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1.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 126(49): 21022-21033, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561200

RESUMO

A comprehensive study of bulk molybdenum dichalcogenides is presented with the use of soft and hard X-ray photoelectron (SXPS and HAXPES) spectroscopy combined with hybrid density functional theory (DFT). The main core levels of MoS2, MoSe2, and MoTe2 are explored. Laboratory-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the ionization potential (IP) values of the MoX2 series as 5.86, 5.40, and 5.00 eV for MoSe2, MoSe2, and MoTe2, respectively, enabling the band alignment of the series to be established. Finally, the valence band measurements are compared with the calculated density of states which shows the role of p-d hybridization in these materials. Down the group, an increase in the p-d hybridization from the sulfide to the telluride is observed, explained by the configuration energy of the chalcogen p orbitals becoming closer to that of the valence Mo 4d orbitals. This pushes the valence band maximum closer to the vacuum level, explaining the decreasing IP down the series. High-resolution SXPS and HAXPES core-level spectra address the shortcomings of the XPS analysis in the literature. Furthermore, the experimentally determined band alignment can be used to inform future device work.

2.
ACS Energy Lett ; 7(11): 3807-3816, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398093

RESUMO

Transparent conducting oxides have become ubiquitous in modern optoelectronics. However, the number of oxides that are transparent to visible light and have the metallic-like conductivity necessary for applications is limited to a handful of systems that have been known for the past 40 years. In this work, we use hybrid density functional theory and defect chemistry analysis to demonstrate that tri-rutile zinc antimonate, ZnSb2O6, is an ideal transparent conducting oxide and to identify gallium as the optimal dopant to yield high conductivity and transparency. To validate our computational predictions, we have synthesized both powder samples and single crystals of Ga-doped ZnSb2O6 which conclusively show behavior consistent with a degenerate transparent conducting oxide. This study demonstrates the possibility of a family of Sb(V)-containing oxides for transparent conducting oxide and power electronics applications.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(49): e202211877, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200438

RESUMO

Ru-porphyrins act as convenient pedestals for the assembly of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) on solid surfaces. Upon deposition of a simple NHC ligand on a close packed Ru-porphyrin monolayer, an extraordinary phenomenon can be observed: Ru-porphyrin molecules are transferred from the silver surface to the next molecular layer. We have investigated the structural features and dynamics of this portering process and analysed the associated binding strengths and work function changes. A rearrangement of the molecular layer is induced by the NHC uptake: the NHC selective binding to the Ru causes the ejection of whole porphyrin molecules from the molecular layer on silver to the layer on top. This reorganisation can be reversed by thermally induced desorption of the NHC ligand. We anticipate that the understanding of such mass transport processes will have crucial implications for the functionalisation of surfaces with carbenes.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 61(39): 15686-15692, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129165

RESUMO

Topochemical reduction of the cation-disordered perovskite oxides LaCo0.5Rh0.5O3 and LaNi0.5Rh0.5O3 with Zr yields the partially anion-vacancy ordered phases LaCo0.5Rh0.5O2.25 and LaNi0.5Rh0.5O2.25, respectively. Neutron diffraction and Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements reveal that the anion-deficient phases contain Co1+/Ni1+ and a 1:1 mixture of Rh1+ and Rh3+ cations within a disordered array of apex-linked MO4 square-planar and MO5 square-based pyramidal coordination sites. Neutron diffraction data indicate that LaCo0.5Rh0.5O2.25 adopts a complex antiferromagnetic ground state, which is the sum of a C-type ordering (mM5+) of the xy-components of the Co spins and a G-type ordering (mΓ1+) of the z-components of the Co spins. On warming above 75 K, the magnitude of the mΓ1+ component declines, attaining a zero value by 125 K, with the magnitude of the mM5+ component remaining unchanged up to 175 K. This magnetic behavior is rationalized on the basis of the differing d-orbital fillings of the Co1+ cations in MO4 square-planar and MO5 square-based pyramidal coordination sites. LaNi0.5Rh0.5O2.25 shows no sign of long-range magnetic order at 2 K - behavior that can also be explained on the basis of the d-orbital occupation of the Ni1+ centers.

5.
Adv Mater ; 34(37): e2204217, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866491

RESUMO

Ga2 O3 and its polymorphs are attracting increasing attention. The rich structural space of polymorphic oxide systems such as Ga2 O3 offers potential for electronic structure engineering, which is of particular interest for a range of applications, such as power electronics. γ-Ga2 O3 presents a particular challenge across synthesis, characterization, and theory due to its inherent disorder and resulting complex structure-electronic-structure relationship. Here, density functional theory is used in combination with a machine-learning approach to screen nearly one million potential structures, thereby developing a robust atomistic model of the γ-phase. Theoretical results are compared with surface and bulk sensitive soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments representative of the occupied and unoccupied states of γ-Ga2 O3 . The first onset of strong absorption at room temperature is found at 5.1 eV from spectroscopic ellipsometry, which agrees well with the excitation maximum at 5.17 eV obtained by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, where the latter shifts to 5.33 eV at 5 K. This work presents a leap forward in the treatment of complex, disordered oxides and is a crucial step toward exploring how their electronic structure can be understood in terms of local coordination and overall structure.

6.
Faraday Discuss ; 239(0): 250-262, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848780

RESUMO

Germanium selenide (GeSe) bulk crystals, thin films and solar cells are investigated with a focus on acceptor-doping with silver (Ag) and the use of an Sb2Se3 interfacial layer. The Ag-doping of GeSe occurred by a stoichiometric melt growth technique that created Ag-doped GeSe bulk crystals. A combination of capacitance voltage measurements, synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and surface space-charge calculations indicates that Ag-doping increases the hole density from 5.2 × 1015 cm-3 to 1.9 × 1016 cm-3. The melt-grown material is used as the source for thermally evaporated GeSe films within solar cells. The cell structure with the highest efficiency of 0.260% is FTO/CdS/Sb2Se3/undoped-GeSe/Au, compared with solar cells without the Sb2Se3 interfacial layer or with the Ag-doped GeSe.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(20): 206801, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657902

RESUMO

X-ray standing-wave (XSW) excited photoelectron emission was used to measure the site-specific valence band (VB) for ½ monolayer (ML) Pt grown on a SrTiO_{3} (001) surface. The XSW induced modulations in the core level (CL), and VB photoemission from the surface and substrate atoms were monitored for three hkl substrate Bragg reflections. The XSW CL analysis shows the Pt to have a face-centered-cubic-like cube-on-cube epitaxy with the substrate. The XSW VB information compares well to a density functional theory calculated projected density of states from the surface and substrate atoms. Overall, this Letter represents a novel method for determining the contribution to the density of states by valence electrons from specific atomic surface sites.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2202189119, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653574

RESUMO

SignificanceSemiconductor interfaces are among the most important in use in modern technology. The properties they exhibit can either enable or disable the characteristics of the materials they connect for functional performance. While much is known about important junctions involving conventional semiconductors such as Si and GaAs, there are several unsolved mysteries surrounding interfaces between oxide semiconductors. Here we resolve a long-standing issue concerning the measurement of anomalously low dielectric constants in SrTiO3 films with record high electron mobilities. We show that the junction between doped and undoped SrTiO3 required to make dielectric constant measurements masks the dielectric properties of the undoped film. Through modeling, we extract the latter and show that it is much higher than previously measured.

9.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 126(16): 7346-7355, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521631

RESUMO

While the phenomenon of metal substrate adatom incorporation into molecular overlayers is generally believed to occur in several systems, the experimental evidence for this relies on the interpretation of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, which can be ambiguous and provides no quantitative structural information. We show that surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) uniquely provides unambiguous identification of these metal adatoms. We present the results of a detailed structural study of the Au(111)-F4TCNQ system, combining surface characterization by STM, low-energy electron diffraction, and soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with quantitative experimental structural information from normal incidence X-ray standing wave (NIXSW) and SXRD, together with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Excellent agreement is found between the NIXSW data and the DFT calculations regarding the height and conformation of the adsorbed molecule, which has a twisted geometry rather than the previously supposed inverted bowl shape. SXRD measurements provide unequivocal evidence for the presence and location of Au adatoms, while the DFT calculations show this reconstruction to be strongly energetically favored.

10.
Faraday Discuss ; 236(0): 267-287, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543094

RESUMO

The key charge transfer processes in electrochemical energy storage devices occur at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, which are typically buried, making it challenging to access their interfacial chemistry. In the case of Li-ion batteries, metallic Li electrodes hold promise for increasing energy and power densities and, when used in conjunction with solid electrolytes, the adverse safety implications associated with dendrite formation in organic liquid electrolytes can potentially be overcome. To better understand the stability of solid electrolytes when in contact with alkali metals and the reactions that occur, here we consider the deposition of thin (∼10 nm) alkali metal films onto solid electrolyte surfaces, where the metal is thin enough that X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can probe the buried electrode-electrolyte interface. We highlight the importance of in situ alkali metal deposition by assessing the contaminant species that are present after glovebox handling and the use of 'inert' transfer devices. Consequently, we compare and contrast three available methods for in situ alkali-metal deposition; Li sputter deposition, Li evaporation, and Li plating induced by e- flood-gun irradiation. Studies on both a sulphide solid electrolyte (Li6PS5Cl), and a single-layer graphene probe surface reveal that the more energetic Li deposition methods, such as sputtering, can induce surface damage and interfacial mixing that are not seen with thermal evaporation. This indicates that the appropriate selection of the Li deposition method for in situ studies is required to observe representative behaviour, and the results of previous studies involving energetic deposition may warrant further evaluation.

11.
Faraday Discuss ; 236(0): 178-190, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514290

RESUMO

A combined high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray standing wave study into the adsorption structure of hydrogenated graphene on Ir(111) is presented. By exploiting the unique absorption profiles and significant modulations in signal intensity found within the X-ray standing wave results, we refine the fitting of the C 1s X-ray photoelectron spectra, allowing us to disentangle the contributions from hydrogenation of graphene in different high-symmetry regions of the moiré supercell. We clearly demonstrate that hydrogenation in the FCC regions results in the formation of a graphane-like structure, giving a standalone component that is separated from the component assigned to the similar structure in the HCP regions. The contribution from dimer structures in the ATOP regions is found to be minor or negligible. This is in contrast to the previous findings where a dimer structure was assumed to contribute significantly to the sp3 part of the C 1s spectra. The corrugation of the remaining pristine parts of the H-graphene is shown to increase with the H coverage, reflecting an increasing number and size of pinning centers of the graphene to the Ir(111) substrate with increasing H exposure.

12.
Chem Mater ; 34(5): 2034-2048, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557994

RESUMO

Ni-rich lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide cathode materials promise Li-ion batteries with increased energy density and lower cost. However, higher Ni content is accompanied by accelerated degradation and thus poor cycle lifetime, with the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions still poorly understood. Here, we combine electrochemical analysis with surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies to observe the interfacial degradation occurring in LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2-graphite full cells over hundreds of cycles between fixed cell voltages (2.5-4.2 V). Capacity losses during the first ∼200 cycles are primarily attributable to a loss of active lithium through electrolyte reduction on the graphite anode, seen as thickening of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). As a result, the cathode reaches ever-higher potentials at the end of charge, and with further cycling, a regime is entered where losses in accessible NMC capacity begin to limit cycle life. This is accompanied by accelerated transition-metal reduction at the NMC surface, thickening of the cathode electrolyte interphase, decomposition of residual lithium carbonate, and increased cell impedance. Transition-metal dissolution is also detected through increased incorporation into and thickening of the SEI, with Mn found to be initially most prevalent, while the proportion of Ni increases with cycling. The observed evolution of anode and cathode surface layers improves our understanding of the interconnected nature of the degradation occurring at each electrode and the impact on capacity retention, informing efforts to achieve a longer cycle lifetime in Ni-rich NMCs.

13.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 126(13): 6082-6090, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432689

RESUMO

A quantitative structural investigation is reported, aimed at resolving the issue of whether substrate adatoms are incorporated into the monolayers formed by strong molecular electron acceptors deposited onto metallic electrodes. A combination of normal-incidence X-ray standing waves, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the systems TCNQ and F4TCNQ on Ag(100) lie at the boundary between these two possibilities and thus represent ideal model systems with which to study this effect. A room-temperature commensurate phase of adsorbed TCNQ is found not to involve Ag adatoms, but to adopt an inverted bowl configuration, long predicted but not previously identified experimentally. By contrast, a similar phase of adsorbed F4TCNQ does lead to Ag adatom incorporation in the overlayer, the cyano end groups of the molecule being twisted relative to the planar quinoid ring. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this behavior is consistent with the adsorption energetics. Annealing of the commensurate TCNQ overlayer phase leads to an incommensurate phase that does appear to incorporate Ag adatoms. Our results indicate that the inclusion (or exclusion) of metal atoms into the organic monolayers is the result of both thermodynamic and kinetic factors.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(6): e2104141, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997681

RESUMO

Oxide semiconductors are key materials in many technologies from flat-panel displays,solar cells to transparent electronics. However, many potential applications are hindered by the lack of high mobility p-type oxide semiconductors due to the localized O-2p derived valence band (VB) structure. In this work, the VB structure modulation is reported for perovskite Ba2 BiMO6 (M = Bi, Nb, Ta) via the Bi 6s2 lone pair state to achieve p-type oxide semiconductors with high hole mobility up to 21 cm2 V-1 s-1 , and optical bandgaps widely varying from 1.5 to 3.2 eV. Pulsed laser deposition is used to grow high quality epitaxial thin films. Synergistic combination of hard x-ray photoemission, x-ray absorption spectroscopies, and density functional theory calculations are used to gain insight into the electronic structure of Ba2 BiMO6 . The high mobility is attributed to the highly dispersive VB edges contributed from the strong coupling of Bi 6s with O 2p at the top of VB that lead to low hole effective masses (0.4-0.7 me ). Large variation in bandgaps results from the change in the energy positions of unoccupied Bi 6s orbital or Nb/Ta d orbitals that form the bottom of conduction band. P-N junction diode constructed with p-type Ba2 BiTaO6 and n-type Nb doped SrTiO3 exhibits high rectifying ratio of 1.3 × 104 at ±3 V, showing great potential in fabricating high-quality devices. This work provides deep insight into the electronic structure of Bi3+ based perovskites and guides the development of new p-type oxide semiconductors.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042814

RESUMO

We unravel the interplay of topological properties and the layered (anti)ferromagnetic ordering in EuSn2P2, using spin and chemical selective electron and X-ray spectroscopies supported by first-principle calculations. We reveal the presence of in-plane long-range ferromagnetic order triggering topological invariants and resulting in the multiple protection of topological Dirac states. We provide clear evidence that layer-dependent spin-momentum locking coexists with ferromagnetism in this material, a cohabitation that promotes EuSn2P2 as a prime candidate axion insulator for topological antiferromagnetic spintronics applications.

16.
ACS Omega ; 6(50): 34525-34531, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963937

RESUMO

The adsorption structure of truxenone on Cu(111) was determined quantitatively using normal-incidence X-ray standing waves. The truxenone molecule was found to chemisorb on the surface, with all adsorption heights of the dominant species on the surface less than ∼2.5 Å. The phenyl backbone of the molecule adsorbs mostly parallel to the underlying surface, with an adsorption height of 2.32 ± 0.08 Å. The C atoms bound to the carbonyl groups are located closer to the surface at 2.15 ± 0.10 Å, a similar adsorption height to that of the chemisorbed O species; however, these O species were found to adsorb at two different adsorption heights, 1.96 ± 0.08 and 2.15 ± 0.06 Å, at a ratio of 1:2, suggesting that on average, one O atom per adsorbed truxenone molecule interacts more strongly with the surface. The adsorption geometry determined herein is an important benchmark for future theoretical calculations concerning both the interaction with solid surfaces and the electronic properties of a molecule with electron-accepting properties for applications in organic electronic devices.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17937-17941, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672550

RESUMO

During redox reactions, oxide-supported catalytic systems undergo structural and chemical changes. Improving subsequent catalytic properties requires an understanding of the atomic-scale structure with chemical state specificity under reaction conditions. For the case of 1/2 monolayer vanadia on α-TiO2(110), we use X-ray standing wave (XSW) excited X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to follow the redox induced atomic positional and chemical state changes of this interface. While the resulting XSW 3D composite atomic maps include the Ti and O substrate atoms and V surface atoms, our focus in this report is on the previously unseen surface oxygen species with comparison to density functional theory predictions.

18.
Chemistry ; 27(48): 12430-12436, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153154

RESUMO

The self-assembly of a nickel-porphyrin derivative (Ni-DPPyP) containing two pyridyl coordinating sites and two pentyl chains at trans meso positions was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) on Au(111). Deposition of Ni-DPPyP onto Au(111) gave rise to a close-packed network for coverages smaller or equal to one monolayer as revealed by STM and LEED. The molecular arrangement of this two-dimensional network is stabilized via hydrogen bonds formed between the pyridyl's nitrogen and hydrogen atoms from the pyrrole groups of neighboring molecules. Subsequent deposition of cobalt atoms onto the close-packed network and post-deposition annealing at 423 K led to the formation of a Co-coordinated hexagonal porous network. As confirmed by XPS measurements, the porous network is stabilized by metal-ligand interactions between one cobalt atom and three pyridyl ligands, each pyridyl ligand coming from a different Ni-DPPyP molecule.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(30): 16561-16567, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938629

RESUMO

We assess the crucial role of tetrapyrrole flexibility in the CO ligation to distinct Ru-porphyrins supported on an atomistically well-defined Ag(111) substrate. Our systematic real-space visualisation and manipulation experiments with scanning tunnelling microscopy directly probe the ligation, while bond-resolving atomic force microscopy and X-ray standing-wave measurements characterise the geometry, X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy the electronic structure, and temperature-programmed desorption the binding strength. Density-functional-theory calculations provide additional insight into the functional interface. We unambiguously demonstrate that the substituents regulate the interfacial conformational adaptability, either promoting or obstructing the uptake of axial CO adducts.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(11): 4433-4439, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703887

RESUMO

The controlled arrangement of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) on solid surfaces is a current challenge of surface functionalization. We introduce a strategy of using Ru porphyrins in order to control both the orientation and lateral arrangement of NHCs on a planar surface. The coupling of the NHC to the Ru porphyrin is a facile process which takes place on the interface: we apply NHCs as functional, robust pillars on well-defined, preassembled Ru porphyrin monolayers on silver and characterize these interfaces with atomic precision via a battery of experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The NHCs assemble at room temperature modularly and reversibly on the Ru porphyrin arrays. We demonstrate a selective and complete functionalization of the Ru centers. With its binding, the NHC modifies the interaction of the Ru porphyrin with the Ag surface, displacing the Ru atom by 1 Å away from the surface. This arrangement of NHCs allows us to address individual ligands by controlled manipulation with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, creating patterned structures on the nanometer scale.

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