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1.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720909387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452747

RESUMO

The effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) transplantation on bladder dysfunction after pelvic nerve transection (PNT) remain to be clarified. Five groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied including sham operation, unilateral PNT alone or plus hAFSCs transplantation, and bilateral PNT alone or plus hAFSCs transplantation. hAFSCs were injected at the site of PNT. Cystometries, neurofilament density within bladder nerves, and the expressions of bladder protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP9.5), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), nerve growth factor (NGF), p75 (NGF receptor), CXCL12, CCL7, and enkephalin were studied. Compared to sham-operation group, bladder weight increased and neurofilament density decreased at 10 and 28 days after unilateral and bilateral PNT, but all improved after hAFSCs transplantation. Unilateral PNT could increase bladder capacity, residual volume, and number of nonvoiding contractions but decrease peak voiding pressure and leak point pressure. Bilateral PNT caused overflow incontinence and increased the number of nonvoiding contractions. These cystometric parameters improved after hAFSCs transplantation. After PNT, bladder PGP9.5 mRNA and immunoreactivities decreased at 10 and 28 days, GAP-43 mRNA and immunoreactivities increased at 10 days and decreased at 28 days, both NGF and p75 mRNAs and immunoreactivities increased at 10 and/or 28 days, and enkephalin immunoreactivities decreased at 10 and 28 days, but these were all improved after hAFSCs transplantation. Our results showed that bladder dysfunction induced by PNT could be improved by hAFSCs transplantation, and PGP9.5, GAP-43, and neurotrophins could be involved in the mechanisms of nerve regeneration after hAFSCs transplantation.

2.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder associated with stroke. Increased risk of stroke is the same regardless of whether the AF is permanent or paroxysmal. However, detecting paroxysmal AF is challenging and resource intensive. We aimed to develop a predictive model for AF in patients with acute ischemic stroke, which could improve the detection rate of paroxysmal AF. METHODS: We analyzed 10,034 adult patients with acute ischemic stroke. Differences in clinical characteristics between the patients with and without AF were analyzed in order to develop a predictive model of AF. The associated factors for AF were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. We used another dataset, which enrolled 860 acute ischemic stroke patients without AF at baseline, to test whether the developed model could improve the detection rate of paroxysmal AF. Among the study population, 1,658 patients (16.5%) had AF. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression revealed that sex, age, body weight, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, pulse rate at admission, respiratory rate at admission, systolic blood pressure at admission, diastolic blood pressure at admission, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, aspartate transaminase level, and sodium level were major factors associated with AF. CART analysis identified NIHSS score at admission, age, triglyceride level, and aspartate transaminase level as important factors for AF to classify the patients into subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: When selecting the high-risk group of patients (with an NIHSS score > 12 and age > 64.5 years, or with an NIHSS score ≤ 12, age > 71.5 years, and triglyceride level ≤ 61.5 mg/dL) according to the CART model, the detection rate of paroxysmal AF was approximately double in the acute ischemic stroke patients without AF at baseline.

3.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314365

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning with nonlethal ischemia can be protective against lethal forebrain ischemia. We hypothesized that aging may aggravate ischemic susceptibility and reduce brain plasticity against preconditioning. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool to detect brain integrity and white matter architecture. Our present study used DTI and histopathology to investigate the effect of aging on ischemic preconditioning. In this study, adult and middle-aged male Mongolian gerbils were subjected to nonlethal 5-min forebrain ischemia (ischemic preconditioning) or sham-operation, followed by 3 days of reperfusion, and then lethal 15-min forebrain ischemia. A 9.4-Tesla MR imaging system was used to study DTI indices, namely fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and intervoxel coherence (IC) in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) areas. In situ expressions of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, dendritic marker protein) and apoptosis were also examined. The 5-min ischemia did not cause dendritic and neuronal injury and any significant change of DTI indices and MAP2 in adult and middle-aged gerbils. The 15-min ischemia induced significant delayed neuronal apoptosis and early dendritic injury evidenced by DTI and MAP2 studies in both CA1 and DG areas with more severe injury in middle-aged gerbils than adult gerbils. Ischemic preconditioning could improve neuronal apoptosis in CA1 area and dendritic integrity in both CA1 and DG areas with better improvement in adult gerbils than middle-aged gerbils. Our present study thus suggests an age-dependent protective effect of ischemic preconditioning against both neuronal apoptosis and dendritic injury in hippocampus after forebrain ischemia.

4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(3): 251-254, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The regulator of G-protein signaling protein 5 (RGS5) has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating blood pressure and cardiovascular function. Studies have shown that RGS5 polymorphisms exhibit susceptibility to hypertension. However, no study has yet been performed among stroke patients. METHODS: To evaluate whether RGS5 rs4657251 is a susceptibility gene for stroke, we performed a case-control association study involving 714 large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) patients, 383 small vessel occlusion (SVO) patients, 401 hypertensive intracranial hemorrhages (HICH), and 626 controls. The RGS5 rs4657251 polymorphism was analyzed through polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The TC genotype was significantly higher in the SVO group compared with that in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.76, p = 0.035). In addition, the dominant phenotype (TC + CC vs TT) was also significantly different between the SVO and the control groups (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.01-1.70, p = 0.046). However, no association was found between RGS5 rs4657251 and LAA an HICH. After adjustment with gender, diabetes, smoking, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, RGS5 rs4657251 polymorphism remained an independent risk factor for SVO (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.12-1.98) but not for LAA or HICH. CONCLUSION: Our findings, obtained among Taiwan Han Chinese subjects, provide the first evidence that RGS5 rs4657251 polymorphism is an independent risk factor for SVO.

5.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(1): 62-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The multiphase computed tomography angiography (mCTA) is superior to the noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) in selecting patients that would benefit from mechanical thrombectomy following an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). It remains unclear whether the longer examination time of mCTA worsens outcomes of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV r-tPA) or increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) compared to NCCT in Asian stroke patients. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2017, 199 AIS patients receiving IV r-tPA with initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores between 6 and 25 were enrolled in a single medical center. Onset-to-needle time (ONT), door-to-needle time (DNT), and creatinine levels before and after thrombolysis were recorded. We evaluated NIHSS scores 2, 24 h after treatment, and at discharge, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, and mortality rate. The presence of HT was reviewed within 7 days after thrombolysis. RESULTS: DNT, perithrombolysis creatinine levels, NIHSS, and mRS scores at the emergency room were similar between the NCCT and mCTA groups. ONT was shorter in the mCTA group. AIS patients got more significant neurologic improvement (NIHSS decrease ≥4) after thrombolysis and physically independent (mRS ≤2) at discharge in the mCTA group. Mortality rates, symptomatic, and total HT rates were similar between the NCCT and mCTA groups. CONCLUSION: Comparing to NCCT, mCTA-based IV r-tPA would not delay DNT nor worsen the outcome. Furthermore, mCTA provides more information for early identification of candidates for mechanical thrombectomy in Asian AIS patients.

6.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020908140, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) is often inserted to manage bladder dysfunction, but its impact on prognosis is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association of IUC use on clinical outcomes after acute stroke in the international, multi-center, cluster crossover, Head Positioning in Acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST). METHODS: Data were analyzed on HeadPoST participants (n = 11,093) randomly allocated to the lying-flat or sitting-up head position. Binomial, logistic regression, hierarchical mixed models were used to determine associations of early insertion of IUC within seven days post-randomization and outcomes of death or disability (defined as "poor outcome," scores 3-6 on the modified Rankin scale) and any urinary tract infection at 90 days with adjustment of baseline and post-randomization management covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 1167 (12%) patients had an IUC, but the frequency and duration of use varied widely across patients in different regions. IUC use was more frequent in older patients, and those with vascular comorbidity, greater initial neurological impairment (on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), and intracerebral hemorrhage as the underlying stroke type. IUC use was independently associated with poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.74), but not with urinary tract infection after adjustment for antibiotic treatment and stroke severity at hospital separation (aOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.18). The number exposed to IUC for poor outcome was 13. CONCLUSIONS: IUC use is associated with a poor outcome after acute stroke. Further studies are required to inform appropriate use of IUC.

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 2, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) modulating treatment may have cardiovascular benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients after ischemic stroke (IS). However, whether there are additional benefits from intensive PPAR-γ modulating treatments in Asian patients with T2DM and hypertension (HTN) after IS remains unknown. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2013, patients admitted due to IS were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients with T2DM and HTN using angiotensin receptor blockers were further included. Eligible patients were divided into two groups: (1) pioglitazone and (2) non-pioglitazone oral anti-diabetic agent groups. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to balance the distribution of baseline characteristics, stroke severity and medications. The primary outcome was recurrent IS. Subgroup analysis for recurrent IS in pioglitazone and/or telmisartan users, the trend of IS risks across different PPAR-γ intensity treatments, and dose-dependent outcomes across different pioglitazone possession ratios were further studied. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 for clinical outcomes and interaction of subgroup analyses, respectively. RESULTS: There were 3190 and 32,645 patients in the pioglitazone and non-pioglitazone groups. Patients of the pioglitazone group had a lower risk of recurrent IS (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.84-0.99). Pioglitazone was also associated with reduced recurrent IS in patients who also used telmisartan (p for interaction = 0.071). A graded correlation was found a borderline significant trend between the intensity of PPAR-γ therapy and following IS (p = 0.076). The dose-dependent outcome also showed that a borderline significant trend that higher pioglitazone possession ratio was associated with a lower risk of recurrent IS (p = 0.068). CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that the use of pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive IS patients is associated with fewer recurrent IS events in an Asian population. Concurrent telmisartan use or a higher pioglitazone possession ratio may have a trend of increased pleiotropic effects, which could possibly be related to higher PPAR-γ effects. Future studies are warranted to confirm or refute the clinical effects and the possible mechanism of more intensive PPAR-γ-modulating treatments.

8.
Comput Biol Med ; 116: 103569, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and Purpose: This study proposed a machine learning method for identifying ≥50% stenosis of the extracranial and intracranial arteries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 8211 patients with both carotid ultrasound and cerebral angiography were enrolled. Support vector machine (SVM) was employed as the machine learning classifier. Carotid Doppler parameters and transcranial Doppler parameters were used as the input features. Feature selection was performed using the Extra-Trees (extremely randomized trees) method. RESULTS: For the machine learning method, the sensitivities and specificities of identifying stenosis of the extracranial arteries were 88.5%-100% and 96.0%-100%, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of identifying stenosis of the intracranial arteries were 71.7%-100% and 88.9%-100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SVM classifier with feature selection is an efficient method for identifying the stenosis of both intracranial and extracranial arteries. Comparing with traditional Doppler criteria, this machine learning method achieves up to 20% higher in accuracy and 45% in sensitivity, respectively.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963654

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, and early interventional treatment is associated with favorable outcomes. In the guidelines, thrombolytic therapy using recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is recommended for eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, the risk of hemorrhagic complications limits the use of rt-PA, and the risk factors for poor treatment outcomes need to be identified. To identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital poor outcomes in patients treated with rt-PA, we analyzed the electronic medical records of patients who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke and treated for rt-PA at Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals from 2006 to 2016. In-hospital death, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or prolonged hospitalization were defined as unfavorable treatment outcomes. Medical history variables and laboratory test results were considered variables of interest to determine risk factors. Among 643 eligible patients, 537 (83.5%) and 106 (16.5%) patients had favorable and poor outcomes, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors associated with poor outcomes were female gender, higher stroke severity index (SSI), higher serum glucose levels, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lower platelet counts, and anemia. The risk factors found in this research could help us study the treatment strategy for ischemic stroke.

10.
Int J Stroke ; 15(2): 206-215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is associated with aspiration pneumonia after stroke. Data are limited on the influences of dysphagia screen and assessment in clinical practice. AIMS: To determine associations between a "brief" screen and "detailed" assessment of dysphagia on clinical outcomes in acute stroke patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed retrospectively using data from a multicenter, cluster cross-over, randomized controlled trial (Head Positioning in Acute Stroke Trial [HeadPoST]) from 114 hospitals in nine countries. HeadPoST included 11,093 acute stroke patients randomized to lying-flat or sitting-up head positioning. Herein, we report predefined secondary analyses of the association of dysphagia screening and assessment and clinical outcomes of pneumonia and death or disability (modified Rankin scale 3-6) at 90 days. RESULTS: Overall, 8784 (79.2%) and 3917 (35.3%) patients were screened and assessed for dysphagia, respectively, but the frequency and timing for each varied widely across regions. Neither use of a screen nor an assessment for dysphagia was associated with the outcomes, but their results were compared to "screen-pass" patients, those who failed had higher risks of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.18-4.10) and death or disability (aOR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.41-1.95). Similar results were evidence for the results of an assessment for dysphagia. Subsequent feeding restrictions were related to higher risk of pneumonia in patients failed dysphagia screen or assessment (aOR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.72-9.54). CONCLUSIONS: Failing a dysphagia screen is associated with increased risks of pneumonia and poor clinical outcome after acute stroke. Further studies concentrate on determining the effective subsequent feeding actions are needed to improve patient outcomes.

11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 48(3-6): 207-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which the effects of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering are modified by doses of alteplase in thrombolysis-eligible acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. METHODS: Prespecified analyses of the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study for patients enrolled in both arms: (i) low-dose (0.6 mg/kg body weight) or standard-dose (0.9 mg/kg) alteplase and (ii) intensive (target systolic BP [SBP] 130-140 mm Hg) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) BP management. The primary outcome was functional recovery, measured by a shift in scores on modified Rankin scale at 90 days. The safety outcome was any intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). RESULTS: There were 925 participants (mean age 67 years, 39% female, 77% Asian) randomized to both arms: 242 randomly assigned to guideline/standard-dose (GS); 234 to guideline/low-dose (GL); 227 to intensive/standard-dose (IS); and 222 to intensive/low-dose (IL). Overall, average SBP levels within 24 h were lower in the low-dose compared to standard-dose alteplase group (146 and 144 vs. 151 and 150 mm Hg, for GS and GL vs. IS and IL, respectively, p < 0.0001). There was no heterogeneity of the effects of BP lowering (intensive vs. guideline) on functional recovery between standard-dose (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.12) and low-dose alteplase (1.06, 0.77-1.47; p = 0.25 for interaction). Similar results were observed for ICH (p = 0.50 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: In thrombolysis-treated patients with predominantly mild-to-moderate severity AIS, intensive BP lowering neither improve functional recovery, either with low- or standard-dose intravenous alteplase, nor beneficially interact with low-dose alteplase in reducing ICH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01422616).

12.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; : 1474515119889770, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke pneumonia (PSP) has been implicated in the morbidity, mortality, and increased medical costs after acute ischemic stroke. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model for PSP in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A retrospective, case-control, secondary analysis study was conducted using data for 10,034 patients with ischemic stroke who presented to the hospital within 24 hours of onset of stroke symptoms. The predictive factors for PSP were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 546 patients (5.4%) had PSP. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, atrial fibrillation, smoking habit, body temperature at admission, pulse rate at admission, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score upon admission, white blood cell count, and blood urea nitrogen level were major predictive factors of PSP. CART analysis identified NIHSS score at admission, pulse rate at admission, and percentage of lymphocyte as important factors for PSP to stratify the patients into subgroups. The subgroup of patients with an NIHSS score >14 at admission and pulse rate >111 beats per minute at admission and those with an NIHSS score >14, pulse rate ⩽111 beats per minute at admission, and percentage of lymphocyte ⩽9.2% had a relatively high risk of PSP (39.6% and 35.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CART analysis has a similar predictive value of PSP as compared with a logistic regression model. In addition, decision rules generated by CART can easily be interpreted and applied in clinical practice.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031144, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, 2 million patients aged 18-50 years suffer a stroke each year, and this number is increasing. Knowledge about global distribution of risk factors and aetiologies, and information about prognosis and optimal secondary prevention in young stroke patients are limited. This limits evidence-based treatment and hampers the provision of appropriate information regarding the causes of stroke, risk factors and prognosis of young stroke patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Global Outcome Assessment Life-long after stroke in young adults (GOAL) initiative aims to perform a global individual patient data meta-analysis with existing data from young stroke cohorts worldwide. All patients aged 18-50 years with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage will be included. Outcomes will be the distribution of stroke aetiology and (vascular) risk factors, functional outcome after stroke, risk of recurrent vascular events and death and finally the use of secondary prevention. Subgroup analyses will be made based on age, gender, aetiology, ethnicity and climate of residence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the GOAL study has already been obtained from the Medical Review Ethics Committee region Arnhem-Nijmegen. Additionally and when necessary, approval will also be obtained from national or local institutional review boards in the participating centres. When needed, a standardised data transfer agreement will be provided for participating centres. We plan dissemination of our results in peer-reviewed international scientific journals and through conference presentations. We expect that the results of this unique study will lead to better understanding of worldwide differences in risk factors, causes and outcome of young stroke patients.

14.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 359, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few systematic methods prioritize the image education in medical students (MS). We hope to develop a checklist of brain computerized tomography (CT) reading in patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS) for MS and primary care (PC) physicians. METHODS: Our pilot group generated the items indicating specific structures or signs for the checklist of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients for MS and PC physicians. These items were used in a modified web-based Delphi process using the online software "SurveyMonkey". In total 15 panelists including neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, and emergency department physicians participated in the modified Delphi process. Each panelist was encouraged to express feedback, agreement or disagreement on the inclusion of each item using a 9-point Likert scale. Items with median scores of 7-9 were included in our final checklist. RESULTS: Fifty-two items were initially provided for the first round of the Delphi process. Of these, 35 achieved general agreement of being an essential item for the MS and PC physicians. The other 17 of the 52 items in this round and another two added items suggested by the panelists were further rated in the next round. Finally, 38 items were included in the essential checklist items of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients for MS and PC physicians. CONCLUSIONS: We established a reference regarding the essential items of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients. We hope this helps to minimize malpractice and a delayed diagnosis, and to improve competency-based medical education for MS and PC physicians.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485244

RESUMO

Acupuncture is widely used for improving poststroke care. Knowing the condition of meridian can help traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctors make a tailored choice of acupoints for every patient. The establishment of an objective meridian energy measurement for acute ischemic stroke that can be used for future acupuncture treatment and research is an important area in stroke-assisted therapy. In this study, a total of 102 subjects diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke within 7 days of onset were recruited, and the meridian energy analysis device (MEAD) was used to record the meridian electrical conductance (MEC) values of twelve meridians on unaffected and affected limbs. We found that the MEC value of the twelve meridians on the affected limbs was significantly higher than that on the unaffected limbs (P=0.001). Compared with the unaffected limbs, there was a higher value of MEC on the affected limbs of the lung meridian, heart meridian, pericardium meridian, and small intestine meridian, with significant differences (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.05, respectively). Further analysis revealed that the MEC values of both Yin and Yang meridians of the affected limbs were significantly higher than those of the unaffected limbs (P=0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Meanwhile, the mean of the index of sympathovagal balance in patients with acute ischemic stroke (5.49 ± 4.21) was higher than the normal range (1-1.5), indicating autonomic imbalance. The results of this study are consistent with TCM theory as well as clinical observation and pathological mechanisms, suggesting that the measurement of MEC values may be used as a supplementary diagnostic method for acupuncture in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

16.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 16(4): 348-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing hospital readmissions for stroke remains a significant challenge to improve outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. METHODS: We analyzed 10,034 adult patients with ischemic stroke, presented within 24 hours of onset from a hospital-based stroke registry. The risk factors for early return to hospital after discharge were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 277 (2.8%) had 3-day Emergency Department (ED) reattendance, 534 (5.3%) had 14-day readmission, and 932 (9.3%) had 30-day readmission. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, nasogastric tube feeding, indwelling urinary catheter, healthcare utilization behaviour, and stroke severity were major and common risk factors for an early return to the hospital after discharge. CART analysis identified nasogastric tube feeding and length of stay for 72-hour ED reattendance, Barthel Index (BI) score, total length of stay in the Year Preceding the index admission (YLOS), indwelling urinary catheter, and age for 14-day readmission, and nasogastric tube feeding, BI score, YLOS, and number of inpatient visits in the year preceding the index admission for 30-day readmission as important factors to classify the patients into subgroups. CONCLUSION: Although CART analysis did not improve the prediction of an early return to the hospital after stroke compared with logistic regression models, decision rules generated by CART can easily be interpreted and applied in clinical practice.

17.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 16(3): 250-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic strokes increase the risk of disability and mortality. The role of conventional risk factors in recurrent strokes may change due to increased awareness of prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential risk factors besides conventional ones which may help to affect the advances in future preventive concepts associated with one-year stroke recurrence (OSR). METHODS: We analyzed 6,632 adult patients with ischemic stroke. Differences in clinical characteristics between patients with and without OSR were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. RESULTS: Among the study population, 525 patients (7.9%) had OSR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex (OR 1.243, 95% CI 1.025 - 1.506), age (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.007 - 1.023), and a prior history of ischemic stroke (OR 1.331, 95% CI 1.096 - 1.615) were major factors associated with OSR. CART analysis further identified age and a prior history of ischemic stroke were important factors for OSR when classified the patients into three subgroups (with risks of OSR of 8.8%, 3.8%, and 12.5% for patients aged > 57.5 years, ≤ 57.5 years/with no prior history of ischemic stroke, and ≤ 57.5 years/with a prior history of ischemic stroke, respectively). CONCLUSION: Male sex, age, and a prior history of ischemic stroke could increase the risk of OSR by multivariate logistic regression analysis, and CART analysis further demonstrated that patients with a younger age (≤ 57.5 years) and a prior history of ischemic stroke had the highest risk of OSR.

18.
Int J Stroke ; 14(7): 670-677, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of the low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase using real-world acute stroke registry data from Asian countries. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from nine acute stroke registries from China, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan between 2005 and 2018. Inverse probability of treatment weight was used to remove baseline imbalances between those receiving low-dose versus standard-dose alteplase. The primary outcome was death or disability defined by modified Rankin Scale scores of 2 to 6 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and death. Generalized linear mixed models with the individual registry as a random intercept were performed to determine associations of treatment with low-dose alteplase and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 6250 patients (mean age 66 years, 36% women) included in these analyses, 1610 (24%) were treated with low-dose intravenous alteplase. Clinical outcomes for low-dose alteplase were not significantly different to those for standard-dose alteplase, adjusted odds ratios for death or disability: 1.00 (0.85-1.19) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage 0.87 (0.63-1.19), except for lower death with borderline significance, 0.77 (0.59-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present analyses of real-world Asian acute stroke registry data suggest that low-dose intravenous alteplase has overall comparable efficacy for functional recovery and greater potential safety in terms of reduced mortality, to standard-dose alteplase for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

19.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 138, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant genetic association has been found in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (CAS). The present study wished to investigate if metabolites may also act as biomarkers for CAS. METHODS: Consecutive patients with at least one carotid artery stenosis > = 60% on cerebral angiography were prospectively recruited from May 2007 to January 2016. Normal controls were recruited from outpatient clinic who had no stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) history, and the brain magnetic resonance or computed tomographic angiography showed bilateral CAS < 30%. Risk factor profile, clinical characteristics, age, and clinical features were recorded. All subjects were male, and none had diabetes. 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics analysis was carried out for plasma samples. RESULTS: Totally, 130 male subjects were recruited. Age had no significant difference between the controls and CAS group (60.2 ± 5.9 vs. 63.3 ± 6.0, p = 0.050). The CAS group had significantly higher frequency of CAD, hypertension, smoking and alcohol but lower body mass index than the controls (p < 0.05). The laboratory tests showed CAS group had significantly higher level of homocysteine but lower levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and hemoglobin than the controls (p < 0.05). The 1H-NMR based plasma metabolomics analysis indicated that choline was significantly lower in CAS patients. The VIP values of lipids were greater than 1.0, which were considered significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest homocysteine, choline and lipids in association with traditional risk factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAS. Diet adjustment to control homocysteine, choline and lipids may be helpful for the prevention of CAS.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Cerebral , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Stroke ; 14(7): 678-685, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials provide high-level evidence, but the necessity to include selected patients may limit the generalisability of their results. METHODS: Comparisons were made of baseline and outcome data between patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) recruited into the alteplase-dose arm of the international, multi-center, Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke study (ENCHANTED) in the United Kingdom (UK), and alteplase-treated AIS patients registered in the UK Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme (SSNAP) registry, over the study period June 2012 to October 2015. RESULTS: There were 770 AIS patients (41.2% female; mean age 72 years) included in ENCHANTED at sites in England and Wales, which was 19.5% of alteplase-treated AIS patients registered in the SSNAP registry. Trial participants were significantly older, had lower baseline neurological severity, less likely Asian, and had more premorbid symptoms, hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Although ENCHANTED participants had higher rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage than those in SSNAP, there were no differences in onset-to-treatment time, levels of disability (assessed by the modified Rankin scale) at hospital discharge, and mortality over 90 days between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high level of participation, equipoise over the dose of alteplase among UK clinician investigators favored the inclusion of older, frailer, milder AIS patients in the ENCHANTED trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01422616.

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