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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 677648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568084

RESUMO

Vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV), is an important cause of premature birth in pregnant women. However, there is very little research on vaginal microbial distribution in AV compared to that in BV. This study aimed to analyze the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women with AV using microbial community analysis and identify the causative organism using each criterion of the AV scoring system. Also, we compared the quantification of aerobic bacteria using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and their relative abundances (RA) using metagenomics. This prospective case-control study included 228 pregnant Korean women from our previous study. A wet mount test was conducted on 159 women to diagnose AV using the AV scoring system. Vaginal samples were analyzed using metagenomics, Gram staining for Nugent score determination, conventional culture, and qPCR for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. The relative abundances (RAs) of eleven species showed significant differences among the three groups (Normal flora (NF), mild AV, and moderate AV). Three species including Lactobacillus crispatus were significantly lower in the AV groups than in the NF group, while eight species were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV. The decrease in the RA of L. crispatus was common in three criteria of the AV scoring system (Lactobacillary, WBC, and background flora grades), while it did not show a significant difference among the three grade groups of the toxic leukocyte criterion. Also, the RAs of anaerobes, such as Gardnerella and Megasphaera, were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV, while the RAs of aerobes were very low (RA < 0.01). Therefore, qPCR was performed for aerobes (Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterobacteriaceae); however, their quantification did not show a higher level in the AV groups when compared to that in the NF group. Therefore, AV might be affected by the RA of Lactobacillus spp. and the main anaerobes, such as Gardnerella spp. Activation of leukocytes under specific conditions might convert them to toxic leukocytes, despite high levels of L. crispatus. Thus, the pathogenesis of AV can be evaluated under such conditions.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450745

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a new monopolar microstrip antenna for a high-speed moving swarm sensor network. The proposed antenna shows an extremely thin substrate thickness supported with an omni-directional radiation pattern and wide operation frequency bandwidth. First, to achieve the low-profile monopolar microstrip antenna, the symmetrical center feeding network and the gap-coupled six arrayed patches which form a hexagonal microstrip radiator were utilized. The partially loaded ground-slots under the top patches were employed to improve the radiation performance and adjust the impedance bandwidth. Second, to obtain the broad bandwidth of the low-profile monopolar microstrip antenna, the degenerated non-fundamental TM02 modes, that is, even and odd TM02 modes, were carefully analyzed. To verify the feasibility of the degenerated TM02 mode operation, the parametric study of the proposed antenna was theoretically investigated and implemented with the optimized parameter dimensions. Finally, the fabricated antenna showed a 0.254 mm-thick substrate and demonstrates 1.5-wavelength resonant monopolar radiation with broad impedance bandwidth of 855 MHz and its factional bandwidth of 15.24% at the resonant frequency of 5.57 GHz.

3.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 883-893, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406877

RESUMO

During constipation, indigestible foods, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fiber, may improve the bowel environment and activity. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, the effects of ID-HWS1000, composed of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, xylooligosaccharide, and dietary fiber, were evaluated to determine whether it improves the perception of bowel activity or cause changes in the gut microbiome. Thirty Korean adults with "functional constipation" according to the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to the following groups: 20 in the ID-HWS1000 group and 10 in the placebo group. ID-HWS1000 or the placebo was consumed by the participants for 4 weeks. To assess the changes in the perception of bowel activity, clinical data and gut microbiome analyses were conducted before and after the experiment. There were significant differences between the groups in the response to 9 of the 12 survey questions (the number and duration of bowel movements, amount of feces, number of irritant bowel movements, number of times bowel movements felt incomplete, shape of the feces, amount of gas in the gut, discomfort after defecation, and discomfort owing to constipation) (P < .05). There was a decrease in the proportion of Firmicutes (Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae) and an increase in Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidaceae) (P < .05). Moreover, ID-HWS1000 directly improved the discomfort associated with bowel movements, decreased the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, and increased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. These results confirmed that ID-HWS1000 improves the perception of bowel activity and exerts positive changes in individuals with functional constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquiescent response style (ARS) refers to survey respondents' tendency to choose response categories agreeing to questions regardless of their content and is hypothesized as a stable respondent trait. While what underlies acquiescence is debatable, the effect of ARS on measurement is clear: bias through artificially increased agreement ratings. With certain population subgroups (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S.) are associated with systemically higher ARS, it causes concerns for research involving those groups. For this reason, it may be necessary to classify respondents as acquiescers or a nonacquiescers, which allows independent analysis or accounting for this stylistic artifact. However, this classification is challenging, because ARS is latent, observed only as a by-product of collected data. OBJECTIVES: To propose a screener that identifies respondents as acquiescers. METHODS: With survey data collected for ARS research, various ARS classification methods were compared for validity as well as implementation practicality. RESULTS: The majority of respondents was classified consistently into acquiescers or nonacquiescers under various classification methods. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a method based on illogical responses given to two balanced, theoretically distant multi-item measurement scales as a screener.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(25): 5889-5896, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143636

RESUMO

We report a bimodal imaging method that can spatially resolve and concurrently correlate SERS and background-free Mie scattering signals. By examining two types of nanoparticle assemblies with different types of plasmonic junctions, namely raspberry-like metamolecules (raspberry-MMs) containing intraparticle nanogaps and groups of Au nanocubes forming interparticle gaps, we were able to rapidly screen SERS-active particles among the entire population of nanoparticles. Ratiometric analysis of SERS/Mie scattering revealed distinct behaviors for these intra- and interparticle nanogaps. In particular, raspberry-MMs showed a high fraction of SERS-active particles with the SERS intensity essentially insensitive to the nanoparticle aggregation state and a predictable environmental dependence. In comparison, nanocube clusters exhibited highly heterogeneous SERS/Mie scattering ratios and unpredictable intensity fluctuations but higher maximum SERS intensity. This dual-imaging approach constitutes an in situ visualization tool that enables simultaneous and stoichiometric analysis of dual signals consisting of elastic and inelastic scattering, which can significantly improve the reliability of SERS measurements.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman
7.
Adv Mater ; : e2007668, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021638

RESUMO

The spatial arrangement of plasmonic nanoparticles can dramatically affect their interaction with electromagnetic waves, which offers an effective approach to systematically control their optical properties and manifest new phenomena. To this end, significant efforts were made to develop methodologies by which the assembly structure of metal nanoparticles can be controlled with high precision. Herein, recent advances in bottom-up chemical strategies toward the well-controlled assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles, including multicomponent and multifunctional systems are reviewed. Further, it is discussed how the progress in this area has paved the way toward the construction of smart dynamic nanostructures capable of on-demand, reversible structural changes that alter their properties in a predictable and reproducible manner. Finally, this review provides insight into the challenges, future directions, and perspectives in the field of controlled plasmonic assemblies.

8.
Ethn Dis ; 31(2): 253-262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883866

RESUMO

Objectives: ativity and family support may influence attitudes and behaviors that delay or accelerate the disability process in older adults. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate nativity and migration cohort differences in trajectories of disability (assessed by activities of daily living [ADL]) among older Mexican Americans; and 2) to determine the role of objectively measured family support in the association between nativity, migration cohort, and disability changes over time. Methods: This is a longitudinal study with up to 18 years follow-up (1993-2011) using data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (N=2,785, mean age =72.4 years). Disability was assessed using self-reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Nativity and migration cohort were self-reported. Family support was assessed by marital status and the number of their children participants saw each month. Linear growth curve models evaluated the trajectory of ADL disability over 18 years and assessed variations by nativity status, migration cohort and family support. Results: Foreign-born respondents who migrated before age 20 had more starting ADL limitations (ß= .36, P<.001) and accumulated disability faster (ß=.04, P<.01) compared with their US-born counterparts. In contrast, foreign-born respondents who migrated at later ages showed disability trajectories similar to US-born respondents. Married respondents had a lower level of disability (ß= -.14, P<.01) and a lower rate of accumulation over time (ß= -.02, P=.001) compared with participants who were not married. Discussion: Mexican Americans who migrate at younger ages may experience greater disability over time; however, family support may help mitigate the accumulation of disability among older Mexican Americans.

9.
Langmuir ; 37(15): 4468-4480, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826350

RESUMO

The interactions between drugs and cell membranes can modulate the structural and physical properties of membranes. The resultant perturbations of the membrane integrity may affect the conformation of the proteins inserted within the membrane, disturbing the membrane-hosted biological functions. In this study, the droplet interface bilayer (DIB), a model cell membrane, is used to examine the effects of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on transbilayer water permeability, which is a fundamental membrane biophysical property. Our results indicate that the presence of neutral ibuprofen (pH 3) increases the water permeability of the lipid membranes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). When cholesterol is present with the DOPC, however, the water permeability is not influenced by addition of ibuprofen, regardless of the cholesterol content in DOPC. Given the fact that cholesterol is generally considered to impact packing in the hydrocarbon chain regions, our findings suggest that a potential competition between opposing effects of ibuprofen molecules and cholesterol on the hydrocarbon core environment of the phospholipid assembly may influence the overall water transport phenomena. Results from confocal Raman microspectroscopy and interfacial tensiometry show that ibuprofen molecules induce substantial structural and dynamic changes in the DOPC lipid bilayer. These results, demonstrating that the presence of ibuprofen increases the water permeability of pure DOPC but not that of DOPC-cholesterol mixtures, provide insight into the differential effect of a representative NSAID on heterogeneous biological membranes, depending upon the local composition and structure, results which will signal increased understanding of the gastrointestinal damage and toxicity induced by these molecules.


Assuntos
Ibuprofeno , Fosfatidilcolinas , Colesterol , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Permeabilidade , Água
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 172: 106601, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of epilepsy patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy. The gut microbiome, which is the total genetic makeup of all of the total microbes inhabiting the gut, can affect the CNS through various mechanisms. However, there are only limited studies about the relationship between the gut microbiome and epilepsy. We investigated the composition and characteristics of the gut microbiota among adult patients who have drug-responsive and drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: We prospectively included 44 adult epilepsy patients and classified them into drug-responsive and drug-resistant groups. We collected fecal samples for the next-generation sequencing analysis. We statistically estimated the bacterial differences and alpha and beta diversities in each category. RESULTS: Although there was no difference in demographic factors between the drug-responsive and drug-resistant groups, there was a significant difference in the composition of the gut microbiota. While the relative abundance of Bacteroides finegoldii and Ruminococcus_g2 increased in the drug-responsive group, the relative abundance of Negativicutes, which belong to Firmicutes increased in the drug-resistant group. Bifidobacterium was relatively abundant in epilepsy patients with a normal electroencephalogram. There was no significant difference between the two groups in analyses of alpha and beta diversities. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant difference in the composition of the gut microbiota among adult patients with drug-responsive and drug-resistant epilepsy. Difference in gut microbiota can be used as a novel biomarker to predict prognosis and evaluate treatment response in epilepsy patients. In addition, modification of gut microbiome can be an effective treatment strategy for patient with drug-resistant epilepsy.

11.
Small ; 17(12): e2006110, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721400

RESUMO

Chemical and functional anisotropy in Janus materials offer intriguing possibilities for constructing complex nanostructures and regulating chemical and biological reactions. Here, the authors report the fabrication of Janus nanosheets from molecular building blocks composed of two information-carrying biopolymers, DNA and peptides. Experimental and structural modeling studies reveal that DNA-peptide diblock conjugates assemble into Janus nanosheets with distinct DNA and peptide faces. The surprising level of structural control is attributed to the exclusive parallel ß-sheet formation of phenylalanine-rich peptides. This approach is extended to triblock DNA1-peptide-DNA2 conjugates, which assemble into nanosheets presenting two different DNA on opposite faces. The Janus nanosheets with independently addressable faces are utilized to organize an enzyme pair for concerted enzymatic reactions, where enhanced catalytic activities are observed. These results demonstrate that the predictable and designable peptide interaction is a promising tool for creating Janus nanostructures with regio-selective and sequence-specific molecular recognition properties.


Assuntos
DNA , Nanoestruturas , Peptídeos , Fenilalanina
12.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(4): 784-792, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920762

RESUMO

This study examined feasibility and methodological utilities of respondent driven sampling (RDS) for Korean immigrants. We conducted the Health and Life Study of Koreans (HLSK), a Web-based RDS study targeting foreign-born Korean Americans. Through chain referrals, n = 638 participated. Geographic coverage and estimates of HLSK were compared to foreignborn Korean samples in the American Community Survey and the California Health Interview Survey as benchmarks. Compared to the benchmarks, HLSK fared well on the geographic coverage, household type and size, employment and health insurance but over-captured those who were younger, more recent immigrants, with higher education and with disability. Existing RDS-specific estimators were largely ineffective. Conclusions. RDS may serve as a cost-effective tool for recruiting recent immigrants, a harder-to-recruit subgroup within minorities. However, recruitment noncooperation posed operational challenges, a critical gap in the literature. This leaves RDS yet to be a reliable methodology.

13.
J Off Stat ; 36(2): 339-360, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162642

RESUMO

Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling method designed for hard-to-sample groups with strong social ties. RDS starts with a small number of arbitrarily selected participants ("seeds"). Seeds are issued recruitment coupons, which are used to recruit from their social networks. Waves of recruitment and data collection continue until reaching a sufficient sample size. Under the assumptions of random recruitment, with-replacement sampling, and a sufficient number of waves, the probability of selection for each participant converges to be proportional to their network size. With recruitment noncooperation, however, recruitment can end abruptly, causing operational difficulties with unstable sample sizes. Noncooperation may void the recruitment Markovian assumptions, leading to selection bias. Here, we consider two RDS studies: one targeting Korean immigrants in Los Angeles and in Michigan; and another study targeting persons who inject drugs in Southeast Michigan. We explore predictors of coupon redemption, associations between recruiter and recruits, and details within recruitment dynamics. While no consistent predictors of noncooperation were found, there was evidence that coupon redemption of targeted recruits was more common among those who shared social bonds with their recruiters, suggesting that noncooperation is more likely to be a feature of recruits not cooperating, rather than recruiters failing to distribute coupons.

14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 507024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194936

RESUMO

Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM), including bacterial vaginosis (BV), is caused by a microbiota imbalance. Nugent scoring is the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of BV; however, it is somewhat subjective to interpret, and challenging to distinguish bacteria. Hence, there is a need for improved technologies for the accurate diagnosis of AVM. To this end, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been shown to yield comprehensive information on the pathophysiology of AVM. Hence, to evaluate the relationship between microbiota composition and the pathophysiology of AVM and its clinical significance, we characterized vaginal swab samples from 212 pregnant Korean women using both Nugent scoring and NGS analysis. Of these, the Nugent scoring identified 175 subjects (82.5%; 175/212) with normal flora (NF), 20 (9.4%; 20/212) with intermediate flora (IF), and 17 (8.0%; 17/212) with BV. NGS analysis followed by the characterization of vaginal microbiota composition, as represented by alpha and beta diversity, revealed the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. Moreover, we identified all five predominant community state types (CSTs) along with three smaller CSTs. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota revealed the dominance of one or two Lactobacillus spp. in the NF group. Meanwhile, the IF and BV groups were dominated by the genera Gardnerella, Prevotella, and Atopobium. These two groups also showed higher alpha diversity than the NF group (p < 0.05). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that the NF group was significantly different from the AVM groups (p < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed between IF and BV groups (p = 0.25). Lastly, to investigate the characteristics of vaginal microbiota based on taxonomic composition, the IF and BV groups (AVM groups) were reclassified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering. Consequently, they were reclassified into BV1 (Lactobacillus iners-dominated), BV2-1 (Bifidobacterium breve-dominated), BV2-2 (Gardnerella vaginalis s1 or s2 and Atopobium vaginae-dominated), and BV3 [mixed population of G. vaginalis, L. iners, and other bacteria (p < 0.05)]. Collectively, these findings could serve to advance the current understanding regarding AVM pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Actinobacteria , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992898

RESUMO

Studies investigating exercise-induced gut microbiota have reported that people who exercise regularly have a healthy gut microbial environment compared with sedentary individuals. In contrast, recent studies have shown that high protein intake without dietary fiber not only offsets the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota but also significantly lowers the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. In this study, to resolve this conundrum and find the root cause, we decided to narrow down subjects according to diet. Almost all of the studies had subjects on an ad libitum diet, however, we wanted subjects on a simplified diet. Bodybuilders who consumed an extremely high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet were randomly assigned to a probiotics intake group (n = 8) and a placebo group (n = 7) to find the intervention effect. Probiotics, comprising Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, were consumed for 60 days. As a result, supplement intake did not lead to a positive effect on the gut microbial environment or concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). It has been shown that probiotic intake is not as effective as ergogenic aids for athletes such as bodybuilders with extreme dietary regimens, especially protein and dietary fiber. To clarify the influence of nutrition-related factors that affect the gut microbial environment, we divided the bodybuilders (n = 28) into groups according to their protein and dietary fiber intake and compared their gut microbial environment with that of sedentary male subjects (n = 15). Based on sedentary Korean recommended dietary allowance (KRDA), the bodybuilders' intake of protein and dietary fiber was categorized into low, proper, and excessive groups, as follows: high-protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 12), high-protein/adequate dietary fiber (n = 10), or adequate protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 6). We found no significant differences in gut microbial diversity or beneficial bacteria between the high-protein/restricted dietary fiber and the healthy sedentary groups. However, when either protein or dietary fiber intake met the KRDA, gut microbial diversity and the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria showed significant differences to those of healthy sedentary subjects. These results suggest that the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota is dependent on protein and dietary fiber intake. The results also suggest that the question of adequate nutrition should be addressed before supplementation with probiotics to derive complete benefits from the intervention.


Assuntos
Atletas , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822297

RESUMO

Rapidly developing technologies are realizing a 3D telepresence, in which geographically separated users can interact with each other through their virtual avatars. In this paper, we present novel methods to determine the avatar's position in an indoor space to preserve the semantics of the user's position in a dissimilar indoor space with different space configurations and furniture layouts. To this end, we first perform a user survey on the preferred avatar placements for various indoor configurations and user placements, and identify a set of related attributes, including interpersonal relation, visual attention, pose, and spatial characteristics, and quantify these attributes with a set of features. By using the obtained dataset and identified features, we train a neural network that predicts the similarity between two placements. Next, we develop avatar placement method that preserves the semantics of the placement of the remote user in a different space as much as possible. We show the effectiveness of our methods by implementing a prototype AR-based telepresence system and user evaluations.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822395

RESUMO

Allogeneic cultured epidermis (allo-CE) is a cultured keratinocyte sheet manufactured from donor cells and promotes wound healing when used in deep dermal burns, donor sites, and chronic ulcers and serves as a wound dressing. Allo-CE is usually cryopreserved to be ready to use. However, the cryopreservation procedure will damage the cell viability, and the influence of Allo-CE, according to its viability or wound healing process, has not been evaluated sufficiently. In this study, we aimed to prove the influence of keratinocyte viability contained in allo-CEs on wound healing. We prepared CEs with Green's method using keratinocytes obtained from a polydactyly patient and then prepared four kinds of CEs with different cell viabilities [fresh, cryopreserved, frozen, and FT (freeze and thaw)]. The cell viabilities of fresh, cryopreserved, frozen, and FT CEs were 95.7%, 59.9%, 16.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. The four CEs had homogeneous characteristics, except for small gaps found in the FT sheet by transmission electron microscopy observation. The four CEs were applied on the full-thickness skin defect of diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-Dock 7m +/+ Leprdb/Jcl), and the wound area and neoepithelium length were evaluated on days 4, 7, and 14. As a result, FT CEs without viable cells similarly promoted epithelialization on days 4 and 7 (p<0.05) and accelerated wound closure on day 7 (p<0.01) as fresh CEs compared with the control group. In conclusion, the promoting effect of allo-CE on wound healing does not depend on cell viability. Lyophilized CEs may be a suitable wound dressing with a long storage period at room temperature.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Queratinócitos/transplante , Cicatrização , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Polidactilia/metabolismo , Polidactilia/patologia , Reepitelização
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208776, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648922

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence about the health benefits of Medicaid expansion has been mixed and has largely come from comparing expansion and nonexpansion states. Objective: To examine the self-reported health of enrollees in Michigan's Medicaid expansion, the Healthy Michigan Plan (HMP), over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: A telephone survey from January 1 to October 31, 2016 (response rate, 53.7%), and a follow-up survey from March 1, 2017, to January 31, 2018 (response rate, 83.4%), were conducted in Michigan, which expanded Medicaid in 2014 through a Section 1115 waiver permitting state-specific modifications. Four thousand ninety HMP beneficiaries aged 19 to 64 years with at least 12 months of HMP coverage and at least 9 months in a Medicaid health plan were eligible to participate. Data were analyzed from April 1 to November 30, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Surveys measured demographic characteristics and health status. Analyses included weights for sampling probability and nonresponse. Comparisons between 2016 and 2017 included those who responded to both surveys (n = 3097). Results: Of the 3097 respondents to the 2017 follow-up survey, 2388 (77.1%) were still enrolled in HMP (current enrollees) and 709 (22.9%) were no longer enrolled when surveyed (former enrollees). Among all follow-up respondents, a weighted 37.5% (95% CI, 35.3%-39.9%) were aged 19 to 34 years, 34.0% (95% CI, 31.8%-36.2%) were aged 35 to 50 years, and 28.5% (95% CI, 26.7%-30.3%) were aged 51 to 64 years; 53.0% (95% CI, 50.8%-55.3%) were female. Respondents who reported fair or poor health decreased from 30.7% (95% CI, 28.7%-32.8%) in 2016 to 27.0% (95% CI, 25.1%-29.0%) in 2017 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.53-0.81]; P < .001), with the largest decreases observed in respondents who were non-Hispanic black (from 31.5% [95% CI, 27.1%-35.9%] in 2016 to 26.0% [95% CI, 21.9%-30.1%] in 2017; P = .009), from the Detroit metropolitan area (from 30.7% [95% CI, 27.0%-34.4%] in 2016 to 24.9% [95% CI, 21.6%-28.3%] in 2017; P = .001), and with an income of 0% to 35% of the federal poverty level (from 37.6% [95% CI, 34.2%-40.9%] in 2016 to 32.3% [95% CI, 29.1%-35.5%] in 2017; P < .001). From 2016 to 2017, the mean number of days of poor physical health in the past month decreased significantly from 6.9 (95% CI, 6.5-7.4) to 5.7 (95% CI, 5.3-6.0) (coefficient, -6.10; P < .001), including among current (from 7.0 [95% CI, 6.5-7.5] to 5.6 [95% CI, 5.1-6.0]; P < .001) and former (from 6.8 [95% CI, 5.9-7.7] to 5.8 [95% CI, 5.0-6.7]; P = .02) enrollees, those with 2 or more chronic conditions (from 9.9 [95% CI, 9.3-10.6] to 8.5 [95% CI, 7.8-9.1]; P < .001), across all age groups (19-34 years, from 4.3 [95% CI, 3.7-4.9] to 3.0 [95% CI, 2.5-3.5]; P < .001; 35-50 years, from 8.2 [95% CI, 7.3-9.0] to 6.9 [95% CI, 6.1-7.7]; P = .002; 51-64 years, from 9.0 [95% CI, 8.2-9.8] to 7.6 [95% CI, 6.9-8.3]; P = .001), and among non-Hispanic white (from 7.5 [95% CI, 7.0-8.1] to 6.1 [95% CI, 5.6-6.6]; P < .001) and black (from 5.9 [95% CI, 5.1-6.8] to 4.4 [95% CI, 3.6-5.1]; P < .001) respondents. No changes in days of poor mental health or usual activities missed owing to poor physical or mental health were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that HMP enrollees in Michigan have experienced improvements in self-reported health over time, including minority groups with a history of health disparities and enrollees with chronic health conditions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde das Minorias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(9): 183365, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454009

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated phospholipids in plasma membranes modulate order and dynamics of the lipid bilayer and influence integral membrane protein function. In this study, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) chains in phosphatidylcholine (PC) on osmotic water permeability and packing characteristics, using a droplet interface bilayer (DIB) as a model cell membrane. The lipid bilayer system is composed of mixtures of PC lipids with varying ratio of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (SOPC, 18: 0-18:1 PC) to 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine (SDPC, 18:0-22:6 PC). Water permeability coefficients (Pf) were derived from the kinetics of osmotic filtration across the DIB. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy probed the structural and packing properties of the mixtures. The water transport parameters and Raman spectral analyses together indicate that Pf and aggregate ordering of a lipid bilayer are significantly influenced by the progressive addition of PUFA chains to a bilayer. The permeability rates across bilayers of the mixtures are a linear function of SDPC mol%. The mean disorder for the bilayer hydrocarbon region, as determined by Raman disorder parameter from the saturated chain, scales linearly with Pf. The linear trend for Pf versus degree of unsaturation in double-chain PC lipid bilayers is about half the value of that obtained for a single-chain lipid system, with implications for an evolutionary preference for phospholipids during the postulated biotic transition from single-chain lipid protocellular to modern cell membranes. The amassed results highlight the role of PUFA in modifying membrane order as manifest in bulk membrane physical properties, with characteristic differences depending on single-chain or double-chain systems.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Água/química , Membrana Celular/química , Permeabilidade
20.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 14(7): 920-930, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293793

RESUMO

Adipose tissue regeneration in breast cancer patients without additional growth factors or adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells is desirable because of the possibility of recurrence and metastasis. We report that a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) mesh implant containing a collagen sponge (CS) maintained the internal space in vivo for up to 12 months and substituted for adipose tissue. We developed a PLLA capsule that maintained the internal space longer than that of PLLA mesh and compared adipose tissue formation at 12 and 24 months after implantation between the PLLA mesh with CS implant and the PLLA capsule implant with or without CS in a rabbit model. After 12 months, all implants maintained the internal space, and the adipose tissue that formed in all implant groups was larger than that in the control group. At 24 months, PLLA mesh maintained the internal space just as well as that at 12 months, while the PLLA capsule collapsed and accumulated a large number of macrophages. The formed adipose tissue in the PLLA mesh group was maintained up to 24 months; however, those in two PLLA capsule groups decreased and showed no difference from the control group. In conclusion, the internal space of the PLLA mesh implant with CS was substituted for adipose tissue at 12 months and sustained the formed adipose tissue after 24 months. The PLLA mesh implant containing CS is a desirable bioabsorbable implant that can be replaced by autologous adipose tissue after implantation in vivo without using any growth factors or cells.

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