepts for inclusion in a novel QOL instrument. Here, we further develop and validate this new instrument, the AML-QOL. Iterative revisions of the draft AML-QOL were refined based on feedback from 16 patients, 8 medical providers, and 3 psychometricians. The instrument underwent factor analysis based on responses from 202 patients with AML and analogous aggressive myeloid neoplasms receiving AML-like therapy. A prospective validation study was then undertaken in 50 patients who completed the AML-QOL at multiple time points while undergoing a cycle of intensive chemotherapy to establish test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. The final AML-QOL contains 27 items and is categorized into 5 domains (Physical, Social, Cognitive, Anxiety, Depression), one Symptom Index, a single item assessing overall quality of life, and a Summary Score. The AML-QOL domains show high internal consistency (median alpha: 0.85), good test-retest reliability (median interclass correlation: 0.82), and had convergent and divergent validity when compared to a non-disease-specific instrument (the EORTC QLQ-C30). The Summary Score demonstrated good sensitivity to change when anchored to patient perception of QOL change. The AML-QOL is a reliable and valid measure of QOL in patients with AML and analogous aggressive myeloid neoplasms. A clinically meaningful difference is 8-10 points out of 100 on the Summary Score.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): 34-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605820

RESUMO

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cell immunotherapy is a novel treatment with promising results in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoid malignancies. CAR T cell therapy has known early toxicities of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity, but little is known about long-term neuropsychiatric adverse effects. We have used patient-reported outcomes, including Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures, to assess neuropsychiatric and other patient-reported outcomes of 40 patients with relapse/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 to 5 years after treatment with CD19-targeted CAR T cells. Mean T scores of PROMIS domains of global mental health, global physical health, social function, anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain, and sleep disturbance were not clinically meaningfully different from the mean in the general US population. However, 19 patients (47.5%) reported at least 1 cognitive difficulty and/or clinically meaningful depression and/or anxiety, and 7 patients (17.5%) scored ≤40 in global mental health, indicating at least 1 standard deviation worse than the general population mean. Younger age was associated with worse long-term global mental health (P = .02), anxiety (P = .001), and depression (P= .01). Anxiety before CAR T cell therapy was associated with increased likelihood of anxiety after CAR T cell therapy (P = .001). Fifteen patients (37.5%) reported cognitive difficulties after CAR T cell therapy. Depression before CAR T cell therapy was statistically significantly associated with higher likelihood of self-reported post-CAR T cognitive difficulties (P = .02), and there was a trend for an association between acute neurotoxicity and self-reported post-CAR T cognitive difficulties (P = .08). Having more post-CAR T cognitive difficulties was associated with worse global mental health and global physical health. Our study demonstrates overall good neuropsychiatric outcomes in 40 long-term survivors after CAR T cell therapy. However, nearly 50% of patients in the cohort reported at least 1 clinically meaningful negative neuropsychiatric outcome (anxiety, depression, or cognitive difficulty), indicating that a significant number of patients would likely benefit from mental health services following CAR T cell therapy. Younger age, pre-CAR T anxiety or depression, and acute neurotoxicity may be risk factors for long-term neuropsychiatric problems in this patient population. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(2): 407-412, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605822

RESUMO

Although autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is standard therapy for patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM), few studies have addressed late effects and quality of life (QoL) in long-term survivors after AHCT. Using long-term follow-up (LTFU) annual questionnaires with self-reported outcomes, we surveyed 665 patients who were at ≥5 years after AHCT for the diagnosis of lymphoma or MM. Three-hundred and eighty-nine patients completed the questionnaire (58% response rate) at a median of 11 years (range, 5-30 years) after AHCT. The median patient age was 63 years (range, 22-88 years) in the 268 patients with lymphoma and 69 years (range, 34-84 years) in the 121 patients with multiple myeloma. The most commonly reported medical conditions (>10% incidence) were sexual dysfunction, history of shingles, cataracts, osteoporosis or osteopenia, joint replacement, and skin cancer. Current medication use was more frequent in the patients with MM for infection prevention/treatment (19% for MM versus 5% lymphoma; P < .001), hypertension (41% versus 26%; P = .004), osteoporosis (23% versus 10%; P < .001), and pain (32% versus 11%, P < .001). Treated hypothyroidism was more common in lymphoma patients. In multivariate analysis combining lymphoma and MM, worse physical functioning was associated with older age, shorter interval since AHCT, comorbidities, relapse, and treatment for depression and/or pain. Worse mental functioning was associated with younger age and treatment for anxiety, depression, or pain. In conclusion, AHCT survivors report generally good QoL but many late effects and symptoms that are potentially amenable to intervention.

11.
Br J Haematol ; 188(2): 309-316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426123

RESUMO

Telomeres are essential for chromosomal stability and markers of biological age. We evaluated the effect of pre-transplant short (<10th percentile-for-age) or very short (<5th or <1st percentile-for-age) leucocyte telomere length on survival after unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acquired severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). Patient pre-transplant blood samples and clinical data were available at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. We used quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to measure relative telomere length (RTL) in 490 SAA patients who received HCT between 1990 and 2013 (median age = 20 years). One hundred and twelve patients (22·86%) had pre-HCT RTL <10th percentile-for-age, with the majority below the 5th percentile (N = 80, 71·43%). RTL <10th percentile-for-age was associated with a higher risk of post-HCT mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·78, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1·18-2·69, P = 0·006) compared with RTL ≥50th percentile; no survival differences were noted in longer RTL categories (P > 0·10). Time-dependent effects for post-HCT mortality were only observed in relation to very short RTL; HR comparing RTL <5th versus ≥5th percentile = 1·38, P = 0·15 for the first 12 months after HCT, and HR = 3·91, P < 0·0001, thereafter, P-heterogeneity = 0·008; the corresponding HRs for RTL <1st versus ≥1st percentile = 1·29, P = 0·41, and HR = 5·18, P < 0·0001, P-heterogeneity = 0·005. The study suggests a potential role for telomere length in risk stratification of SAA patients in regard to their HCT survival.

12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(2): 278-284, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499215

RESUMO

Previously reported experimental and clinical data suggest that proteasome inhibition may have immunomodulatory activity relevant to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To explore the safety and activity of carfilzomib in advanced chronic GVHD, we conducted a multicenter pilot phase II trial through the Chronic GVHD Consortium. Carfilzomib was administered at 20 mg/m2 on day 1, then 36 mg/m2 on days 8 and 15 of a 28-day treatment cycle (cycle 1), and then 36 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day treatment cycle (cycles 2 to 6). The primary endpoint was 6-month treatment failure, a composite endpoint including death, relapse, and requirement for an additional line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled at 4 institutions. The median time from chronic GVHD onset to enrollment was 1.5 years (interquartile range, 0.5 to 3.7 years). Chronic GVHD was National Institutes of Health category moderate (30%) or severe (70%), predominantly classic (90% versus overlap 10%), and involved multiple diverse organ sites. The number of previous lines of systemic therapy for chronic GVHD was ≤2 in 6 patients (30%) and ≥3 in the other 14 (70%). Doses were held primarily for infection (50% of total held doses); only 3 patients (15%) completed all planned doses of the 6 cycles of carfilzomib. Serious adverse effects occurred in 40% of the patients, and 7 patients died, between .3 and 9 months after the last carfilzomib dose, but no deaths were attributed to carfilzomib. The 6-month treatment failure rate was not significantly improved versus the historical benchmark rate (40% versus 44%; P = .36). Overall survival was 80% at 6 months and 65% at 12 months. Failure-free survival at 12 months was 32%. These pilot phase II data suggest that carfilzomib therapy in this advanced chronic GVHD population did not improve over the expected 6-month treatment failure rates achieved under conventional practices and is not recommended for further study for this indication.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821885

RESUMO

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is often diagnosed at a late stage when lung dysfunction is severe and irreversible. Identifying patients early after transplantation may offer improved strategies for early detection that could avert the morbidity and mortality of BOS. This study aimed to determine whether a decline in lung function before and early after (days +80 to +100) allo-HCT are associated with a risk of BOS for at least 6 months after transplantation. In a single-center cohort of 2941 allo-HCT recipients, 186 (6%) met National Institutes of Health criteria for BOS. Pretransplantation and post-transplantation day +80 spirometric parameters were analyzed as continuous variables and included in a multivariable model with other factors, including donor source, graft source, conditioning regimen, use of total body irradiation, and immunoglobulin levels. Pre-transplantation forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of maximum (FEF25-75), day +80 forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and day +80 FEF25-75 had the strongest associations with increased risk of BOS. Assessment of the multivariable model showed that a decline in day +80 FEF25-75 added additional risk to the day +80 FEV1 model (P = .03), whereas FEV1 decline at day +80 added no additional risk to the day +80 FEF25-75 model (P = .645). Moreover, day +80 FEF25-75 conferred additional risk when considered with pretransplantation FEF25-75. These results suggest that day +80 FEF25-75 may be more important than FEV1 in predicting the development of BOS. This study highlights the importance of obtaining early post-transplantation pulmonary function tests for the potential risk stratification of patients at risk for BOS.

14.
Cancer ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring that patients with hematologic malignancies have an accurate understanding of their likelihood of cure is important for informed decision making. In a multicenter, longitudinal study, the authors examined discordance in patients' perception of their chance of cure versus that of their hematologists, whether patient-hematologist discordance changed after a consultation with a hematologist, and factors associated with persistent discordance. METHODS: Before and after consultation with a hematologist, patients were asked about their perceived chance of cure (options were <10%, 10%-19%, and up to 90%-100% in 10% increments, and "do not wish to answer"). Hematologists were asked the same question after consultation. Discordance was defined as a difference in response by 2 levels. The McNemar test was used to compare changes in patient-hematologist prognostic discordance from before to after consultation. A generalized linear mixed model was used to examine associations between factors and postconsultation discordance, adjusting for clustering at the hematologist level. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients and 46 hematologists from 4 sites were included in the current study. Before consultation, approximately 61% of dyads were discordant, which improved to 50% after consultation (P < .01). On multivariate analysis, lower educational level (

15.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(4): pkz073, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763620

RESUMO

Background: Clinical outcomes among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are negatively affected by low socioeconomic status (SES), yet the biological mechanisms accounting for this health disparity remain to be elucidated. Among unrelated donor HCT recipients with acute myelogenous leukemia, one recent pilot study linked low SES to increased expression of a stress-related gene expression profile known as the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which involves up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulation of genes involved in type I interferon response and antibody synthesis. Methods: This study examined these relationships using additional measures in a larger archival sample of 261 adults who received an unrelated donor HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia to 1) identify cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in SES-related differences in pre-transplant leukocyte transcriptome profiles, and 2) evaluate pre-transplant CTRA biology associations with clinical outcomes through multivariable analysis controlling for demographic-, disease-, and transplant-related covariates. Results: Low SES individuals showed increases in classic monocyte activation and pro-inflammatory transcription control pathways as well as decreases in activation of nonclassic monocytes, all consistent with the CTRA biological pattern. Transplant recipients in the highest or lowest quartiles of the CTRA pro-inflammatory gene component had a more than 2-fold elevated hazard of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44 to 4.24), P = .001; HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.46 to 4.34, P = .001) and more than 20% reduction in leukemia-free survival (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.28, P = .012; HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.15, P = .03) compared with the middle quartiles. Conclusions: These findings identify SES- and CTRA-associated myeloid- and inflammation-related transcriptome signatures in recipient pre-transplant blood samples as a potential novel predictive biomarker of HCT-related clinical outcomes.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759158

RESUMO

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) adversely affects patient quality of life, functional status, and survival after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The Lee Symptom Scale is a 30-item scale developed to measure the symptoms of cGVHD. Although the original 30-item scale uses a 1-month recall period, we tested the reliability and validity of a 28-item scale (deleting 2 items based on supportive care needs rather than symptoms) with a 7-day recall period, a format that is more appropriate for use in clinical trials. Results show the modified 7-day scale is reliable and valid in the modern era and may be used to assess the symptom burden of cGVHD in clinical trials. Using the distribution method, a 5- to 6-point difference (half a standard deviation) is considered clinically meaningful.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740767

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a highly specialized procedure. We surveyed adult transplant centers in the United States (US) and then used data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) (2008-2010) to evaluate associations of center volume, infrastructure, and care delivery models with survival post alloHCT. Based on their 2010 alloHCT volume, centers were categorized as low-volume (≤40 alloHCTs; N = 42 centers, 1900 recipients) or high-volume (>40 alloHCTs; N = 41 centers, 9637 recipients). 100-day survival was 86% (95% CI, 85-87%) in high-volume compared with 83% (95% CI, 81-85%) in low-volume centers (difference 3%; P < 0.001). One-year survival was 62% (95% CI, 61-63%) and 56% (95% CI, 54-58%), respectively (difference 6%; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for patient and center characteristics; alloHCT at high-volume centers (odds ratio [OR] 1.32; P < 0.001) and presence of a survivorship program dedicated to HCT recipients (OR 1.23; P = 0.009) were associated with favorable 1-year survival compared to low-volume centers. Similar findings were observed in a CIBMTR validation cohort (2012-2014); high-volume centers had better 1-year survival (OR 1.24, P < 0.001). Among US adult transplant centers, alloHCT at high-volume centers and at centers with survivorship programs is associated with higher 1-year survival.

18.
Blood ; 134(Supplement_1): 40, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724020

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Schmidt: Kypha Inc: Employment, Equity Ownership. Lee:Incyte: Research Funding; Syndax: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Kadmon: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Research Funding.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669175

RESUMO

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a heterogenous syndrome whose symptoms and treatment are often associated with decreases in functional status and quality of life among survivors of transplantation. We explored definitions of cGVHD-related disability and factors associated with disability in cGVHD. We analyzed 371 patients with cGVHD requiring a new systemic therapy with enrollment and 18-month assessments through the Chronic GVHD Consortium, evaluating disability as a composite endpoint including any 1 of 5 impairments previously defined by Fatobene et al [1] (score 2 or 3 keratoconjunctivitis sicca, score 2 or 3 scleroderma, any diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans, score 2 or 3 joint/fasciae involvement, or score 3 esophageal stricture requiring dilation). We also evaluated disability, defined as an ≥8-point decline in a human activity profile (HAP) score or a ≥20% decline in Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) from enrollment to 18 months. At enrollment, 47% of patients had at least 1 of the 5 Flowers disability features, with 50% of this group acquiring additional impairments at 18 months. Of the 197 patients (53%) with no Flowers disability at enrollment, 50% progressed with disability features at 18 months. We found that any progressive Flowers impairment was associated with a decline in HAP/KPS as well as with increased National Institutes of Health severity scores at 18 months. Enrollment mouth scores and patient-reported eye and skin scores were significantly associated with progressive impairment at 18 months. Progressive disability at 18 months did not predict subsequent nonrelapse mortality. Additional studies to define chronic GVHD related-disability and risk factors are needed to develop this important patient-centered outcome.

20.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556923

RESUMO

Importance: Immune suppression discontinuation is routinely attempted after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and under current practices may lead to graft-vs-host disease (GVHD)-associated morbidity and death. However, the likelihood and predictive factors associated with successful immune suppression discontinuation after HCT are poorly understood. Objectives: To examine factors associated with successful immune suppression discontinuation and risk for immune suppression discontinuation failure under conventional HCT approaches and develop a practical tool to estimate successful immune suppression discontinuation likelihood at the clinical point of care. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using long-term follow-up data from 2 national Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trial Network studies (N = 827), a multistate model was developed to investigate the probability and variables associated with immune suppression discontinuation success. The study began in July 2015, and analyses were completed in August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Immune suppression discontinuation and immune suppression discontinuation failure. Results: Of the 827 patients included in the analysis, 456 were men (55.1%). Median age at transplant was 44 (range, <1-67) years. With median follow-up of 72 (range, 11-124) months, 20.0% of the patients were alive and not receiving immune suppression at 5 years. Older recipient age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of >50 vs <30 years, 0.27, 99% CI, 0.14-0.50; P < .001), mismatched unrelated donor (aOR, mismatched unrelated vs matched related, 0.37; 99% CI, 0.14-0.97; P = .008), peripheral blood graft (aOR of peripheral blood graft vs bone marrow, 0.46; 99% CI, 0.26-0.82; P < .001), and advanced stage disease (aOR of advanced vs early disease, 0.45; 99% CI, 0.23-0.86, P = 0.002), were significantly associated with decreased odds of immune suppression discontinuation. Failed attempts at immune suppression discontinuation (127 patients [37.1% of total immune suppression discontinuation events]) resulting in GVHD were significantly associated with use of peripheral blood stem cells (HR, 2.62; 99% CI, 1.30-5.29; P < .001), prior GVHD, and earlier immune suppression discontinuation attempts. Earlier immune suppression discontinuation was not associated with protection from cancer relapse after HCT (adjusted hazard ratio for discontinuation vs not, 1.95; 99% CI, 0.88-4.31; P = .03).Dynamic prediction models were developed to provide future immune suppression discontinuation probability according to individual patient characteristics. Conclusions and Relevance: Successful immune suppression discontinuation is uncommon in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell grafts. The data suggest earlier attempts at ISD conferred no long-term benefit, given frequent ISD failure, limited subsequent success after initial failed ISD attempt, and no evidence of relapse reduction. Using a risk model-based clinical application, physicians may be able to identify individual patients' probability of successful immune suppression discontinuation.

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