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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731326

RESUMO

Skin hyperpigmentation is generally characterized by increased synthesis and deposition of melanin in the skin. UP256, containing bakuchiol, is a well-known medication for acne vulgaris. Acne sometimes leaves dark spots on the skin, and we hypothesized that UP256 may be effective against hyperpigmentation-associated diseases. UP256 was treated for anti-melanogenesis and melanocyte dendrite formation in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes as well as in the reconstituted skin and zebrafish models. Western blot analysis and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull down assays were used to evaluate the expression and interaction of enzymes related in melanin synthesis and transportation. The cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content assay revealed that UP256 decreased melanin synthesis by regulating the expression of proteins related on melanogenesis including tyrosinase, TRP-1 and -2, and SOX9. UP256 also decreased dendrite formation in melanocytes via regulating the Rac/Cdc42/α-PAK signaling proteins, without cytotoxic effects. UP256 also inhibited ciliogenesis-dependent melanogenesis in normal human epidermal melanocytes. Furthermore, UP256 suppressed melanin contents in the zebrafish and the 3D human skin tissue model. All things taken together, UP256 inhibits melanin synthesis, dendrite formation, and primary cilium formation leading to the inhibition of melanogenesis.

2.
Food Chem ; 335: 127645, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738537

RESUMO

The dried Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used for its pharmacological properties and bioactive ganoderic acids (GAs). Herein, extraction procedures combining ultra-sonication and heating were optimized using response surface methodology based on four variables (antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, total GAs content, and total polysaccharide content) and principal component analysis. The extraction of freeze-dried GL at temperatures between 64.2 and 70 °C for 1.2 h maximized the antioxidant activity and GA content, whereas the polysaccharide content and anti-diabetic activity were maximized by extraction between 66.8 and 70 °C for more than 2.8 h. Heat-dried GL extracted at 50 °C for 3 h provided the greatest anti-inflammatory activity against HaCaT cells by suppressing the response to inflammation related cytokines at mRNA levels. These results suggest that extraction conditions might be a limiting factor for target-oriented investigations, and optimized extraction methods may improve the potential effect and quality of harvested GL products.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(14)2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708092

RESUMO

In the present study, we propose a novel biosensor platform using a gold-tellurium (Au-Te) nanoworm structure through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Au-Tenanoworm was synthesized by spontaneous galvanic replacement of sacrificial Te nanorods templated with Au (III) cations under ambient conditions. The fabricated Au-Te nanoworm exhibited an interconnected structure of small spherical nanoparticles and was found to be effective at enhancing Raman scattering. The Au-Te nanoworm-immobilized substrate exhibited the ability to detect thyroxine using an aptamer-tagged DNA three-way junction (3WJ) and glycoprotein 120 (GP120) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using an antibody. The modified substrates were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimal Au-Te nanoworm concentration and immobilization time for the thyroxine biosensor platform were further determined by SERS experimentation. Thus, the present study showed that the Au-Te nanoworm structure could be applied to various biosensor platforms.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647855

RESUMO

As the interest in wearable devices has increased recently, increasing biosensor flexibility has begun to attract considerable attention. Among the various types of biosensors, electrochemical biosensors are uniquely suited for the development of such flexible biosensors due to their many advantages, including their fast response, inherent miniaturization, convenient operation, and portability. Therefore, many studies on flexible electrochemical biosensors have been conducted in recent years to achieve non-invasive and real-time monitoring of body fluids such as tears, sweat, and saliva. To achieve this, various substrates, novel nanomaterials, and detection techniques have been utilized to develop conductive flexible platforms that can be applied to create flexible electrochemical biosensors. In this review, we discussed recently reported flexible electrochemical biosensors and divided them into specific categories including materials for flexible substrate, fabrication techniques for flexible biosensor development, and recently developed flexible electrochemical biosensors to externally monitor target molecules, thereby providing a means to noninvasively examine cells and body fluid samples. In conclusion, this review will discuss the materials, methods, recent studies, and perspectives on flexible electrochemical biosensors for healthcare monitoring and wearable biosensing systems.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21215, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702890

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Penile metastasis in rectal cancer is very rare and often originates from prostatic or bladder cancer. The prognosis of penile metastasis is poor and its treatments are more often palliative than curative due to association with disseminated metastases. Pathologic complete response (pCR) in rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been shown to be surrogate marker of favorable long-term outcomes and currently has no report of penile metastasis. Here, we first report isolated penile metastasis in rectal cancer with pCR after neoadjuvant CRT. PATIENT CONCERN: The patient was a 74-year-old male with metastasis to the glans penis from rectal cancer diagnosed 9 months after abdominoperineal resection. Physical examination revealed palpable multiple nodules on the glans penis. DIAGNOSIS: Penile biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma from the rectal cancer. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy was started as soon as possible, because patient suffered urinary discomfort by rapid growing metastatic lesions. He is currently receiving palliative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX-6 (mFOLFOX-6; oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid) plus bevacizumab. OUTCOME: The patient is still alive 4 months after diagnosis with markedly decreased metastatic lesions. LESSON: We propose that although penile metastasis in rectal cancer with pCR after preoperative neoadjuvant CRT is extremely rare, it might help to start early palliative chemotherapy and clinicians should be aware of this possibility.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Penianas/diagnóstico , Pênis , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Penianas/secundário , Neoplasias Penianas/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
6.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654537

RESUMO

Considering the effects of circadian misalignment on human pathophysiology and behavior, it is important to be able to detect an individual's endogenous circadian time. We developed an endogenous Clock Estimation Model (eCEM) based on a machine learning process using the expression of 10 circadian genes. Hair follicle cells were collected from 18 healthy subjects at 08:00, 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, and 23:00 h for two consecutive days, and the expression patterns of 10 circadian genes were obtained. The eCEM was designed using the inverse form of the circadian gene rhythm function (i.e., Circadian Time = F(gene)), and the accuracy of eCEM was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). As a result, six genes (PER1, PER3, CLOCK, CRY2, NPAS2, and NR1D2) were selected as the best model, and the error range between actual and predicted time was 3.24 h. The eCEM is simple and applicable in that a single time-point sampling of hair follicle cells at any time of the day is sufficient to estimate the endogenous circadian time.

7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 195: 111240, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652400

RESUMO

Thyroxine (T4) contains four iodine atoms and is a major thyroid hormone synthesized in the thyroid gland. Abnormal levels of T4 in the body cause various endocrine diseases. The present study describes the fabrication of an electrochemical biosensor composed of a multi-functional DNA structure/rhodium nanoplates heterolayer for precise detection of T4 concentration. A DNA 3-way junction (3WJ) structure was designed as a multi-functional bioprobe to perform several functions (including target detection, electrochemical signal reporting, and immobilization) simultaneously. Binding between T4 and the T4 DNA aptamer was confirmed through enzyme-linked aptamer assays (ELAAs) and filtration experiments. The multi-functional DNA was immobilized on porous rhodium nanoplates (pRhNPs)-heterolayer modified Au micro-gap electrode. The pRhNPs provided an increment in the surface area and amplification of the electrochemical signal. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to detect T4. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection of T4 was found to be 10.33 pM. Furthermore, up to 11.41 pM of T4 could be detected in clinical samples. This study demonstrates the possibility of label-free detection of the T4 with multi-functional DNA/pRhNPs heterolayer that can be applied to small molecule detection platform in the near future.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585682

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation (CI) in older adults is associated with reduced healthspan and lifespan. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one CI marker that is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality in aging. We have previously characterized a mouse model of frailty and chronic inflammatory pathway activation (IL-10tm/tm, IL-10 KO) that demonstrates the upregulation of numerous proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6. We sought to identify a more specific role for IL-6 within the context of CI and aging and developed a mouse with targeted deletion of both IL-10 and IL-6 (IL-10tm/tm/IL-6tm/tm, DKO). Phenotypic characteristics, cytokine measurements, cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption, physical function, and survival were measured in DKO mice and compared to age- and gender-matched IL-10 KO and wild-type mice. Our findings demonstrate that selective knockdown of IL-6 in a frail mouse with CI resulted in the reversal of some of the CI-associated changes. We observed increased protective mitochondrial-associated lipid metabolites, decreased cardiac oxaloacetic acid, improved myocardial oxidative metabolism, and better short-term functional performance in DKO mice. However, the DKO mice also demonstrated higher mortality. This work shows the pleiotropic effects of IL-6 on aging and frailty.

10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127391, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590176

RESUMO

Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) is commonly used to remove radioactive nuclides such as Cs ions during decontamination of shut-down nuclear power plants. Potential environmental problems still remain because of the incomplete removal of large amounts of SDBS from radioactive liquid waste. For the first time, mesoporous silica nanofibers (MSFs) were fabricated for an efficient SDBS separation. MSFs were prepared by electrospinning using tetraethyl orthosilicate, a surfactant, and a template polymer; the product had a large surface area, a high pore volume, and a uniform pore size distribution. The internal pores or external surface were modified with quaternary ammonium salt, providing affinity to water and an electrostatic interaction with SDBS. The MSF-based adsorbent had excellent adsorption ability for SDBS (158.98 mg/g) over conventional adsorbents. In addition, the MSF-based adsorbent could selectively adsorb SDBS from a mixed solution of SDBS and Cs ions. Judging from the Freundlich pseuso second-order kinetic adsorption, the adsorption isotherm indicated that the SDBS adsorption was a kind of multilayer physisorption.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568662

RESUMO

We evaluated the clinical course of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to community treatment centers (CTCs) for isolation in South Korea. Of 632 patients, 75 (11.9%) had symptoms at admission, 186 (29.4%) were asymptomatic at admission but developed symptoms during their stay, and 371 (58.7%) remained asymptomatic during their entire clinical course. Nineteen (3.0%) patients were transferred to hospitals, but 94.3% (573/613) of the remaining patients were discharged from CTCs upon virologic remission. The mean virologic remission period was 20.1 days (SD + 7.7 days). Nearly 20% of patients remained in the CTCs for 4 weeks after diagnosis. The virologic remission period was longer in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients. In mildly symptomatic patients, the mean duration from symptom onset to virologic remission was 11.7 days (SD + 8.2 days). These data could help in planning for isolation centers and formulating self-isolation guidelines.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357552

RESUMO

The enhanced inactivated poliovirus vaccine was first introduced in 2002, and several inactivated poliovirus vaccines are licensed in Korea. Reliable data by a prospective study on the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated poliovirus vaccines in Korean infants are required. Normal healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks received three doses of the vaccine (IPVAX™, Imovax Polio™ or Poliorix™) in intervals of 2 months. Neutralizing antibody (NTAb) titers were measured before and 4-6 weeks after three-dose primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was evaluated by seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers obtained by analyzing NTAb titers. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded during 7 days after each vaccination. A total of 150 infants were included: 40 in IPVAX™, 52 in Imovax Polio™, and 58 in Poliorix™. The seroconversion rates for the group vaccinated with IPVAX™ were 100% in types 1, 2 and 3, while those of Imovax Polio™ were 98.1%, 96.2%, 96.2% and those of Poliorix™ were 98.3%, 100%, 100%, respectively. In all groups, injection site redness and irritability were the most common local and systemic adverse events. Neither serious adverse events nor adverse events above grade 2 were reported throughout the study. The currently used inactivated poliovirus vaccines was demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in healthy Korean infants.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(6)2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235737

RESUMO

Maintaining environmental conditions for proper plant growth in greenhouses requires managing a variety of factors; ventilation is particularly important because inside temperatures can rise rapidly in warm climates. The structure of the window installed in a greenhouse is very diverse, and it is difficult to identify the characteristics that affect the temperature inside the greenhouse when multiple windows are driven, respectively. In this study, a new ventilation control logic using an output feedback neural-network (OFNN) prediction and optimization method was developed, and this approach was tested in multi-window greenhouses used for strawberry production. The developed prediction model used 15 inputs and achieved a highly accurate performance (R2 of 0.94). In addition, the method using an algorithm based on an OFNN was proposed for optimizing considered six window-opening behavior. Three case studies confirmed the optimization performance of OFNN in the nonlinear model and verified the performance through simulations. Finally, a control system based on this logic was used in a field experiment for six days by comparing two greenhouses driven by conventional control logic and the developed control logic; a comparison of the results showed RMSEs of 3.01 °C and 2.45 °C, respectively. It confirmed the improved control performance in comparison to a conventional ventilation control system.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(17): 19345-19356, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252517

RESUMO

Current interstitial therapies for glioblastoma can overcome the blood-brain barrier but fail to optimally release therapy at a rate that stalls cancer reoccurrence. To address this lapse, acetalated dextran (Ace-DEX) nanofibrous scaffolds were used for their unique degradation rates that translate to a broad range of drug release kinetics. A distinctive range of drug release rates was illustrated via electrospun Ace-DEX or poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds. Scaffolds composed of fast, medium, and slow degrading Ace-DEX resulted in 14.1%, 2.9%, and 1.3% paclitaxel released per day. To better understand the impact of paclitaxel release rate on interstitial therapy, two clinically relevant orthotopic glioblastoma mouse models were explored: (1) a surgical model of resection and recurrence (resection model) and (2) a distant metastasis model. The effect of unique drug release was illustrated in the resection model when a 78% long-term survival was observed with combined fast and slow release scaffolds, in comparison to a survival of 20% when the same dose is delivered at a medium release rate. In contrast, only the fast release rate scaffold displayed treatment efficacy in the distant metastasis model. Additionally, the acid-sensitive Ace-DEX scaffolds were shown to respond to the lower pH conditions associated with GBM tumors, releasing more paclitaxel in vivo when a tumor was present in contrast to nonacid sensitive PLA scaffolds. The unique range of tunable degradation and stimuli-responsive nature makes Ace-DEX a promising drug delivery platform to improve interstitial therapy for glioblastoma.

15.
ACS Synth Biol ; 9(3): 468-474, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149502

RESUMO

Climate change necessitates the development of CO2 neutral or negative routes to chemicals currently produced from fossil carbon. In this paper we demonstrate a pathway from the renewable resource glucose to next generation biofuel isopentanol by pairing the isovaleryl-CoA biosynthesis pathway from Myxococcus xanthus and a butyryl-CoA reductase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. The best plasmid and Escherichia coli strain combination makes 80.50 ± 8.08 (SD) mg/L of isopentanol after 36 h under microaerobic conditions with an oleyl alcohol overlay. In addition, the system also shows a strong preference for isopentanol production over prenol in microaerobic conditions. Finally, the pathway requires zero adenosine triphosphate and can be paired theoretically with nonoxidative glycolysis, the combination being redox balanced from glucose thus avoiding unnecessary carbon loss as CO2. These pathway properties make the isovaleryl-CoA pathway an attractive isopentanol production route for further optimization.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4791, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161280

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

17.
Anal Chem ; 92(7): 5524-5531, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148026

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) is significant for preventing and controlling a global pandemic. However, there is no existing electrical biosensor for detecting biomarkers for AIV in clinically relevant samples such as chicken serum. Herein, we report the first use of an aptamer-functionalized field-effect transistor (FET) as a label-free sensor for AIV detection in chicken serum. A DNA aptamer is employed as a sensitive and selective receptor for hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which is a biomarker for AIVs. This aptamer is immobilized on a gold microelectrode that is connected to the gate of a reusable FET transducer. The specific binding of the target protein results in a change in the surface potential, which generates a signal response of the FET transducer. We hypothesize that a conformational change in the DNA aptamer upon specific binding of HA protein may alter the surface potential. The signal of the aptamer-based FET biosensor increased linearly with the increase in the logarithm of HA protein concentration in a dynamic range of 10 pM to 10 nM with a detection limit of 5.9 pM. The selectivity of the biosensor for HA protein was confirmed by employing relevant interfering proteins. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied to the selective detection of HA protein in a chicken serum sample. Owing to its simple and low-cost architecture, portability, and sensitivity, the aptamer-based FET biosensor has potential as a point-of-care diagnosis of H5N1 AIVs in clinical samples.

18.
Biotechnol J ; 15(6): e1900347, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143237

RESUMO

Biomolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, have been widely studied to develop biochips for various applications in scientific fields ranging from bioelectronics to stem cell research. However, restrictions exist due to the inherent characteristics of biomolecules, such as instability and the constraint of granting the functionality to the biochip. Introduction of functional nanomaterials, recently being researched and developed, to biomolecules have been widely researched to develop the nanobiohybrid materials because such materials have the potential to enhance and extend the function of biomolecules on a biochip. The potential for applying nanobiohybrid materials is especially high in the field of bioelectronics. Research in bioelectronics is aimed at realizing electronic functions using the inherent properties of biomolecules. To achieve this, various biomolecules possessing unique properties have been combined with novel nanomaterials to develop bioelectronic devices such as highly sensitive electrochemical-based bioelectronic sensing platforms, logic gates, and biocomputing systems. In this review, recently reported bioelectronic devices based on nanobiohybrid materials are discussed. The authors believe that this review will suggest innovative and creative directions to develop the next generation of multifunctional bioelectronic devices.

19.
Radiology ; 295(1): 192-201, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068506

RESUMO

Background Collateral circulation determines tissue fate and affects treatment result in acute ischemic stroke. A precise method for collateral estimation in an optimal imaging protocol is necessary to make an appropriate treatment decision for acute ischemic stroke. Purpose To verify the value of multiphase collateral imaging data sets (MR angiography collateral map) derived from dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR angiography for predicting functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods This secondary analysis of an ongoing prospective observational study included data from participants with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusion or stenosis of the unilateral internal carotid artery and/or M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery who were evaluated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Data were obtained from March 2016 through August 2018. The collateral grading based on the MR angiography collateral map was estimated by using six-scale MR acute ischemic stroke collateral (MAC) scores. To identify independent predictors of favorable functional outcomes, age, sex, risk factors, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, baseline diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume, site of steno-occlusion, collateral grade, mode of treatment, and early reperfusion were evaluated with multiple logistic regression analyses. Results One hundred fifty-four participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 69 years ± 13; 99 men) were evaluated. Younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29, 0.70; P < .001), lower baseline NIHSS score (OR, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P < .001), MAC score of 3 (OR, 27; 95% CI: 4.0, 179; P < .001), MAC score of 4 (OR, 17; 95% CI: 2.1, 134; P = .007), MAC score of 5 (OR, 27; 95% CI: 2.5, 306; P = .007), and successful early reperfusion (OR, 7.5; 95% CI: 2.6, 22; P < .001) were independently associated with favorable functional outcomes in multivariable analysis. There was a linear negative association between collateral perfusion grades and functional outcomes (P < .001). Conclusion An MR angiography collateral map was clinically reliable for collateral estimation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This map provided patient-specific pacing information for ischemic progression. © RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Colateral , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125589, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050353

RESUMO

Radioactive Cs ions are extremely harmful to the human body, causing cancers and other diseases. Treatments were performed on radioactive Cs present in wastewater after use in industrial or medical fields. Prussian blue (PB) has been widely used for the removal of Cs ions from water but its colloidal structure hinders reuse, making it problematic for practical use. To solve this problem, we used a commercial macroporous polymer resin as a PB matrix. To provide an efficient anchor for PB, the surface of the polymer resin was decorated with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate to produce a negatively charged surface. The successful chemical binding between the polymer resin and PB prevented leakage of the latter during adsorption and crosslinked structure of the matrix provided regeneration of the adsorbent. The adsorbent maintained its removal efficiency after five repeats of the regeneration process. The PB-based, Cs ion-exchange resin showed excellent selectivity toward Cs ions and good reusability, maintaining its high adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Benzenossulfonatos/química , Césio/química , Ferrocianetos/química , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Humanos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água
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