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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
2.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(4): 935-943, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art technology employed in radiotherapy (RT) for cancer patients. This study characterized how PBT has been used in clinical practice in Korea. Materials and Methods: Patients who received any type of RT between 2007 and 2019 were identified from the radiation oncology registry of the two PBT facilities operating in Korea (National Cancer Center and Samsung Medical Center). The chi-square test was used to identify patient- and treatment-related characteristics associated with the receipt of PBT. RESULTS: A total of 54,035 patients had been treated with some form of RT in the two institutions, of whom 5,398 received PBT (10.0%). The number of patients who receive PBT has gradually increased since PBT first started, from 162 patients in 2007 to 1,304 patients in 2019. Among all types of cancer, PBT use in liver cancer has been steadily increasing from 20% in 2008-2009 to 32% in 2018-2019. In contrast, that in prostate cancer has been continuously decreasing from 20% in 2008-2009 to < 10% in 2018-2019. Male sex, very young or old age, stage I-II disease, residency in non-capital areas, a definitive setting, a curative treatment aim, enrollment in a clinical trial, re-irradiation and insurance coverage were significantly associated with the receipt of PBT (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Since PBT started in Korea, the number of patients receiving PBT has increased to more than 1,000 per year and treatment indications have expanded. Liver cancer is the most common primary tumor among all PBT cases in Korea.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27906-27915, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106394

RESUMO

Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the real-time characterization of sweat dynamics and sweat chemistry in the context of sports performance and healthcare diagnostics. This paper presents a collection of advances in biochemical sensors and microfluidic designs that support multimodal operation in the monitoring of physiological signatures directly correlated to physical and mental stresses. These wireless, battery-free, skin-interfaced devices combine lateral flow immunoassays for cortisol, fluorometric assays for glucose and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and digital tracking of skin galvanic responses. Systematic benchtop evaluations and field studies on human subjects highlight the key features of this platform for the continuous, noninvasive monitoring of biochemical and biophysical correlates of the stress state.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978254

RESUMO

Myelination plays an important role in cognitive development and in demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), where failure of re-myelination promotes permanent neuro-axonal damage.  Modification of cell surface receptors with branched N-glycans coordinates cell growth and differentiation by controlling glycoprotein clustering, signaling and endocytosis. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a rate-limiting metabolite for N-glycan branching. Here we report that GlcNAc and N-glycan branching trigger oligodendrogenesis from precursor cells by inhibiting PDGF receptor-α cell endocytosis. Supplying oral GlcNAc to lactating mice drives primary myelination in newborn pups via secretion in breast milk, while genetically blocking N-glycan branching markedly inhibits primary myelination. In adult mice with toxin (cuprizone) induced demyelination, oral GlcNAc prevents neuro-axonal damage by driving myelin repair. In MS patients, endogenous serum GlcNAc levels inversely correlated with imaging measures of demyelination and microstructural damage.   Our data identifies N-glycan branching and GlcNAc as critical regulators of primary myelination and myelin repair and suggests oral GlcNAc may be neuro-protective in demyelinating diseases like MS.

5.
iScience ; 23(8): 101380, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745987

RESUMO

B cell depletion potently reduces episodes of inflammatory demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), predominantly through loss of innate rather than adaptive immunity. However, molecular mechanisms controlling innate versus adaptive B cell function are poorly understood. N-glycan branching, via interactions with galectins, controls endocytosis and signaling of cell surface receptors to control cell function. Here we report that N-glycan branching in B cells dose dependently reduces pro-inflammatory innate responses by titrating decreases in Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and TLR2 surface expression via endocytosis. In contrast, a minimal level of N-glycan branching maximizes surface retention of the B cell receptor (BCR) and the CD19 co-receptor to promote adaptive immunity. Branched N-glycans inhibit antigen presentation by B cells to reduce T helper cell-17 (TH17)/TH1 differentiation and inflammatory demyelination in mice. Thus, N-glycan branching negatively regulates B cell innate function while promoting/maintaining adaptive immunity via BCR, providing an attractive therapeutic target for MS.

6.
J Immunol ; 205(3): 630-636, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591389

RESUMO

Galectins have been implicated in inhibiting BCR signaling in mature B cells but promoting pre-BCR signaling during early development. Galectins bind to branched N-glycans attached to cell surface glycoproteins to control the distribution, clustering, endocytosis, and signaling of surface glycoproteins. During T cell development, N-glycan branching is required for positive selection of thymocytes, inhibiting both death by neglect and negative selection via enhanced surface retention of the CD4/CD8 coreceptors and limiting TCR clustering/signaling, respectively. The role of N-glycan branching in B cell development is unknown. In this study, we report that N-glycan branching is absolutely required for development of mature B cells in mice. Elimination of branched N-glycans in developing B cells via targeted deletion of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (Mgat1) markedly reduced cellularity in the bone marrow and/or spleen and inhibited maturation of pre-, immature, and transitional stage 2 B cells. Branching deficiency markedly reduced surface expression of the pre-BCR/BCR coreceptor CD19 and promoted spontaneous death of pre-B cells and immature B cells in vitro. Death was rescued by low-dose pre-BCR/BCR stimulation but exacerbated by high-dose pre-BCR/BCR stimulation as well as antiapoptotic BclxL overexpression in pre-B cells. Branching deficiency also enhanced Nur77 induction, a marker of negative selection. Together, these data suggest that, as in T cells, N-glycan branching promotes positive selection of B cells by augmenting pre-BCR/BCR signaling via CD19 surface retention, whereas limiting negative selection from excessive BCR engagement.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Configuração de Carboidratos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Timócitos/imunologia
7.
Oral Dis ; 26(7): 1440-1448, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess prognostic factors of patients with operable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), focusing on the associations with smoking/alcohol exposure and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 247 patients with OSCC who received curative surgery ± adjuvant radiotherapy were analyzed. The patient subgroups were divided according to pretreatment smoking/alcohol exposure. Individuals aged 45 years or less were classified as younger patients. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 52.2 months. The 5-year locoregional progression-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 85.2%, 88.3%, 78.1%, and 83.5%, respectively. An advanced stage, differentiation, and lympho-vascular space invasion were significantly associated with lower OS and CSS. In a subgroup analysis of younger patients (n = 49), more smoking/alcohol exposure was significantly associated with better OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.95, p = .043). With increasing age, the HR for smoking/alcohol exposure with respect to OS increased up to 11.59 (95% CI: 1.49-89.84, p = .019) in older patients. CONCLUSION: Younger OSCC patients with non- or less smoking/alcohol exposure showed unfavorable outcomes. The prognostic significance of pretreatment smoking/alcohol exposure changed from favorable to detrimental with increasing age in operable OSCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Cancer Res Treat ; 52(1): 167-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Localized prostate cancer patients who received PORT after radical prostatectomy between 2001 and 2012 were identified retrospectively in a multi-institutional database. In total, 1,117 patients in 19 institutions were included. Biochemical failure after PORT was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ nadir+2 after PORT or initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for increasing PSA regardless of its value. RESULTS: Ten-year biochemical failure-free survival, clinical failure-free survival, distant metastasisfree survival, overall survival (OS), and cause-specific survival were 60.5%, 76.2%, 84.4%, 91.1%, and 96.6%, respectively, at a median of 84 months after PORT. Pre-PORT PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/ml and Gleason's score ≤ 7 predicted favorable clinical outcomes, with 10-year OS rates of 92.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The 10-year OS rate was 82.7% for patients with a PSA > 1.0 ng/mL and 86.0% for patients with a Gleason score of 8-10. The addition of longterm ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT improved OS, particularly in those with a Gleason score of 8-10 or ≥ T3b. CONCLUSION: Clinical outcomes of PORT in a Korean prostate cancer population were very similar to those in Western countries. Lower Gleason score and serum PSA level at the time of PORT were significantly associated with favorable outcomes. Addition of long-term ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT should be considered, particularly in unfavorable risk patients with Gleason scores of 8-10 or ≥ T3b.


Assuntos
Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Biol Chem ; 295(51): 17413-17424, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453988

RESUMO

Myelination plays an important role in cognitive development and in demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), where failure of remyelination promotes permanent neuro-axonal damage. Modification of cell surface receptors with branched N-glycans coordinates cell growth and differentiation by controlling glycoprotein clustering, signaling, and endocytosis. GlcNAc is a rate-limiting metabolite for N-glycan branching. Here we report that GlcNAc and N-glycan branching trigger oligodendrogenesis from precursor cells by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α cell endocytosis. Supplying oral GlcNAc to lactating mice drives primary myelination in newborn pups via secretion in breast milk, whereas genetically blocking N-glycan branching markedly inhibits primary myelination. In adult mice with toxin (cuprizone)-induced demyelination, oral GlcNAc prevents neuro-axonal damage by driving myelin repair. In MS patients, endogenous serum GlcNAc levels inversely correlated with imaging measures of demyelination and microstructural damage. Our data identify N-glycan branching and GlcNAc as critical regulators of primary myelination and myelin repair and suggest that oral GlcNAc may be neuroprotective in demyelinating diseases like MS.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/citologia , Acetilglucosamina/administração & dosagem , Acetilglucosamina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Endocitose , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913278

RESUMO

N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans inhibits pro-inflammatory T cell responses and models of autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Metabolism controls N-glycan branching in T cells by regulating de novo hexosamine pathway biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, the donor substrate for the Golgi branching enzymes. Activated T cells switch metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. This reduces flux of glucose and glutamine into the hexosamine pathway, thereby inhibiting de novo UDP-GlcNAc synthesis and N-glycan branching. Salvage of GlcNAc into the hexosamine pathway overcomes this metabolic suppression to restore UDP-GlcNAc synthesis and N-glycan branching, thereby promoting anti-inflammatory T regulatory (Treg) over pro-inflammatory T helper (TH) 17 and TH1 differentiation to suppress autoimmunity. However, GlcNAc activity is limited by the lack of a cell surface transporter and requires high doses to enter cells via macropinocytosis. Here we report that GlcNAc-6-acetate is a superior pro-drug form of GlcNAc. Acetylation of amino-sugars improves cell membrane permeability, with subsequent de-acetylation by cytoplasmic esterases allowing salvage into the hexosamine pathway. Per- and bi-acetylation of GlcNAc led to toxicity in T cells, whereas mono-acetylation at only the 6 > 3 position raised N-glycan branching greater than GlcNAc without inducing significant toxicity. GlcNAc-6-acetate inhibited T cell activation/proliferation, TH1/TH17 responses and disease progression in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Thus, GlcNAc-6-Acetate may provide an improved therapeutic approach to raise N-glycan branching, inhibit pro-inflammatory T cell responses and treat autoimmune diseases such as MS.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Acetilação , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Permeabilidade , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th17/patologia
11.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 4, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a prospective phase II study to compare acute toxicity among five different hypofractionated schedules using proton therapy. This study was an exploratory analysis to investigate the secondary end-point of biochemical failure-free survival (BCFFS) of patients with long-term follow-up. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with T1-3bN0M0 prostate cancer who had not received androgen-deprivation therapy were randomized to one of five arms: Arm 1, 60 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE)/20 fractions/5 weeks; Arm 2, 54 CGE/15 fractions/5 weeks; Arm 3, 47 CGE/10 fractions/5 weeks; Arm 4, 35 CGE/5 fractions/2.5 weeks; and Arm 5, 35 CGE/5 fractions/4 weeks. In the current exploratory analysis, these ardms were categorized into the moderate hypofractionated (MHF) group (52 patients in Arms 1-3) and the extreme hypofractionated (EHF) group (30 patients in Arms 4-5). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 7.5 years (range, 1.3-9.6 years), 7-year BCFFS was 76.2% for the MHF group and 46.2% for the EHF group (p = 0.005). The 7-year BCFFS of the MHF and EHF groups were 90.5 and 57.1% in the low-risk group (p = 0.154); 83.5 and 42.9% in the intermediate risk group (p = 0.018); and 41.7 and 40.0% in the high risk group (p = 0.786), respectively. Biochemical failure tended to be a late event with a median time to occurrence of 5 years. Acute GU toxicities were more common in the MHF than the EHF group (85 vs. 57%, p = 0.009), but late GI and GU toxicities did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the efficacy of EHF is potentially inferior to that of MHF and that further studies are warranted, therefore, to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01709253 ; registered October 18, 2012; retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 23(5): 924-929, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the causes and patterns of unexplained carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation after curative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Among the 1309 locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with curative resection and radiotherapy between January 2001 and June 2011, 325 patients who postoperatively developed abnormal CEA elevation were reviewed. The unexplained CEA elevation was defined as a CEA level higher than 5 ng/mL with no evidence of cancer recurrence at the time of elevation. RESULTS: Of the 325 patients, 143 (44%) had unexplained CEA elevations. The causes were categorized as delayed recurrence (n = 29, 20%), non-colorectal malignancy (n = 10, 7%), and non-malignancy-related conditions (n = 104, 73%). Shorter intervals between treatment and the first CEA elevation, and a higher peak CEA level, were observed in the delayed recurrence group compared with the non-colorectal malignancy or non-malignancy-related group (intervals of 6.8 vs. 44.9 vs. 23.2 months, respectively, p = 0.002; and peak CEA levels of 9.9 vs. 7.1 vs. 6.2 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.034). In patients who showed delayed recurrence, the interval between the first CEA elevation and diagnosis of recurrence was a median of 13.0 months (range 3.8-60.6 months). Smoking was the most common cause for non-malignancy-related conditions. The patterns of unexplained CEA elevations were defined as sporadic (n = 78, 55%), stationary (n = 37, 26%), and increasing (n = 28, 20%). The patterns were significantly different depending on the cause (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the patterns of unexplained CEA elevations is a reasonable approach to predict the cause of the cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
J Healthc Eng ; 2017: 4264356, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065601

RESUMO

This paper introduces a specialized robotic system under development for radiosurgery using a small-sized linear accelerator. The robotic system is a 5-DOF manipulator that can be installed above a patient to make an upper hemispherical workspace centered in a target point. In order to determine the optimal lengths of the link, we consider the requirements for the workspace of a linear accelerator for radiosurgery. A more suitable kinematic structure than conventional industrial manipulators is proposed, and the kinematic analysis is also provided. A graphic simulator is implemented and used for dynamic analysis. Based on those results, a prototype manipulator and its control system are under development.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
14.
Radiat Oncol J ; 35(3): 189-197, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037021

RESUMO

Locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC) is defined as histologically proven T3-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma. In this review, we define the individual roles of radiotherapy (RT), short-term (ST-) and long-term (LT-) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and their combination in multimodal therapy for LAPC. Despite limitations in comparing the clinical outcomes among published papers, in the present study, a trend of 10-year clinical outcomes was roughly estimated by calculating the average rates weighted by the cohort number. With RT alone, the following rates were estimated: 87% biochemical failure, 34% local failure (LF), 48% distant metastasis (DM), 38% overall survival (OS), and 27% disease-specific mortality (DSM). Those associated with ADT alone were 74% BCF, 54% OS, and 25% DSM, which appeared to be better than those of RT alone. The addition of ADT to RT produced a notable local and systemic effect, regardless of ST- or LT-ADT. The LF rate decreased from 34% with RT alone to 21% with ST-ADT and further to 15% with LT-ADT. The DM and DSM rates also showed a similar trend among RT alone, RT+ST-ADT, and RT+LT-ADT. The combination of RT+LT-ADT resulted in the best long-term clinical outcomes, indicating that both RT and ADT are important parts of multimodal therapy.

15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11220, 2017 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894221

RESUMO

Next-generation transparent conductors (TCs) require excellent electromechanical durability under mechanical deformations as well as high electrical conductivity and transparency. Here we introduce a method for the fabrication of highly conductive, low-porosity, flexible metal grid TCs via temperature-controlled direct imprinting (TCDI) of Ag ionic ink. The TCDI technique based on two-step heating is capable of not only stably capturing the Ag ionic ink, but also reducing the porosity of thermally decomposed Ag nanoparticle structures by eliminating large amounts of organic complexes. The porosity reduction of metal grid TCs on a glass substrate leads to a significant decrease of the sheet resistance from 21.5 to 5.5 Ω sq-1 with an optical transmittance of 91% at λ = 550 nm. The low-porosity metal grid TCs are effectively embedded to uniform, thin and transparent polymer films with negligible resistance changes from the glass substrate having strong interfacial fracture energy (~8.2 J m-2). Finally, as the porosity decreases, the flexible metal grid TCs show a significantly enhanced electromechanical durability under bending stresses. Organic light-emitting diodes based on the flexible metal grid TCs as anode electrodes are demonstrated.

16.
Epidemiol Health ; 39: e2017039, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 58-years-old (range, 8 to 91) and 43% of them worked in the agricultural, forestry or livestock industry. Regardless of their job, 87% of the patients had a history of either working outdoors or of other activities before developing scrub typhus. The south and southeast regions of Jeju Island, especially Namwon-eup, showed the highest incidence of scrub typhus. Workers in mandarin orange orchards seemed to be the highest risk group for scrub typhus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Scrub typhus on Jeju Island showed unique characteristics. To efficiently prevent scrub typhus, each year individual regional approaches should be developed based on the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease.


Assuntos
Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ilhas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epidemiol Health ; 39: e2017014, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently kudoa septempuctata in olive flounders is suggested as a cause of food poisoning, however whether kudoa septempuctata can affect human gastrointestinal systems is controversial and its pathogenecity remains unclear. In view of the field epidemiology, food poisonings caused by kudoa septempuctata should be distinguished from those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus. METHODS: The statistics of food poisoning investigations published by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2013-2015 were reviewed. The characteristics of kudoa septempuctata food poisoning reported by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were reviewed. Information regarding clinical symptoms or epidemiology was extracted. RESULTS: Total eleven kudoa septempuctata food poisoning cases were analyzed. Food poisonings caused by kudoa septempuctata, Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus have clinical and epidemiological similarities. Forty five percent of food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Korea was concluded as unknown. The food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus accounted for 4.5% (50/1,092) of all food poisoning outbreaks in Korea between 2013 and 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the possibilities of misdiagnosis in the investigations of food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus with kudoa septempuctata.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Myxozoa/patogenicidade , Animais , Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Linguado/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
19.
Epidemiol Health ; 39: e2017060r, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526057
20.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 192(9): 649-57, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ablative dose hypofractionated proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with stage I and recurrent non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 55 patients with stage I (n = 42) and recurrent (n = 13) NSCLC underwent hypofractionated PBT and were retrospectively reviewed. A total dose of 50-72 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent) in 5-12 fractions was delivered. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 29 months (range 4-95 months). There were 24 deaths (43.6%) during the follow-up period: 11 died of disease progression and 13 from other causes. Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate (OS) at 3 years was 54.9% and the median OS was 48.6 months (range 4-95 months). Local progression was observed in 7 patients and the median time to local progression was 9.3 months (range 5-14 months). Cumulative actuarial local control rate (LCR), lymph node metastasis-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates at 3 years were 85.4, 78.4, and 76.5%, respectively. Larger tumor diameter was significantly associated with poorer LCR (3-year: 94% for ≤3 cm vs. 65% for >3 cm, p = 0.006) on univariate analysis and also an independent prognostic factor for LCR (HR 6.9, 95% CI = 1.3-37.8, p = 0.026) on multivariate analysis. No grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities developed. One grade 5 treatment-related adverse event occurred in a patient with symptomatic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Ablative dose hypofractionated PBT was safe and promising for stage I and recurrent NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Terapia com Prótons/mortalidade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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