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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551075


OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is a well-recognized risk factor for poor prognosis and mortality. We investigated whether preoperative malnutrition diagnosed with objective nutritional scores affects 1-year mortality in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort observational study, we evaluated the association among the Controlling Nutritional Status score, Prognostic Nutritional Index, and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index with 1-year mortality in 1927 patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. We identified factors for mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis and investigated the utility of nutritional scores for risk stratification. RESULTS: Malnutrition, as identified by a high Controlling Nutritional Status score and low Prognostic Nutritional Index and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, was significantly associated with higher 1-year mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that mortality significantly increased as the severity of malnutrition increased (log-rank test, P < .001). The predicted discrimination (C-index) was 0.79 with the Controlling Nutritional Status score, 0.77 with the Prognostic Nutritional Index, and 0.73 with the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index. Each nutritional index (Controlling Nutritional Status; hazard ratio, 1.31, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.42, P < .001), the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (hazard ratio, 1.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09, P < .001), and chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio, 2.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.90, P = .003) were independent risk factors for mortality. The Controlling Nutritional Status score added to the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II significantly increased the predictive discrimination ability for mortality (C-index 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.87, P = .014) compared with the Controlling Nutritional Status or European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II alone. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative malnutrition as assessed by objective nutritional scores was associated with 1-year mortality after valvular heart surgery. The Controlling Nutritional Status score had the highest predictive ability and, when added to the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II, provided more accurate risk stratification.

Can J Anaesth ; 68(5): 683-692, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532995


PURPOSE: Ketamine's inhibitory action on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and anti-inflammatory effects may provide beneficial immunomodulation in cancer surgery. We investigated the effect of subanesthetic-dose ketamine as an adjunct to desflurane anesthesia on natural killer (NK) cell activity and inflammation in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A total of 100 patients were randomly assigned to a control or ketamine group. The ketamine group received a bolus of 0.25 mg·kg-1 ketamine five minutes before the start of surgery, followed by an infusion 0.05 mg·kg-1·hr-1 until the end of surgery; the control group received a similar amount of normal saline. We measured NK cell activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) before surgery and one, 24, and 48 hr after surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before surgery and one, three, and five days after surgery. Carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer recurrence/metastasis were assessed two years after surgery. RESULTS: The NK cell activity was significantly decreased after surgery in both groups, but the change was not different between groups in the linear mixed model analysis (P = 0.47). Changes in IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were not different between groups (P = 0.27, 0.69, 0.99, and 0.97, respectively). Cancer recurrence within 2 years after surgery was similar between groups (10% vs 8%, P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative low-dose ketamine administration did not convey any favourable impacts on overall postoperative NK cell activity, inflammatory responses, and prognosis in colorectal cancer surgery patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (NCT03273231); registered 6 September 2017.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Ketamina , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(2): 681-688.e3, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959433


OBJECTIVE: The association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains elusive in cardiac surgery. We investigated the association between postoperative AKI and CKD development, emphasizing the intermediary role of acute kidney disease (AKD), in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. METHODS: We assessed the occurrence of postoperative AKI (7 days postsurgery), AKD (3 months postsurgery), and CKD (12 months postsurgery) in 1386 patients. The primary outcome was the development of AKD and CKD according to AKI occurrence. Relevant risk factors of AKI, AKD, and CKD were identified through multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 23.9% of patients with normal preoperative renal function. Even with early recovery of renal function within 3 days, AKI increased the risk of AKD (odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-5.20, P < .001) and CKD (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.68-4.86, P < .001), whereas persistent AKI further increased the risk of AKD (OR, 12.07; 95% CI, 5.56-26.21, P < .001) and CKD (OR, 10.54; 95% CI, 4.01-27.76, P < .001). We also found these relationships in patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction. Multivariable analysis identified 3-month postoperative heart failure and high right ventricular systolic pressure as independent risk factors for CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Even after early recovery, postvalvular heart surgery AKI was associated with increased risk of CKD via AKD in a graded manner related to AKI severity and persistence. Postoperative cardiac dysfunction assessed 3 months postsurgery also significantly influenced CKD development, indicating a need for close follow-up of cardiac and renal function to improve patient outcomes.

Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Fatores de Risco
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835896


Patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery and receiving postoperative analgesia with opioids have a high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We compared the antiemetic efficacy of three doses of ramosetron in this high-risk population. In this prospective, double-blind trial, 174 patients randomly received ramosetron 0.3 mg (R0.3 group; n = 58), 0.45 mg (R0.45 group; n = 58), or 0.6 mg (R0.6 group; n = 58) at the end of surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of PONV during the first postoperative 48 h. Nausea severity, pain scores, adverse events, and patient satisfaction (1-4; 4, excellent) were assessed. The incidence of PONV was not different between groups (35%, 38%, and 35% in R0.3, R0.45, and R0.6 groups; p = 0.905). Nausea severity, pain scores, and incidence of adverse events (dizziness, headache, or sedation) were similar between groups. Compared to the R0.3 group, the R0.45 and R0.6 groups had lower incidence of premature discontinuation of fentanyl-based patient-controlled analgesia primarily because of intractable PONV (9% and 5% vs. 24%; p = 0.038), and higher satisfaction scores (3.4 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 0.9; p = 0.005). Compared to ramosetron 0.3 mg, ramosetron 0.45 and 0.6 mg did not reduce PONV, but reduced premature discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia and increased patient satisfaction, without increasing adverse events.